SlideShare a Scribd company logo
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Writing with integrity
5 June 2024
How to cite:
Presenter’s last name, initials. Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides].
2024. Available from: URL
© 2024. The Author(s). Published under a
Creative Commons Attribution Licence.
Using AI responsibly in your writing
Kirstin Krauss
https://www.linkedin.com/in/kirstin-krauss
https://academy.wwis.co.za/
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Writing with integrity
5 June 2024
© KEM Krauss
2
In any scientific endeavour, a researcher should be
able to carefully craft scientific arguments in
writing.
Scientific argumentation begins with research
problems/questions and an appropriate conceptual
basis in the form of a review of the right literature.
Quality scientific arguments consist of specific
claims that should be developed and presented with
internal consistency so that examiners, reviewers,
and readers can easily follow the logic of scientific
inquiry.
Defining scientific knowledge production
Scientific argumentation
Relevant knowledge
gaps
Reading the right
literature safely
Articulating the logic of
inquiry
© KEM Krauss
3
Agenda
• Using AI when reading, reflecting, generative writing, & internalising literature
• AI & principles of scientific argumentation
• AI & Theoretical elaboration
• AI & its worldview bias
• AI & principles of text analysis
• AI & proofreading
• Articulate your use of AI as part of the scientific argument
© KEM Krauss
4
Using AI when reading,
reflecting, generative
writing, & internalising
literature
© KEM Krauss
5
Systematic
Rigour
Trustworthy, quality,
peer-reviewed
Tracing thematic
networks of papers
Trusted & curated
databases
Avoidance
strategies
AI ‘interpreted’,
summarised &
paraphrased
Finding seminal
papers & authors
• Open access training
data
• Relying on available &
accessible sources
Relevant sources
Forwards &
backwards
referencing
Traditional
approaches
AI-driven,
AI-complemented
AI & literature reviews
Reading assistance
© KEM Krauss
6
3. Summarise &
Reflect
1. Identify
2. Organise
4. Scientific peer-
review
© KEM Krauss
7
The generic literature review process
Preparing
Identifying a literature
review methodology
Purpose statement
Alignment with research
questions
Searching & Organising
Defending a literature
review approach
Search strategies
Avoidance strategies
Organising strategies
Reading & Reflection
Generative writing
Writing as a form of
thinking
Brainstorming ideas
while reading
Contextualisation,
particularising
Generating ideas,
internalising existing
knowledge
Drafting & Editing
Argumentation
Structuring & Flow
Constructive
Alignment
Informing research
directions
© KEM Krauss
8
Don’t outsource thinking to an AI tool
• Little knowledge will be internalised
• Reflection on findings will be difficult if not impossible
• It will be difficult to innovate or add to the body of knowledge
© KEM Krauss
9
AI & principles of
scientific
argumentation
© KEM Krauss
10
“Understanding the principles of scientific
knowledge production is becoming our
only robust defence against questionable
scientific trends”
Predatory
publishing
Citation
pollution
Citation
cartels Paper
mills
Bad
science
Low quality
research
Weak peer-
review
Plagiarism
Copyright
issues
Falsified
data
AI
generated
content
© KEM Krauss
11
In any scientific endeavour, a researcher should be
able to carefully craft scientific arguments in
writing.
Scientific argumentation begins with research
problems/questions and an appropriate conceptual
basis in the form of a review of the right literature.
Quality scientific arguments consist of specific
claims that should be developed and presented with
internal consistency so that examiners, reviewers,
and readers can easily follow the logic of scientific
inquiry.
Defining scientific knowledge production
© KEM Krauss
12
Rhetoric
Relevance
Reality
Rigour
Weber, R., 2009. Research on ICT for development: Some reflections on
rhetoric, rigor, reality, and relevance [Keynote address]. In International
Development Informatics Association Conference (IDIA) 2009 (pp. 2-27).
Monash University Publishing.
Rhetoric should be sustained by research findings
(Weber, 2009)
“Without research rigor, useful
[Accurate] models of reality are difficult
to build”
(Weber 2009)
“Relevance … is problematic,
because it is unclear whether they
can be sustained by the research
that underpins them”
(Weber 2009)
Scientific
Integrity &
Research Ethics
© KEM Krauss
13
Elements of an argument
Claim – testing of
the destination
Grounds – required foundation if
solid / reliable
Warrant – testing of
grounds; judging solidity,
reliability
Backing of warrant
(authorised arguments)
• What exactly are we discussing?
• Where precisely are we to stand on
this issue?
• And what position must we consider
agreeing to as the outcome of the
argument?
• What information (or facts) are you
going on?
• What grounds is your claim based on?
• Where must we ourselves begin if we are
to see whether we can take the steps
you propose and so end by agreeing to
your claim?
• Given the starting point, how do you justify
the move from these grounds to that claim?
• What road do you take to get from this
starting point to that destination?
• Is this really a safe move to make?
• Does this route take us to the required
destination securely and reliably?
• And what other general information do you have
to back up your trust in this particular warrant?
Toulmin, S. E., R. Rieke and A. Janik: 1984,
An Introduction to Reasoning, 2nd edition,
Macmillan, New York
© KEM Krauss
14
Outsourcing the responsibility of argumentation
to AI
• The logic of scientific inquiry is hidden and untraceable
• Readers cannot corroborate or replicate the process
• Are we going to see a publication divide?
© KEM Krauss
15
AI & Theoretical elaboration
“Theory is what we do" as scientists
It is about “explanation requirements”
© KEM Krauss
16
Defining theory
• How can theory be defined?
• ‘the most cited definitions is that of Bacharach (1989, p. 496) who defines
theory as “a statement of relations among concepts within a set of
boundary assumptions and constraints. It is no more than a linguistic device
used to organize a complex empirical world.“’ (p. 2)
• “Stinchcombe (1987) describes this notion of theory best when he explains
how great researchers invent explanations when they are confronted with
phenomena and data that they cannot explain.” (p. 2)
• ‘Popper (1959, p. 59) reflects this understanding of theory when he says
that "theories are nets cast to catch what we call 'the world': to
rationalize, to explain, and to master it. We endeavor to make the mesh
ever finer and finer."’
Hassan, N.R. and Lowry, P.B., 2015. Seeking middle-range theories in
information systems research. Proceedings of the Thirty Sixth International
Conference on Information Systems, Fort Worth
© KEM Krauss
17
Propositions
• Regardless of their emphasis on explaining and predicting or on interpreting
and understanding, they all agree that the more empirically validated
propositions are, the better the resulting theories organize, understand,
explain, or predict (i.e., solid evidence, reliable claims)
• In building theory (theorising), the goal is to get propositions to the point
where their claims can be fully tested empirically, therefore completing the
link between the theory and its empirical content.
Hassan, N. 2014. “Useful Products in Theorizing for Information Systems,” Thirty
Fifth International Conference on Information Systems, Auckland, New Zealand,
2014. [Online] http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2014/proceedings/ResearchMethods/5/
© KEM Krauss
18
Making data-theory links using AI
tools
• Transcribe the data (auto transcribed)
• Extracted themes from the data
• Aligning the extracted themes to the research questions
• Getting consistency & rigour in ‘analysis’
• Can I consistently get the same themes from prompting?
• Were the contextually correct themes identified?
• Should I use all the themes ‘generated’?
• Extracting relevant quotes from the transcriptions
• Can I connect my discussion and findings to a theory?
• Any worldview biases?
© KEM Krauss
19
Don’t outsource theoretical elaboration
© KEM Krauss
20
AI & its worldview bias
© KEM Krauss
21
https://www.ucc.ie/en/cirtl/projects/national/ai2edartificialintelligenceacademicintegrity/
© KEM Krauss
22
• Detectors consistently misclassify non-native English writing samples as AI-
generated
• “GPT detectors are inadvertently penalizing individuals with limited linguistic
proficiency.”
• Ethical implications of deploying ChatGPT content detectors and caution against
their use in evaluative or educational settings
https://www.cell.com/patterns/fulltext/S2666-3899(23)00130-7
© KEM Krauss
23
AI Pollution / Dilution
• "Scientists warn of AI collapse“
• "The more AI eats its own output, the less
variety the output has"
• "Its like plastic pollution, it won’t be long
before we eat and breath this stuff"
• "AI needs human creativity“ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcH7fHtqGYM
© KEM Krauss
24
Are you inviting a dominant or foreign
worldview into your research situation?
© KEM Krauss
25
AI & principles of text
analysis
© KEM Krauss
26
Hermeneutics – principles of text
analysis
• Hermeneutic circle:
• “we come to understand a complex whole from preconceptions about the
meanings of its parts and their interrelationships.”
• Contextualisation:
• “Requires critical reflection of the social and historical background of the
research setting, so that the intended audience can see how the current
situation under investigation emerged” … and then how to respond in the
act of excavating data from the situation
Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D.,
1999. A set of principles for
conducting and evaluating
interpretive field studies in
information systems. MIS
quarterly, pp.67-93.
© KEM Krauss
27
Hermeneutics – principles of text
