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The importance of water Tap water Laboratory grade water Reagent grade water Solution terminology Solvent Solute Measurements of concentration Weight-per-volume concentration Percent (parts per hundred) Molar (M) Solutions Normal (N) solutions molar and normal solutions Dilution from one concentration to another Examples Making very dilute solutions Special considerations for strong acids and bases Practice problems

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LESSON-2.-CONCENTRATION-OF-SOLUTIONS.pdf

This document provides an overview of solutions and mixtures. It defines key terms like homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, solutes and solvents, concentration, and solubility. It also discusses different units used to measure concentration, including molarity, molality, and percent composition. Methods for separating mixtures like distillation, filtering, and chromatography are also outlined. The document provides examples of calculating concentration using various units and solving stoichiometric problems involving solutions.

Preparation of solutions

This document discusses different methods of preparing solutions of varying concentrations, including percentage solutions, molarity, molality, normality, and parts per million. It provides examples and problems for calculating amounts of solutes needed to make solutions of specific concentrations and volumes. Buffer solutions are also introduced as solutions that can tolerate small pH changes during reactions. They are typically composed of a weak acid and its salt.

buffer preparation

Lab 2 involves demonstrating sterile technique and performing several basic techniques:
1) Diluting 10X TE Buffer to make 1X TE Buffer. Students are asked to make 25ml of 1X TE Buffer from 10X TE stock solution and sterile water.
2) Determining the concentration of an unknown DNA sample.
3) Streaking out bacterial colonies.
The document also provides background on buffers, solutions, molarity, percentage solutions, and preparing buffers by diluting stock solutions. It uses examples to illustrate how to calculate volumes needed to make solutions of a desired concentration.

Molarity Molality Dilutions

This document discusses concentration of solutions in chemistry. It defines molarity as moles of solute per liter of solution. It provides an example problem calculating the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 5 grams of nickel chloride hexahydrate in 250 mL of water. It also discusses molality, defined as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent, and provides an example problem calculating the molality of a sodium chloride solution. Finally, it discusses the process of diluting solutions through calculations that conserve the number of moles while changing the volume.

Solutions preparation

containing definition and equations of molarity &normality and so on .and how to prepare solution .

Making solutions

This document discusses important concepts for preparing solutions in biotechnology. It defines key terms like solute, solvent, concentration, and solution. It explains different units for expressing concentration, such as weight/volume percent, molarity, and normality. Examples are provided for calculating amounts of solute needed to make solutions of a given concentration and volume. Equations are presented for diluting stock solutions to prepare solutions of lower concentration. Serial dilutions are also introduced as a method to make a series of progressively more dilute solutions from a concentrated stock.

Lab-Solution-Preperation-Guide-1.pdf

The document discusses the concept of molarity, which is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. It provides examples of how to calculate the mass of solute needed to make a solution of a given molarity and volume. The document also discusses how to dilute a more concentrated solution to a desired molarity and volume. Additional topics covered include percent solutions and how to convert between mass and volume percent. The remainder of the document provides recipes for making common laboratory solutions with given molarities.

SOLUTION PPT CHAPTER 2(DONE BY AMAN RAJ CLASS XII-'A'.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions, including definitions of key terms like mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous mixtures, solutions, solutes, and solvents. It discusses different types of solutions like gaseous, liquid, and solid solutions. It also covers topics like concentration, solubility, factors that affect solubility, and the relationship between temperature and solubility. The document explains concepts such as molarity, dilutions, mass percent, and solution stoichiometry. Finally, it briefly introduces vapor pressure, Dalton's law of partial pressures, Raoult's law, ideal and non-ideal solutions, and pressure-composition curves.

LESSON-2.-CONCENTRATION-OF-SOLUTIONS.pdf

This document provides an overview of solutions and mixtures. It defines key terms like homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, solutes and solvents, concentration, and solubility. It also discusses different units used to measure concentration, including molarity, molality, and percent composition. Methods for separating mixtures like distillation, filtering, and chromatography are also outlined. The document provides examples of calculating concentration using various units and solving stoichiometric problems involving solutions.

Preparation of solutions

This document discusses different methods of preparing solutions of varying concentrations, including percentage solutions, molarity, molality, normality, and parts per million. It provides examples and problems for calculating amounts of solutes needed to make solutions of specific concentrations and volumes. Buffer solutions are also introduced as solutions that can tolerate small pH changes during reactions. They are typically composed of a weak acid and its salt.

buffer preparation

Lab 2 involves demonstrating sterile technique and performing several basic techniques:
1) Diluting 10X TE Buffer to make 1X TE Buffer. Students are asked to make 25ml of 1X TE Buffer from 10X TE stock solution and sterile water.
2) Determining the concentration of an unknown DNA sample.
3) Streaking out bacterial colonies.
The document also provides background on buffers, solutions, molarity, percentage solutions, and preparing buffers by diluting stock solutions. It uses examples to illustrate how to calculate volumes needed to make solutions of a desired concentration.