analysis
• Interaction Between the Researchers and the Subjects:
• “Requires critical reflection on how the research materials (or "data") were socially
constructed through the interaction between the researchers and participants”
(Intersubjectivity)
• Abstraction and Generalization (i.e., particularising):
• “it is important that theoretical abstractions and generalizations should be carefully
related to the field study details as they were experienced and/or collected by the
researcher. This is so readers can follow how the researcher arrived at his or her
theoretical insights.”
Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D.,
1999. A set of principles for
conducting and evaluating
interpretive field studies in
information systems. MIS
quarterly, pp.67-93.
© KEM Krauss
28
Hermeneutics – principles of text
analysis
• Dialogical Reasoning
• “The most fundamental point is that the researcher should make the historical intellectual
basis of the research (i.e., its fundamental philosophical assumptions) as transparent as
possible to the reader and himself or herself.”
• Multiple Interpretations
• “Requires sensitivity to possible differences in interpretations among the participants as
are typically expressed in multiple narratives or stories of the same sequence of events
under study. Similar to multiple witness accounts even if all tell it as they saw it.”
Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D.,
1999. A set of principles for
conducting and evaluating
interpretive field studies in
information systems. MIS
quarterly, pp.67-93.
© KEM Krauss
29
• Principle of Suspicion
• “Requires sensitivity to possible "biases" and systematic "distortions" in the narratives
collected from the participants.”
• “Either explicit or implicit in critical work is a goal to demonstrate and critique forms of
domination, asymmetry, and distorted communication through showing how social
constructions of reality can favor certain interests and alternative constructions can be
obscured and misrecognized”
Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D.,
1999. A set of principles for
conducting and evaluating
interpretive field studies in
information systems. MIS
quarterly, pp.67-93.
Hermeneutics – principles of text
analysis
© KEM Krauss
30
• Autonomisation highlights a difference between written text and verbal
speech.
• Distanciation means that there is a distance in time and space between the
original author and the text. “Since text takes on a life of its own, it becomes
dissociated from the original author, the originally intended audience, and
even its original meaning” (Myers, 2009: 188) which has implications for
reconstructing meaning. A solution could be that one could return to the
original author of the speech to find out what he or she was thinking at the
time (Myers, 2009).
Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D., 1999. A
set of principles for conducting and
evaluating interpretive field studies in
information systems. MIS quarterly,
pp.67-93.
Hermeneutics – principles of
text analysis
© KEM Krauss
31
AI will distance you from the original text
© KEM Krauss
32
AI ethics in
proofreading
© KEM Krauss
33
How AI can
dilute the
argument or
misconstrue
writing.
ChatGPT 3.5
© KEM Krauss
34
ChatGPT 4
© KEM Krauss
35
ChatGPT 4
© KEM Krauss
36
ChatGPT trains on our data …
even if you ask it to proofread?!?
• https://community.openai.com/t/how-to-use-chatgpt-without-providing-it-
with-training-data/111514/2
• https://www.groovypost.com/howto/opt-out-your-data-on-chatgpt/
© KEM Krauss
37
Articulate your use of AI
as part of the scientific
argument
© KEM Krauss
38
Policies on AI authorship
• Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE):
• https://publicationethics.org/cope-position-statements/ai-author
© KEM Krauss
39
• International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) - authorship
criteria:
• https://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-
role-of-authors-and-contributors.html
© KEM Krauss
40
May we have some examples and best
practices please?
© KEM Krauss
41
My concerns/risks
• AI lacks systematic rigour which only traditional methods can give you
• Author and reader
• Cannot trace argumentation
• Cannot trace alignment, e.g., between literature themes and research questions
• As author I have distanced myself from the original text
• I cannot prove that the summaries are correct
• Incorrect or shallow summaries of papers
• I would not know that the best quotes or summaries have been extracted from the papers
• I have to be the human actor and guardrail
• Nothing has been internalised
• No inference to a better explanation – only existing explanations
© KEM Krauss
42
Directions & Reflections
• Always experiment – start with a field about which you are
passionate or well-informed
• AI vs. Traditional approaches - not competitive, but complementary
• AI bias, worldview bias, publisher bias, political bias, first language
English bias, etc.
• AI magnifies and perpetuates existing biases
• Use a combination of tools for different phases of the process
• AI is a moving target
• Keeping up, experimenting
• Avoid predatory AI tools/scams
• Scientific argumentation skills – a required competency
© KEM Krauss
43
Thank you
Connect with me:
• https://www.linkedin.com/in/kirstin-krauss
• https://academy.wwis.co.za/
Deciding on authorship
Thywill Dzogbewu
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Writing with integrity
5 June 2024
What is authorship
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Anyone who makes substantial intellectual contributions
to a publication
Why is academic authorship
an issue?
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
It is the currency for getting recognition in academia
Authorship determines scientific credit
Promotion
Your academic value
Reputation
The kind collaborators you can attract
The kind of research grants
The visibility of your research centre
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Criteria for deciding authorship
Substantial contribution
What is a substantial contribution ?
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Order of Authorship
Lead author
Co-authors
Corresponding author
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Order of Authorship
What of equal contributions ?
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Co-authorship
The order of authors can change at any stage of the reviewing process
Rejected or Major revision required
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Why the increase in authorship
challenges
Honorary authorship / Guest authorship
Generosity or sharing
Ghost/anonymous authorship
Mutual authorship
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Clarify who will be co-author/s and on what basis
Clarify what is important for each co-author
Recommendations
Clarify the author order at an early stage
If problems arise, talk about them immediately
It is more important to do things right than to do them
quickly
Know the norms and culture that governs the authorship of your
research cluster
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
The take home words
Authorship is more than an article – It is how you treat people
Authorship is part of everyday challenge in academia, you need to select the best
approach to handle each situation
Difficult even with guidelines
There is no bulletproof solution
Boundaries governing authorship are unclear, you need to figure it out.
The is a big gap between the ideal world and reality when it comes to deciding who
should receive an authorship credit
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Thank you
Curating your data
Lindah Muzangwa
Lindah.Muzangwa@rau.ac.uk
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Writing with integrity
5 June 2024
Presentation outline
Introductions-definitions
Why curate data?
Data curation lifecycle
Ethical and legal considerations
Conclusion
Introduction-definitions…
What is data?
“…any information that can be stored in digital form,
including text, numbers, images, videos, audios, software
scripts, algorithms, equations, animations, models
simulation, charts, tabular etc” (Johnson, L.R., et al., 2018)
…sets of structured values that can be organized, analyzed
and manipulated by a software application or some other
means of calculation.
A defining characteristic of data is that is machine-readable
This includes data collected directly though digital
manifestations of literature, laboratory data, surveys,
observational data or generated or compiled by machines or
humans surveys
Introduction-definitions…
What is open data?
Open data is data that is openly accessible, exploitable,
editable and shared by anyone for any purpose.
Based on the idea that data is more valuable is more
people can use it, and that technology has made the
cost of sharing data negligible
Data Knowledge Value
What is data curation?
“..the active and ongoing
management of data
throughout its entire lifecycle
of interest and usefulness to
scholarship” (Cragin et al.,2007)
 Active and ongoing-dynamic
Maintaining and adding value
Lifecycle involves creation,
management and destruction
Aims to maintain the utility of the
data
Why curate data?
Good data is
the basis for
good science
The opportunity
cost of losing
data is high
Why curate data?
Makes data findable and accessible
Ensures data traceability, quality and integrity-accuracy,
consistency, and reliability of data
Facilitates data sharing and reuse-potential for creating new
knowledge from existing data through re-use, re-analysis,
data mining, innovating combination of data sets
Supports long-term preservation-data is expensive to
generate and some may be impossible to recreate once lost
It is increasingly a requirement of some research funding
bodies
Institutional asset management
Promoting the institution research group or individual-
impact, visibility
Data curation-What is your role as
a scientist?
Initial creation and use of data
Managing data for life of project
Using appropriate standards
(where possible)
Complying with data policies
Making the data available in a
format that can (easily?) be used by
others
What are the key steps in data
curation?
1. Data collection
• Standard methods
• Ethics
2. Data cleaning
• Missing values, errors
• Statistical software
3.Data
documentation
• Meta data, code books
• Standards
4. Data Storage
Data repositories
Visibility
5. Data sharing
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Ethical and legal consideration
Ethical issues-privacy, consent, data sensitivity
Legal issues-intellectual property (ownership and
rights), compliance with data protection laws (e.g.,
GDPR)
Typical examples of curated data
Manuscripts
Traditional publication-presentational version of the data-
often lacking in supplementals files
Data Journals
Publication option for datasets (discipline specific and peer
reviewed)
Provide useable data releases or independently citable
version of supplemental files
Data repositories
Where data is stored for a long term
Computer accessible
Maybe discipline specific
Can be build for organisations-(universities, funder NGOs etc)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Conclusion
Actively curated data will:
Remain technologically accessible
Be easier to understand (therefore use)
If data is made open-widely used - better understood
than isolated data
Thank you
www.linkedin.com/in/lindah-muzangwa-4a4345134
Responding to reviewers’ feedback
Taahira Goga
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Writing with integrity
5 June 2024
University of Cape Town (UCT) |Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
SAJS Outstanding Article Awardee 2023
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Introduction
Peer review is a necessary stage in the publication
process.
However, it is a potentially challenging step as it can
be viewed as a stressful experience or a personal
attack.
Many researchers still feel a sense of apprehension
due to the seemingly daunting nature of the process.
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Change in Perspective
Reviewers (often scholars with valuable expertise on
your subject matter) are voluntarily giving their time
to ensure the validity of results and provide
feedback.
The intention is to produce an improved version of
the manuscript (more clear, accessible).
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Stages in the Article
Submission Process
Stage 1
• Draft article using instructions and guidelines
• Submit article
Stage 2
• Editor decision and receipt of reviewers comments
• Address comments, revise manuscript, and resubmit
Stage 3
• Additional round of review (subject to recommendation)
• Acceptance and publication
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Initial Communication
Receive an email from the journal with the editorial
decision, peer reviewer comments, and additional
steps
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Reviewer Feedback
Remarks:
• Should feature somewhere before or after the individual comments
• May not be explicitly stated
• Rare for manuscript to be accepted upon first submission
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Examples of Reviewers’
Comments
General Criteria:
- Novelty
- Abstract/Problem
- Methods
- Quality/Style
- References
- Compliance with
journal scope
- Contribution to field
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Examples of Reviewers’
Comments
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Examples of
Reviewers’ Comments
(Same Manuscript)
Remarks:
• Some similarities but also contrasting views
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Suggested Approach
• Download all comments
• Initial screening of feedback
• Ensure that the response is self-contained
• Respond to every point raised by the respective
reviewers
• Try and respond directly to the comments and
explain the changes made
• Emphasise changes made for easier navigation (e.g.
track changes, colour and font variation)
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Additional Aspects
• Be respectful of reviewers – even critical comments can
provide food for thought
• Accept any faults and acknowledge comments and
suggestions for improvement
• If a reviewer sees a problem or fails to understand
something, it may be due to the contents of the
manuscript, which may hamper the readers’
understanding
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Additional Aspects
• Indicate section, page, line number for easier
navigation
• Comments from reviewers who are not experts in
your field are particularly useful – produce a paper
that is more accessible to the general, non-
technical audience
• Take the review process in your stride and strive to
respond in a professional manner – take time to
digest the comments and have a fresh look.
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Response to Reviewers
Included Aspects (pt 1)
- Addressed/noted
- Explanation
- Location in text
- Additional
reasoning
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Preparation for
Resubmission
• If you are the lead author, distribute your responses
amongst your co-authors together with a deadline
for feedback
• If necessary, have a team meeting to discuss the
trickier comments
• Assess and integrate the comments and create a
final version of both documents
• Upload and resubmit according to the instructions
• May be multiple rounds
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
Final Remarks
Part of becoming a successful and emotionally stable
author is learning to navigate the peer review
process.
It requires perseverance and patience but the
process will hopefully improve your manuscript and
aid in emphasising the value of your research.
Best of luck!
Writing with
integrity
5 June 2024
References/Sources
• Muchenje, Voster. (2017). Editorial: How to
respond to reviewers' comments. South African
Journal of Animal Science, 47(2), 116-
117. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i2.1
• Editage. A template for responding to peer reviewer
comments (editage.com)
• Taylor and Francis Author Services. How to
respond to reviewer comments - Author Services
(taylorandfrancis.com)
• Scientific Writing with Karen L. McKee
• Navigating Academia
Responding to reviewers’ feedback
Taahira Goga
www.linkedin.com/in/taahiragoga
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Writing with integrity
5 June 2024
University of Cape Town (UCT) |Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
SAJS Outstanding Article Awardee 2023
Communicating
with editors
Leslie Swartz,
Editor-in-Chief, SAJS
@SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official
#AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity
Writing with integrity
5 June 2024
What editors want
• Good quality, interesting submissions
• That fit the scope, mission and vision of the journal
• Excellent, supportive and informed peer review
processes
• Quick turnaround
• Maximum impact
• To be at the cutting edge where possible
• Good relationships between editors, authors,
reviewers
What authors want
• Good quality, interesting submissions
• That fit the scope, mission and vision of the journal
• Excellent, supportive and informed peer review
processes
• Quick turnaround
• Maximum impact
• To be at the cutting edge where possible
• Good relationships between editors, authors,
reviewers:
• In other words: WE ARE ON THE SAME SIDE
Who are the editors of journals?
• Mainly: academics just like you
• Generally speaking, doing editorial work for no
remuneration (sometimes there are small fees given,
but this is the exception)
• They have day jobs
• On larger journals like SAJS there is an editorial team
running the journal on a day to day basis
• Doing the work for interest and enjoyment (and it is
fun!) but also as a form of academic service and care
• We are not the enemy or the punishing parent
What do editors think of you, as
an author?
• Editors usually don’t know and have no opinion
about you (sorry)
• They are much more concerned about the
academic conversation in their journal and whether
and in what way your work contributes
• Editors are grateful when you are polite and follow
the steps (from submission and throughout)
• Editors, like all of us, are far more likely to be
positively disposed to well-prepared, polite authors
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Please read
the journal
policies – it
takes us a
long time to
write them!
Helping the review process along
• If a journal asks for/allows this, always suggest
reviewers. These must have no affiliation to you.
• You may suggest reviewers to exclude
• The editorial team does not have to take your
suggestions on
• If you have heard nothing for three months
(Minimum!) write a polite letter to the editor and
ask if you can help by, for example, suggesting
more reviewers
You have a right
to complain, but
do this collegially
• “I need this for my PhD” is not
a basis for a complaint
• Neither are:
• But I think this should be
in your journal scope
• But I graduated cum laude
with this work
• My funder needs me to
publish this
• Your journal is
incompetent
• Support good things
done by the journal
• Generally, unless you
have a strong case, just
submit elsewhere
Some don’ts in terms of dealing with editors
DON’T TELL THE EDITORS
HOW LUCKY THEY ARE TO
HAVE YOUR WORK
DON’T THREATEN THE
EDITORS WITH
REPUTATIONAL DAMAGE
OR OTHER THINGS
DON’T OFFER
MONEY/BRIBES (THIS IS
FOR PREDATORY
JOURNALS)
IF YOU WANT TO
WITHDRAW A PAPER, THAT
IS YOUR RIGHT – DON’T
USE IT AS A THREAT
Some do’s
Follow all the instructions
Format according to what the journal wants – even if you don’t like the format (except
your paper your way submissions)
Please proofread
Please check for inadvertent plagiarism
A good, clear covering letter can help
Be friendly, say thank you – even when you get a rejection (as I did this morning!)