Molarity Molality Dilutions

This document discusses concentration of solutions in chemistry. It defines molarity as moles of solute per liter of solution. It provides an example problem calculating the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 5 grams of nickel chloride hexahydrate in 250 mL of water. It also discusses molality, defined as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent, and provides an example problem calculating the molality of a sodium chloride solution. Finally, it discusses the process of diluting solutions through calculations that conserve the number of moles while changing the volume.

Solutions preparation

containing definition and equations of molarity &normality and so on .and how to prepare solution .

Making solutions

This document discusses important concepts for preparing solutions in biotechnology. It defines key terms like solute, solvent, concentration, and solution. It explains different units for expressing concentration, such as weight/volume percent, molarity, and normality. Examples are provided for calculating amounts of solute needed to make solutions of a given concentration and volume. Equations are presented for diluting stock solutions to prepare solutions of lower concentration. Serial dilutions are also introduced as a method to make a series of progressively more dilute solutions from a concentrated stock.

Lab-Solution-Preperation-Guide-1.pdf

The document discusses the concept of molarity, which is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. It provides examples of how to calculate the mass of solute needed to make a solution of a given molarity and volume. The document also discusses how to dilute a more concentrated solution to a desired molarity and volume. Additional topics covered include percent solutions and how to convert between mass and volume percent. The remainder of the document provides recipes for making common laboratory solutions with given molarities.

SOLUTION PPT CHAPTER 2(DONE BY AMAN RAJ CLASS XII-'A'.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions, including definitions of key terms like mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous mixtures, solutions, solutes, and solvents. It discusses different types of solutions like gaseous, liquid, and solid solutions. It also covers topics like concentration, solubility, factors that affect solubility, and the relationship between temperature and solubility. The document explains concepts such as molarity, dilutions, mass percent, and solution stoichiometry. Finally, it briefly introduces vapor pressure, Dalton's law of partial pressures, Raoult's law, ideal and non-ideal solutions, and pressure-composition curves.

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

This document discusses different types of solutions and concepts related to solutions. It defines heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures, and notes that solutions are homogeneous mixtures composed of solutes and solvents. It describes factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also discusses concentration in terms of molarity, dilutions, mass percent, and solution stoichiometry. Finally, it covers vapor pressure concepts such as Dalton's law, Raoult's law, mole fraction in the vapor phase, ideal and non-ideal solutions, and positive and negative deviations from ideality.

Solubility and mixtures.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions and related concepts in chemistry. It defines key terms like mixtures, solutions, solutes, solvents, concentration, solubility, and factors that affect solubility. It also discusses homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, concentration in terms of molarity and percent by mass, and how to perform calculations involving dilution of solutions and solution stoichiometry. The document uses examples and diagrams to illustrate these concepts.

Concentration of Solutions.pptx

The document provides information on different ways of expressing the concentration of solutions, including percent by mass, mole fraction, molarity, molality, percent by volume, and parts per million (ppm). It discusses an activity where students are asked to mix a substance with water and observe whether the mixture is uniform or non-uniform. Finally, it defines key terms related to solution concentration such as solution, solute, solvent, concentration, solubility, miscible, and immiscible.

Laboratory culculation needed for starters

This document discusses key units and concepts used in laboratory calculations including moles, molarity, percentage solutions, concentrated stock solutions, and dilutions. Moles represent the number of atoms or molecules in a substance and are measured in grams. Molarity expresses the concentration of a solution in moles per liter. Percentage solutions indicate the mass or volume of a solute present in a solvent. Concentrated stock solutions contain higher concentrations of solutes that must be diluted to working solutions. Dilution calculations use the formula C1V1=C2V2 to determine volumes needed for dilution between concentrations. Proper unit cancellation and tracking is important for conversion calculations.

Solutions.ppt

This document provides instructions and definitions for preparing chemical solutions and reagents. It discusses the types of vessels used to hold solutions, defines key terms like solutes, solvents, concentration, and amount. It also covers how to make solutions of different concentrations by mass, volume, percentage, molarity and describes how to dilute stock solutions to achieve desired concentrations. The goals are to teach how to properly make and measure solutions for experiments.