More Related Content

What's hot

Dna replication
Dna replicationDna replication
Dna replication
ICHHA PURAK
 
Molecular biology MCQ
Molecular biology MCQMolecular biology MCQ
Molecular biology MCQ
Afra Fathima
 
Lytic & Lysogenic Cycle
Lytic & Lysogenic CycleLytic & Lysogenic Cycle
Lytic & Lysogenic Cycle
Afra Fathima
 
Chromatin Structure and Function
Chromatin Structure and FunctionChromatin Structure and Function
Chromatin Structure and Function
Balkrushna Ghodake
 
P uc vectors
P uc vectorsP uc vectors
Minipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells Practical
Minipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells PracticalMinipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells Practical
Minipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells Practical
Sabahat Ali
 
FORMS OF DNA
FORMS OF DNAFORMS OF DNA
FORMS OF DNA
vinitha unnikrishnan
 
DNA as genetic material
DNA as genetic materialDNA as genetic material
DNA as genetic material
Praveen Garg
 
structure of t4 bacteriophage
structure of  t4 bacteriophagestructure of  t4 bacteriophage
structure of t4 bacteriophage
VijiMahesh1
 
Isolation of pure culture
Isolation of pure cultureIsolation of pure culture
Isolation of pure culture
NAGALAKSHMI R
 
Genetic material
Genetic materialGenetic material
Genetic material
ANANT MOHAN SHAMA
 
Lamda phage
Lamda phageLamda phage
Lamda phage
Minhaz Ahmed
 
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic ChromosomesEukaryotic and Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Zohaib HUSSAIN
 
Mitochondria and chloroplasts ppt
Mitochondria and chloroplasts  pptMitochondria and chloroplasts  ppt
Mitochondria and chloroplasts ppt
Facebook
 
DNA microarray
DNA microarrayDNA microarray
DNA microarray
manojjeya
 
Nucleic acid chemistry and structure
Nucleic acid chemistry and structureNucleic acid chemistry and structure
Nucleic acid chemistry and structure
Salman Ali
 
Confirmation of nucleic acid
Confirmation of nucleic acidConfirmation of nucleic acid
Confirmation of nucleic acid
lashikam1
 
Cyanobacteria lecture
Cyanobacteria lectureCyanobacteria lecture
Cyanobacteria lecture
Shivang Jindal
 
Estimation of dna by diphenylamine method
Estimation of dna by diphenylamine methodEstimation of dna by diphenylamine method
Estimation of dna by diphenylamine method
jeevithaseyan
 
Genetic Engineering
Genetic EngineeringGenetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering
Pulipati Sowjanya
 

What's hot (20)

Dna replication
Dna replicationDna replication
Dna replication
 
Molecular biology MCQ
Molecular biology MCQMolecular biology MCQ
Molecular biology MCQ
 
Lytic & Lysogenic Cycle
Lytic & Lysogenic CycleLytic & Lysogenic Cycle
Lytic & Lysogenic Cycle
 
Chromatin Structure and Function
Chromatin Structure and FunctionChromatin Structure and Function
Chromatin Structure and Function
 
P uc vectors
P uc vectorsP uc vectors
P uc vectors
 
Minipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells Practical
Minipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells PracticalMinipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells Practical
Minipreparation of plasmid from bacterial cells Practical
 
FORMS OF DNA
FORMS OF DNAFORMS OF DNA
FORMS OF DNA
 
DNA as genetic material
DNA as genetic materialDNA as genetic material
DNA as genetic material
 
structure of t4 bacteriophage
structure of  t4 bacteriophagestructure of  t4 bacteriophage
structure of t4 bacteriophage
 
Isolation of pure culture
Isolation of pure cultureIsolation of pure culture
Isolation of pure culture
 
Genetic material
Genetic materialGenetic material
Genetic material
 
Lamda phage
Lamda phageLamda phage
Lamda phage
 
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic ChromosomesEukaryotic and Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Chromosomes
 
Mitochondria and chloroplasts ppt
Mitochondria and chloroplasts  pptMitochondria and chloroplasts  ppt
Mitochondria and chloroplasts ppt
 
DNA microarray
DNA microarrayDNA microarray
DNA microarray
 
Nucleic acid chemistry and structure
Nucleic acid chemistry and structureNucleic acid chemistry and structure
Nucleic acid chemistry and structure
 
Confirmation of nucleic acid
Confirmation of nucleic acidConfirmation of nucleic acid
Confirmation of nucleic acid
 
Cyanobacteria lecture
Cyanobacteria lectureCyanobacteria lecture
Cyanobacteria lecture
 
Estimation of dna by diphenylamine method
Estimation of dna by diphenylamine methodEstimation of dna by diphenylamine method
Estimation of dna by diphenylamine method
 
Genetic Engineering
Genetic EngineeringGenetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering
 

Similar to South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)

Research methodology and IPR notes for au
Research methodology and IPR notes for auResearch methodology and IPR notes for au
Research methodology and IPR notes for au
SrivigneshBalasubram
 
The tao of knowledge, revisited
The tao of knowledge, revisitedThe tao of knowledge, revisited
The tao of knowledge, revisited
Valentina Tamma
 
5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?
5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?
5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?
DoctoralNet Limited
 
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science
Aboul Ella Hassanien
 
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...
Aboul Ella Hassanien
 
From byte to mind
From byte to mindFrom byte to mind
From byte to mind
Benjamin Laken
 
Stem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdf
Stem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdfStem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdf
Stem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdf
Tracy Walker
 
Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...
Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...
Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...
Mark Rubin
 
Political Argumentative Essay Topics
Political Argumentative Essay TopicsPolitical Argumentative Essay Topics
Political Argumentative Essay Topics
Sheila Espinoza
 
RM lecture.pptx
RM lecture.pptxRM lecture.pptx
RM lecture.pptx
PradhyumnPurohit2
 
Bias and the Data Lifecycle
Bias and the Data LifecycleBias and the Data Lifecycle
Bias and the Data Lifecycle
Richard Ferrers
 
Grounded theory
Grounded theoryGrounded theory
Grounded theory
Norhidayah Badrul Hisham
 
Grounded theory
Grounded theoryGrounded theory
Grounded theory
SYIKIN MARIA
 
11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx
11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx
11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx
hyacinthshackley2629
 
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific MisconductResearch Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Nader Ale Ebrahim
 
Topics For Argumentative Essay.pdf
Topics For Argumentative Essay.pdfTopics For Argumentative Essay.pdf
Topics For Argumentative Essay.pdf
Dawn Williams
 
Presentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-converted
Presentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-convertedPresentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-converted
Presentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-converted
RajeshKumar339480
 
IJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessment
IJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessmentIJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessment
IJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessment
Sujay Rao Mandavilli
 
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific MisconductResearch Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Nader Ale Ebrahim
 
Writing to make a difference- while staying out of trouble
Writing to make a difference- while staying out of troubleWriting to make a difference- while staying out of trouble
Writing to make a difference- while staying out of trouble
Kim Nicholas
 

Similar to South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024) (20)

Research methodology and IPR notes for au
Research methodology and IPR notes for auResearch methodology and IPR notes for au
Research methodology and IPR notes for au
 
The tao of knowledge, revisited
The tao of knowledge, revisitedThe tao of knowledge, revisited
The tao of knowledge, revisited
 
5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?
5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?
5. Do you understand how to fine tune your methodological choices?
 
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science
 
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Better Science: Most Common Et...
 
From byte to mind
From byte to mindFrom byte to mind
From byte to mind
 
Stem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdf
Stem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdfStem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdf
Stem Cell Research Persuasive Essay.pdf
 
Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...
Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...
Does preregistration improve the interpretability and credibility of research...
 
Political Argumentative Essay Topics
Political Argumentative Essay TopicsPolitical Argumentative Essay Topics
Political Argumentative Essay Topics
 
RM lecture.pptx
RM lecture.pptxRM lecture.pptx
RM lecture.pptx
 
Bias and the Data Lifecycle
Bias and the Data LifecycleBias and the Data Lifecycle
Bias and the Data Lifecycle
 
Grounded theory
Grounded theoryGrounded theory
Grounded theory
 
Grounded theory
Grounded theoryGrounded theory
Grounded theory
 
11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx
11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx
11The integrity of science – Lost in translationMatth.docx
 
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific MisconductResearch Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
 
Topics For Argumentative Essay.pdf
Topics For Argumentative Essay.pdfTopics For Argumentative Essay.pdf
Topics For Argumentative Essay.pdf
 
Presentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-converted
Presentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-convertedPresentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-converted
Presentation1rm 140822133946-phpapp02-converted
 
IJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessment
IJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessmentIJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessment
IJISRT24FEB1021.pdf Continuous zero-based assessment
 
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific MisconductResearch Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
Research Skills Session 8: Avoid Scientific Misconduct
 
Writing to make a difference- while staying out of trouble
Writing to make a difference- while staying out of troubleWriting to make a difference- while staying out of trouble
Writing to make a difference- while staying out of trouble
 

More from Academy of Science of South Africa

Peer review in scholarly journals
Peer review in scholarly journalsPeer review in scholarly journals
Peer review in scholarly journals
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Writing for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journalWriting for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journal
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
How to peer review for a scholarly journal
How to peer review for a scholarly journalHow to peer review for a scholarly journal
How to peer review for a scholarly journal
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
How to write for a scholarly journal
How to write for a scholarly journalHow to write for a scholarly journal
How to write for a scholarly journal
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Behind the scenes of peer review
Behind the scenes of peer reviewBehind the scenes of peer review
Behind the scenes of peer review
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Writing for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journalWriting for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journal
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017
SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017
SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Leti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year Overview
Leti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year OverviewLeti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year Overview
Leti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year Overview
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)
DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)
DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Safeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity Check
Safeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity CheckSafeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity Check
Safeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity Check
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
The South African Journal of Science - iThenticate
The South African Journal of Science - iThenticateThe South African Journal of Science - iThenticate
The South African Journal of Science - iThenticate
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Financing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de Villiers
Financing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de VilliersFinancing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de Villiers
Financing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de Villiers
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
8-Acknowledging funders
8-Acknowledging funders8-Acknowledging funders
8-Acknowledging funders
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark
7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark
7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
6-Screening for plagiarism
6-Screening for plagiarism6-Screening for plagiarism
6-Screening for plagiarism
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
5-Cited-by-linking
5-Cited-by-linking5-Cited-by-linking
4-Managing CrossRef DOIs
4-Managing CrossRef DOIs4-Managing CrossRef DOIs
4-Managing CrossRef DOIs
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
3-CrossRef initiatives
3-CrossRef initiatives3-CrossRef initiatives
3-CrossRef initiatives
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
2-Quality publishing in a digital environment
2-Quality publishing in a digital environment2-Quality publishing in a digital environment
2-Quality publishing in a digital environment
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
1-Introduction to CrossRef
1-Introduction to CrossRef1-Introduction to CrossRef
1-Introduction to CrossRef
Academy of Science of South Africa
 

More from Academy of Science of South Africa (20)

Peer review in scholarly journals
Peer review in scholarly journalsPeer review in scholarly journals
Peer review in scholarly journals
 
Writing for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journalWriting for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journal
 
How to peer review for a scholarly journal
How to peer review for a scholarly journalHow to peer review for a scholarly journal
How to peer review for a scholarly journal
 
How to write for a scholarly journal
How to write for a scholarly journalHow to write for a scholarly journal
How to write for a scholarly journal
 
Behind the scenes of peer review
Behind the scenes of peer reviewBehind the scenes of peer review
Behind the scenes of peer review
 
Writing for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journalWriting for a scholarly journal
Writing for a scholarly journal
 
SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017
SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017
SPU Overview DATAD-R September 2017
 
Leti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year Overview
Leti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year OverviewLeti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year Overview
Leti Kleyn UPSpace 10 Year Overview
 
DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)
DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)
DATAD-R African Open Science Platform (AOSP)
 
Safeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity Check
Safeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity CheckSafeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity Check
Safeguarding Research in South Africa: iThenticate and Crossref Similarity Check
 
The South African Journal of Science - iThenticate
The South African Journal of Science - iThenticateThe South African Journal of Science - iThenticate
The South African Journal of Science - iThenticate
 
Financing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de Villiers
Financing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de VilliersFinancing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de Villiers
Financing Scholarly Journals Publisher’s Perspective - Pierre de Villiers
 
8-Acknowledging funders
8-Acknowledging funders8-Acknowledging funders
8-Acknowledging funders
 
7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark
7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark
7-Managing errata & retractions with CrossMark
 
6-Screening for plagiarism
6-Screening for plagiarism6-Screening for plagiarism
6-Screening for plagiarism
 
5-Cited-by-linking
5-Cited-by-linking5-Cited-by-linking
5-Cited-by-linking
 
4-Managing CrossRef DOIs
4-Managing CrossRef DOIs4-Managing CrossRef DOIs
4-Managing CrossRef DOIs
 
3-CrossRef initiatives
3-CrossRef initiatives3-CrossRef initiatives
3-CrossRef initiatives
 
2-Quality publishing in a digital environment
2-Quality publishing in a digital environment2-Quality publishing in a digital environment
2-Quality publishing in a digital environment
 
1-Introduction to CrossRef
1-Introduction to CrossRef1-Introduction to CrossRef
1-Introduction to CrossRef
 

Recently uploaded

How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cátedra Banco Santander
 
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional SkillsWebinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
EduSkills OECD
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
lakitawilson
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
HappieMontevirgenCas
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
PhngThLmHnh
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline PartnershipNC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
Mebane Rash
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
ibtesaam huma
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
Celine George
 
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdfThe Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
JackieSparrow3
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Abhik Roychoudhury
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
MJDuyan
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
NurFitriah45
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
thanhluan21
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
 
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional SkillsWebinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
 
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline PartnershipNC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
 
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdfThe Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
 

South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)