Chapter-16-Solutions-ppt.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions and solubility. It defines key terms like solute, solvent, solution, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture, concentration, saturation, and factors that affect solubility. It also discusses quantitative concepts such as molarity, percent by mass, and how to use stoichiometry to solve for different units in solution reactions. The key information is that a solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, with the solute dissolving in the solvent, and various physical and chemical factors influence how much solute can dissolve.

Solutions ppt.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions and solubility. It defines key terms like solute, solvent, solution, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture, concentration, saturation, and factors that affect solubility. It also discusses quantitative concepts such as molarity, percent by mass, and how to use stoichiometry to calculate amounts in solutions. Specifically, it explains how to calculate amounts of solutes and solvents needed using molarity, percent by mass, and mole ratios from balanced chemical equations.

Lecture 16.2- Concentration

1. This document discusses various methods of measuring concentration in chemistry, including molarity, percent concentration, parts per million, and grams per liter.
2. It explains that concentration is calculated by taking the amount of solute divided by the total amount of solution. The amount of solute and solvent must both be specified.
3. Examples are provided for how to calculate concentration using various units for different types of solutions, including calculating moles of solute in a given volume of a molar solution and determining the mass percent of a NaCl solution.

2 concentration of solutions

This document defines and provides examples for different ways of expressing the concentration of solutions, including mass/volume percent (m/v%), mass/mass percent (m/m%), volume/volume percent (v/v%), parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb), and molar concentration (mol/L). It also discusses how to calculate concentration using the various units and provides examples of dilution calculations.

Preparation of standard, normal and molar solutions

Preparation of standard, Normal and molar solutions
Subscribe to my youtube channel for such great contents
www.youtube.com/c/AwesomeBiochemistry

SOLUTIONS

This document provides an overview of solutions and related concepts. It defines heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures, noting that solutions are homogeneous mixtures composed of solutes and solvents. Key terms discussed include concentration, saturation, solubility factors, and polarity. Solution types include liquid, solid, and gas solutions. Concentration can be expressed using molarity, percent by mass, or molality. Dilutions and solution stoichiometry problems are also reviewed.

Solution 2011 ec

This document discusses different methods of expressing the concentration or strength of solutions. It defines key terms like solvent, solute, stock solution, and working solution. It explains relative expressions of concentration like dilute, concentrated, and saturated. It also covers quantitative expressions of concentration using physical units like percentage and parts per unit, as well as chemical units like molarity, normality, and molality. Several examples are provided for calculating concentrations and preparing solutions from stock solutions to achieve a desired concentration.

Solution preparation

this section helps students how to prepare solution for each laboratory activities. specially life life science fields such as biotechnology, biology, chemistry and medical laboratory

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

This document provides a summary of key concepts relating to solutions and solubility. It begins with definitions of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, and solutions. It then discusses different types of solutions and factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also covers concentration, saturation, and solubility curves. It introduces the concepts of molarity and calculations involving molarity. Finally, it discusses dilutions and calculations involving mass percent and solution stoichiometry.

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt (1).pptx

This document provides a summary of key concepts relating to solutions and solubility. It begins with definitions of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, and solutions. It then discusses different types of solutions and factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also covers concentration, including saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions. It introduces concepts of molarity, dilutions, and calculating concentrations using mass percent. Finally, it discusses using stoichiometry to solve for different units when dealing with solutions and chemical reactions in solutions.

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

This document provides a summary of key concepts relating to solutions and solubility. It begins with definitions of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, and solutions. It then discusses different types of solutions and factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also covers concentration, saturation, and solubility curves. It introduces the concepts of molarity and calculations involving molarity, dilutions, and mass percent. Finally, it discusses using stoichiometry to solve for different units when dealing with solutions and chemical reactions in solutions.

molarity lesson quarter 3 science 7 pdf/file

The document discusses concentration of solutions and molarity. It defines molarity as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution. It provides examples of calculating molarity based on moles of solute and volume of solution. It also discusses making dilute solutions by taking an initial volume of a concentrated stock solution and diluting it with solvent to a final volume. Dilution does not change the total moles of solute.

Preparing, Diluting of solutions of different Strengths & safety measures whi...

This document provides guidance on weighing and preparing solutions of different concentrations and their dilution, as well as handling techniques for solutions. It discusses solutions, measuring chemicals, different chemical concentrations, dilution of stock solutions, labeling, safety, and conclusions. Specifically, it defines types of solutions, provides procedures for preparing solutions by weighing solids or liquids and dilution, discusses units for reporting concentration like molarity and normality, and guidelines for proper labeling, storage, safety practices, and documentation when working with chemical solutions in the lab.