  • 1. @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 How to cite: Presenter’s last name, initials. Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. 2024. Available from: URL © 2024. The Author(s). Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence.
  • 2. Using AI responsibly in your writing Kirstin Krauss https://www.linkedin.com/in/kirstin-krauss https://academy.wwis.co.za/ @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Writing with integrity 5 June 2024
  • 3. © KEM Krauss 2 In any scientific endeavour, a researcher should be able to carefully craft scientific arguments in writing. Scientific argumentation begins with research problems/questions and an appropriate conceptual basis in the form of a review of the right literature. Quality scientific arguments consist of specific claims that should be developed and presented with internal consistency so that examiners, reviewers, and readers can easily follow the logic of scientific inquiry. Defining scientific knowledge production Scientific argumentation Relevant knowledge gaps Reading the right literature safely Articulating the logic of inquiry
  • 4. © KEM Krauss 3 Agenda • Using AI when reading, reflecting, generative writing, & internalising literature • AI & principles of scientific argumentation • AI & Theoretical elaboration • AI & its worldview bias • AI & principles of text analysis • AI & proofreading • Articulate your use of AI as part of the scientific argument
  • 5. © KEM Krauss 4 Using AI when reading, reflecting, generative writing, & internalising literature
  • 6. © KEM Krauss 5 Systematic Rigour Trustworthy, quality, peer-reviewed Tracing thematic networks of papers Trusted & curated databases Avoidance strategies AI ‘interpreted’, summarised & paraphrased Finding seminal papers & authors • Open access training data • Relying on available & accessible sources Relevant sources Forwards & backwards referencing Traditional approaches AI-driven, AI-complemented AI & literature reviews Reading assistance
  • 7. © KEM Krauss 6 3. Summarise & Reflect 1. Identify 2. Organise 4. Scientific peer- review
  • 8. © KEM Krauss 7 The generic literature review process Preparing Identifying a literature review methodology Purpose statement Alignment with research questions Searching & Organising Defending a literature review approach Search strategies Avoidance strategies Organising strategies Reading & Reflection Generative writing Writing as a form of thinking Brainstorming ideas while reading Contextualisation, particularising Generating ideas, internalising existing knowledge Drafting & Editing Argumentation Structuring & Flow Constructive Alignment Informing research directions
  • 9. © KEM Krauss 8 Don’t outsource thinking to an AI tool • Little knowledge will be internalised • Reflection on findings will be difficult if not impossible • It will be difficult to innovate or add to the body of knowledge
  • 10. © KEM Krauss 9 AI & principles of scientific argumentation
  • 11. © KEM Krauss 10 “Understanding the principles of scientific knowledge production is becoming our only robust defence against questionable scientific trends” Predatory publishing Citation pollution Citation cartels Paper mills Bad science Low quality research Weak peer- review Plagiarism Copyright issues Falsified data AI generated content
  • 12. © KEM Krauss 11 In any scientific endeavour, a researcher should be able to carefully craft scientific arguments in writing. Scientific argumentation begins with research problems/questions and an appropriate conceptual basis in the form of a review of the right literature. Quality scientific arguments consist of specific claims that should be developed and presented with internal consistency so that examiners, reviewers, and readers can easily follow the logic of scientific inquiry. Defining scientific knowledge production
  • 13. © KEM Krauss 12 Rhetoric Relevance Reality Rigour Weber, R., 2009. Research on ICT for development: Some reflections on rhetoric, rigor, reality, and relevance [Keynote address]. In International Development Informatics Association Conference (IDIA) 2009 (pp. 2-27). Monash University Publishing. Rhetoric should be sustained by research findings (Weber, 2009) “Without research rigor, useful [Accurate] models of reality are difficult to build” (Weber 2009) “Relevance … is problematic, because it is unclear whether they can be sustained by the research that underpins them” (Weber 2009) Scientific Integrity & Research Ethics
  • 14. © KEM Krauss 13 Elements of an argument Claim – testing of the destination Grounds – required foundation if solid / reliable Warrant – testing of grounds; judging solidity, reliability Backing of warrant (authorised arguments) • What exactly are we discussing? • Where precisely are we to stand on this issue? • And what position must we consider agreeing to as the outcome of the argument? • What information (or facts) are you going on? • What grounds is your claim based on? • Where must we ourselves begin if we are to see whether we can take the steps you propose and so end by agreeing to your claim? • Given the starting point, how do you justify the move from these grounds to that claim? • What road do you take to get from this starting point to that destination? • Is this really a safe move to make? • Does this route take us to the required destination securely and reliably? • And what other general information do you have to back up your trust in this particular warrant? Toulmin, S. E., R. Rieke and A. Janik: 1984, An Introduction to Reasoning, 2nd edition, Macmillan, New York
  • 15. © KEM Krauss 14 Outsourcing the responsibility of argumentation to AI • The logic of scientific inquiry is hidden and untraceable • Readers cannot corroborate or replicate the process • Are we going to see a publication divide?
  • 16. © KEM Krauss 15 AI & Theoretical elaboration “Theory is what we do" as scientists It is about “explanation requirements”
  • 17. © KEM Krauss 16 Defining theory • How can theory be defined? • ‘the most cited definitions is that of Bacharach (1989, p. 496) who defines theory as “a statement of relations among concepts within a set of boundary assumptions and constraints. It is no more than a linguistic device used to organize a complex empirical world.“’ (p. 2) • “Stinchcombe (1987) describes this notion of theory best when he explains how great researchers invent explanations when they are confronted with phenomena and data that they cannot explain.” (p. 2) • ‘Popper (1959, p. 59) reflects this understanding of theory when he says that "theories are nets cast to catch what we call 'the world': to rationalize, to explain, and to master it. We endeavor to make the mesh ever finer and finer."’ Hassan, N.R. and Lowry, P.B., 2015. Seeking middle-range theories in information systems research. Proceedings of the Thirty Sixth International Conference on Information Systems, Fort Worth
  • 18. © KEM Krauss 17 Propositions • Regardless of their emphasis on explaining and predicting or on interpreting and understanding, they all agree that the more empirically validated propositions are, the better the resulting theories organize, understand, explain, or predict (i.e., solid evidence, reliable claims) • In building theory (theorising), the goal is to get propositions to the point where their claims can be fully tested empirically, therefore completing the link between the theory and its empirical content. Hassan, N. 2014. “Useful Products in Theorizing for Information Systems,” Thirty Fifth International Conference on Information Systems, Auckland, New Zealand, 2014. [Online] http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2014/proceedings/ResearchMethods/5/
  • 19. © KEM Krauss 18 Making data-theory links using AI tools • Transcribe the data (auto transcribed) • Extracted themes from the data • Aligning the extracted themes to the research questions • Getting consistency & rigour in ‘analysis’ • Can I consistently get the same themes from prompting? • Were the contextually correct themes identified? • Should I use all the themes ‘generated’? • Extracting relevant quotes from the transcriptions • Can I connect my discussion and findings to a theory? • Any worldview biases?
  • 20. © KEM Krauss 19 Don’t outsource theoretical elaboration
  • 21. © KEM Krauss 20 AI & its worldview bias
  • 23. © KEM Krauss 22 • Detectors consistently misclassify non-native English writing samples as AI- generated • “GPT detectors are inadvertently penalizing individuals with limited linguistic proficiency.” • Ethical implications of deploying ChatGPT content detectors and caution against their use in evaluative or educational settings https://www.cell.com/patterns/fulltext/S2666-3899(23)00130-7
  • 24. © KEM Krauss 23 AI Pollution / Dilution • "Scientists warn of AI collapse“ • "The more AI eats its own output, the less variety the output has" • "Its like plastic pollution, it won’t be long before we eat and breath this stuff" • "AI needs human creativity“ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcH7fHtqGYM
  • 25. © KEM Krauss 24 Are you inviting a dominant or foreign worldview into your research situation?
  • 26. © KEM Krauss 25 AI & principles of text analysis
  • 27. © KEM Krauss 26 Hermeneutics – principles of text analysis • Hermeneutic circle: • “we come to understand a complex whole from preconceptions about the meanings of its parts and their interrelationships.” • Contextualisation: • “Requires critical reflection of the social and historical background of the research setting, so that the intended audience can see how the current situation under investigation emerged” … and then how to respond in the act of excavating data from the situation Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D., 1999. A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems. MIS quarterly, pp.67-93.
  • 28. © KEM Krauss 27 Hermeneutics – principles of text analysis • Interaction Between the Researchers and the Subjects: • “Requires critical reflection on how the research materials (or "data") were socially constructed through the interaction between the researchers and participants” (Intersubjectivity) • Abstraction and Generalization (i.e., particularising): • “it is important that theoretical abstractions and generalizations should be carefully related to the field study details as they were experienced and/or collected by the researcher. This is so readers can follow how the researcher arrived at his or her theoretical insights.” Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D., 1999. A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems. MIS quarterly, pp.67-93.
  • 29. © KEM Krauss 28 Hermeneutics – principles of text analysis • Dialogical Reasoning • “The most fundamental point is that the researcher should make the historical intellectual basis of the research (i.e., its fundamental philosophical assumptions) as transparent as possible to the reader and himself or herself.” • Multiple Interpretations • “Requires sensitivity to possible differences in interpretations among the participants as are typically expressed in multiple narratives or stories of the same sequence of events under study. Similar to multiple witness accounts even if all tell it as they saw it.” Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D., 1999. A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems. MIS quarterly, pp.67-93.
  • 30. © KEM Krauss 29 • Principle of Suspicion • “Requires sensitivity to possible "biases" and systematic "distortions" in the narratives collected from the participants.” • “Either explicit or implicit in critical work is a goal to demonstrate and critique forms of domination, asymmetry, and distorted communication through showing how social constructions of reality can favor certain interests and alternative constructions can be obscured and misrecognized” Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D., 1999. A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems. MIS quarterly, pp.67-93. Hermeneutics – principles of text analysis
  • 31. © KEM Krauss 30 • Autonomisation highlights a difference between written text and verbal speech. • Distanciation means that there is a distance in time and space between the original author and the text. “Since text takes on a life of its own, it becomes dissociated from the original author, the originally intended audience, and even its original meaning” (Myers, 2009: 188) which has implications for reconstructing meaning. A solution could be that one could return to the original author of the speech to find out what he or she was thinking at the time (Myers, 2009). Klein, H.K. and Myers, M.D., 1999. A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems. MIS quarterly, pp.67-93. Hermeneutics – principles of text analysis
  • 32. © KEM Krauss 31 AI will distance you from the original text
  • 33. © KEM Krauss 32 AI ethics in proofreading
  • 34. © KEM Krauss 33 How AI can dilute the argument or misconstrue writing. ChatGPT 3.5
  • 37. © KEM Krauss 36 ChatGPT trains on our data … even if you ask it to proofread?!? • https://community.openai.com/t/how-to-use-chatgpt-without-providing-it- with-training-data/111514/2 • https://www.groovypost.com/howto/opt-out-your-data-on-chatgpt/
  • 38. © KEM Krauss 37 Articulate your use of AI as part of the scientific argument
  • 39. © KEM Krauss 38 Policies on AI authorship • Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE): • https://publicationethics.org/cope-position-statements/ai-author
  • 40. © KEM Krauss 39 • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) - authorship criteria: • https://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the- role-of-authors-and-contributors.html
  • 41. © KEM Krauss 40 May we have some examples and best practices please?
  • 42. © KEM Krauss 41 My concerns/risks • AI lacks systematic rigour which only traditional methods can give you • Author and reader • Cannot trace argumentation • Cannot trace alignment, e.g., between literature themes and research questions • As author I have distanced myself from the original text • I cannot prove that the summaries are correct • Incorrect or shallow summaries of papers • I would not know that the best quotes or summaries have been extracted from the papers • I have to be the human actor and guardrail • Nothing has been internalised • No inference to a better explanation – only existing explanations
  • 43. © KEM Krauss 42 Directions & Reflections • Always experiment – start with a field about which you are passionate or well-informed • AI vs. Traditional approaches - not competitive, but complementary • AI bias, worldview bias, publisher bias, political bias, first language English bias, etc. • AI magnifies and perpetuates existing biases • Use a combination of tools for different phases of the process • AI is a moving target • Keeping up, experimenting • Avoid predatory AI tools/scams • Scientific argumentation skills – a required competency
  • 44. © KEM Krauss 43 Thank you Connect with me: • https://www.linkedin.com/in/kirstin-krauss • https://academy.wwis.co.za/
  • 45. Deciding on authorship Thywill Dzogbewu @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Writing with integrity 5 June 2024
  • 46. What is authorship @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Anyone who makes substantial intellectual contributions to a publication
  • 47. Why is academic authorship an issue? @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity It is the currency for getting recognition in academia Authorship determines scientific credit Promotion Your academic value Reputation The kind collaborators you can attract The kind of research grants The visibility of your research centre
  • 48. @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Criteria for deciding authorship Substantial contribution What is a substantial contribution ?
  • 49. @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Order of Authorship Lead author Co-authors Corresponding author
  • 51. @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Co-authorship The order of authors can change at any stage of the reviewing process Rejected or Major revision required
  • 52. @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Why the increase in authorship challenges Honorary authorship / Guest authorship Generosity or sharing Ghost/anonymous authorship Mutual authorship
  • 53. @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Clarify who will be co-author/s and on what basis Clarify what is important for each co-author Recommendations Clarify the author order at an early stage If problems arise, talk about them immediately It is more important to do things right than to do them quickly Know the norms and culture that governs the authorship of your research cluster
  • 54. @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity The take home words Authorship is more than an article – It is how you treat people Authorship is part of everyday challenge in academia, you need to select the best approach to handle each situation Difficult even with guidelines There is no bulletproof solution Boundaries governing authorship are unclear, you need to figure it out. The is a big gap between the ideal world and reality when it comes to deciding who should receive an authorship credit
  • 56. Curating your data Lindah Muzangwa Lindah.Muzangwa@rau.ac.uk @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Writing with integrity 5 June 2024
  • 57. Presentation outline Introductions-definitions Why curate data? Data curation lifecycle Ethical and legal considerations Conclusion
  • 58. Introduction-definitions… What is data? “…any information that can be stored in digital form, including text, numbers, images, videos, audios, software scripts, algorithms, equations, animations, models simulation, charts, tabular etc” (Johnson, L.R., et al., 2018) …sets of structured values that can be organized, analyzed and manipulated by a software application or some other means of calculation. A defining characteristic of data is that is machine-readable This includes data collected directly though digital manifestations of literature, laboratory data, surveys, observational data or generated or compiled by machines or humans surveys
  • 59. Introduction-definitions… What is open data? Open data is data that is openly accessible, exploitable, editable and shared by anyone for any purpose. Based on the idea that data is more valuable is more people can use it, and that technology has made the cost of sharing data negligible Data Knowledge Value
  • 60. What is data curation? “..the active and ongoing management of data throughout its entire lifecycle of interest and usefulness to scholarship” (Cragin et al.,2007)  Active and ongoing-dynamic Maintaining and adding value Lifecycle involves creation, management and destruction Aims to maintain the utility of the data
  • 61. Why curate data? Good data is the basis for good science The opportunity cost of losing data is high
  • 62. Why curate data? Makes data findable and accessible Ensures data traceability, quality and integrity-accuracy, consistency, and reliability of data Facilitates data sharing and reuse-potential for creating new knowledge from existing data through re-use, re-analysis, data mining, innovating combination of data sets Supports long-term preservation-data is expensive to generate and some may be impossible to recreate once lost It is increasingly a requirement of some research funding bodies Institutional asset management Promoting the institution research group or individual- impact, visibility
  • 63. Data curation-What is your role as a scientist? Initial creation and use of data Managing data for life of project Using appropriate standards (where possible) Complying with data policies Making the data available in a format that can (easily?) be used by others
  • 64. What are the key steps in data curation? 1. Data collection • Standard methods • Ethics 2. Data cleaning • Missing values, errors • Statistical software 3.Data documentation • Meta data, code books • Standards 4. Data Storage Data repositories Visibility 5. Data sharing
  • 66. Ethical and legal consideration Ethical issues-privacy, consent, data sensitivity Legal issues-intellectual property (ownership and rights), compliance with data protection laws (e.g., GDPR)
  • 67. Typical examples of curated data Manuscripts Traditional publication-presentational version of the data- often lacking in supplementals files Data Journals Publication option for datasets (discipline specific and peer reviewed) Provide useable data releases or independently citable version of supplemental files Data repositories Where data is stored for a long term Computer accessible Maybe discipline specific Can be build for organisations-(universities, funder NGOs etc)
  • 69. Conclusion Actively curated data will: Remain technologically accessible Be easier to understand (therefore use) If data is made open-widely used - better understood than isolated data
  • 71. Responding to reviewers’ feedback Taahira Goga @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 University of Cape Town (UCT) |Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) SAJS Outstanding Article Awardee 2023
  • 72. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Introduction Peer review is a necessary stage in the publication process. However, it is a potentially challenging step as it can be viewed as a stressful experience or a personal attack. Many researchers still feel a sense of apprehension due to the seemingly daunting nature of the process.
  • 73. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Change in Perspective Reviewers (often scholars with valuable expertise on your subject matter) are voluntarily giving their time to ensure the validity of results and provide feedback. The intention is to produce an improved version of the manuscript (more clear, accessible).
  • 74. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Stages in the Article Submission Process Stage 1 • Draft article using instructions and guidelines • Submit article Stage 2 • Editor decision and receipt of reviewers comments • Address comments, revise manuscript, and resubmit Stage 3 • Additional round of review (subject to recommendation) • Acceptance and publication
  • 75. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Initial Communication Receive an email from the journal with the editorial decision, peer reviewer comments, and additional steps
  • 76. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Reviewer Feedback Remarks: • Should feature somewhere before or after the individual comments • May not be explicitly stated • Rare for manuscript to be accepted upon first submission
  • 77. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Examples of Reviewers’ Comments General Criteria: - Novelty - Abstract/Problem - Methods - Quality/Style - References - Compliance with journal scope - Contribution to field
  • 78. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Examples of Reviewers’ Comments
  • 79. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Examples of Reviewers’ Comments (Same Manuscript) Remarks: • Some similarities but also contrasting views
  • 80. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Suggested Approach • Download all comments • Initial screening of feedback • Ensure that the response is self-contained • Respond to every point raised by the respective reviewers • Try and respond directly to the comments and explain the changes made • Emphasise changes made for easier navigation (e.g. track changes, colour and font variation)
  • 81. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Additional Aspects • Be respectful of reviewers – even critical comments can provide food for thought • Accept any faults and acknowledge comments and suggestions for improvement • If a reviewer sees a problem or fails to understand something, it may be due to the contents of the manuscript, which may hamper the readers’ understanding
  • 82. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Additional Aspects • Indicate section, page, line number for easier navigation • Comments from reviewers who are not experts in your field are particularly useful – produce a paper that is more accessible to the general, non- technical audience • Take the review process in your stride and strive to respond in a professional manner – take time to digest the comments and have a fresh look.
  • 83. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Response to Reviewers Included Aspects (pt 1) - Addressed/noted - Explanation - Location in text - Additional reasoning
  • 84. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Preparation for Resubmission • If you are the lead author, distribute your responses amongst your co-authors together with a deadline for feedback • If necessary, have a team meeting to discuss the trickier comments • Assess and integrate the comments and create a final version of both documents • Upload and resubmit according to the instructions • May be multiple rounds
  • 85. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 Final Remarks Part of becoming a successful and emotionally stable author is learning to navigate the peer review process. It requires perseverance and patience but the process will hopefully improve your manuscript and aid in emphasising the value of your research. Best of luck!
  • 86. Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 References/Sources • Muchenje, Voster. (2017). Editorial: How to respond to reviewers' comments. South African Journal of Animal Science, 47(2), 116- 117. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i2.1 • Editage. A template for responding to peer reviewer comments (editage.com) • Taylor and Francis Author Services. How to respond to reviewer comments - Author Services (taylorandfrancis.com) • Scientific Writing with Karen L. McKee • Navigating Academia
  • 87. Responding to reviewers’ feedback Taahira Goga www.linkedin.com/in/taahiragoga @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Writing with integrity 5 June 2024 University of Cape Town (UCT) |Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) SAJS Outstanding Article Awardee 2023
  • 88. Communicating with editors Leslie Swartz, Editor-in-Chief, SAJS @SAJS_Official @ASSAf_Official #AcademicWriting #ResearchIntegrity Writing with integrity 5 June 2024
  • 89. What editors want • Good quality, interesting submissions • That fit the scope, mission and vision of the journal • Excellent, supportive and informed peer review processes • Quick turnaround • Maximum impact • To be at the cutting edge where possible • Good relationships between editors, authors, reviewers
  • 90. What authors want • Good quality, interesting submissions • That fit the scope, mission and vision of the journal • Excellent, supportive and informed peer review processes • Quick turnaround • Maximum impact • To be at the cutting edge where possible • Good relationships between editors, authors, reviewers: • In other words: WE ARE ON THE SAME SIDE
  • 91. Who are the editors of journals? • Mainly: academics just like you • Generally speaking, doing editorial work for no remuneration (sometimes there are small fees given, but this is the exception) • They have day jobs • On larger journals like SAJS there is an editorial team running the journal on a day to day basis • Doing the work for interest and enjoyment (and it is fun!) but also as a form of academic service and care • We are not the enemy or the punishing parent
  • 92. What do editors think of you, as an author? • Editors usually don’t know and have no opinion about you (sorry) • They are much more concerned about the academic conversation in their journal and whether and in what way your work contributes • Editors are grateful when you are polite and follow the steps (from submission and throughout) • Editors, like all of us, are far more likely to be positively disposed to well-prepared, polite authors
  • 95. Please read the journal policies – it takes us a long time to write them!
  • 96. Helping the review process along • If a journal asks for/allows this, always suggest reviewers. These must have no affiliation to you. • You may suggest reviewers to exclude • The editorial team does not have to take your suggestions on • If you have heard nothing for three months (Minimum!) write a polite letter to the editor and ask if you can help by, for example, suggesting more reviewers
  • 97. You have a right to complain, but do this collegially • “I need this for my PhD” is not a basis for a complaint • Neither are: • But I think this should be in your journal scope • But I graduated cum laude with this work • My funder needs me to publish this • Your journal is incompetent • Support good things done by the journal • Generally, unless you have a strong case, just submit elsewhere
  • 98. Some don’ts in terms of dealing with editors DON’T TELL THE EDITORS HOW LUCKY THEY ARE TO HAVE YOUR WORK DON’T THREATEN THE EDITORS WITH REPUTATIONAL DAMAGE OR OTHER THINGS DON’T OFFER MONEY/BRIBES (THIS IS FOR PREDATORY JOURNALS) IF YOU WANT TO WITHDRAW A PAPER, THAT IS YOUR RIGHT – DON’T USE IT AS A THREAT
  • 99. Some do’s Follow all the instructions Format according to what the journal wants – even if you don’t like the format (except your paper your way submissions) Please proofread Please check for inadvertent plagiarism A good, clear covering letter can help Be friendly, say thank you – even when you get a rejection (as I did this morning!)