Calculations

This document provides guidance on calculations for molecular biology and biochemistry. It discusses:
- Using appropriate units like microliters and micromolar instead of liters and molar when working with small volumes and dilute solutions.
- Strategies for calculations including converting between concentration and number of moles and working with dilutions.
- How to use molecular weights to convert between molarity and weight per volume units.
- Considerations for calculations like anhydrous vs hydrated compounds and working with liquid densities.
- The role of buffers in maintaining pH for biological reactions.

Preparation of solutions.pptx

This document provides instructions for preparing solutions of different concentrations and safely handling chemical solutions in the laboratory. It discusses key topics such as defining different types of solutions, measuring chemicals accurately, preparing stock and diluted solutions using various methods, common units for expressing concentration like molarity and percentage, and guidelines for proper labeling, storage, and disposal of chemical solutions. Safety precautions for working with chemicals and maintaining a clean work area are also outlined.

A Brief Report on Green Natural Dyes Based on Color Index

A Brief Report on Green Natural Dyes Based on Color Index
Introduction
Importance
Classification
Limitations of Natural Dyes
Color Index
CI Natural Green
CI Natural Green 1
CI Natural Green 2
CI Natural Green 3
CI Natural Green 4
CI Natural Green 5
Natural Dyes
Classification
Limitations of Natural Dyes
References

Importance of Paraphrasing in research.pptx

Paraphrasing
Importance of Paraphrasing Skills
Understanding the Source Material
Techniques for Effective Paraphrasing
Avoiding Plagiarism
Practice Exercises for Paraphrasing
Common Mistakes to Avoid
Tips for Improving Paraphrasing Skills
The Art of Effective Paraphrasing
Developing Proficiency in Paraphrasing
Enhancing Writing Through Paraphrasing
Clarity and Originality
Promoting Academic Integrity
Encouraging Critical Thinking

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

This document discusses different types of solutions and concepts related to solutions. It defines heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures, and notes that solutions are homogeneous mixtures composed of solutes and solvents. It describes factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also discusses concentration in terms of molarity, dilutions, mass percent, and solution stoichiometry. Finally, it covers vapor pressure concepts such as Dalton's law, Raoult's law, mole fraction in the vapor phase, ideal and non-ideal solutions, and positive and negative deviations from ideality.

Solubility and mixtures.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions and related concepts in chemistry. It defines key terms like mixtures, solutions, solutes, solvents, concentration, solubility, and factors that affect solubility. It also discusses homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, concentration in terms of molarity and percent by mass, and how to perform calculations involving dilution of solutions and solution stoichiometry. The document uses examples and diagrams to illustrate these concepts.

Concentration of Solutions.pptx

The document provides information on different ways of expressing the concentration of solutions, including percent by mass, mole fraction, molarity, molality, percent by volume, and parts per million (ppm). It discusses an activity where students are asked to mix a substance with water and observe whether the mixture is uniform or non-uniform. Finally, it defines key terms related to solution concentration such as solution, solute, solvent, concentration, solubility, miscible, and immiscible.

Laboratory culculation needed for starters

This document discusses key units and concepts used in laboratory calculations including moles, molarity, percentage solutions, concentrated stock solutions, and dilutions. Moles represent the number of atoms or molecules in a substance and are measured in grams. Molarity expresses the concentration of a solution in moles per liter. Percentage solutions indicate the mass or volume of a solute present in a solvent. Concentrated stock solutions contain higher concentrations of solutes that must be diluted to working solutions. Dilution calculations use the formula C1V1=C2V2 to determine volumes needed for dilution between concentrations. Proper unit cancellation and tracking is important for conversion calculations.

Solutions.ppt

This document provides instructions and definitions for preparing chemical solutions and reagents. It discusses the types of vessels used to hold solutions, defines key terms like solutes, solvents, concentration, and amount. It also covers how to make solutions of different concentrations by mass, volume, percentage, molarity and describes how to dilute stock solutions to achieve desired concentrations. The goals are to teach how to properly make and measure solutions for experiments.

Chapter-16-Solutions-ppt.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions and solubility. It defines key terms like solute, solvent, solution, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture, concentration, saturation, and factors that affect solubility. It also discusses quantitative concepts such as molarity, percent by mass, and how to use stoichiometry to solve for different units in solution reactions. The key information is that a solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, with the solute dissolving in the solvent, and various physical and chemical factors influence how much solute can dissolve.

Solutions ppt.pptx

This document provides an overview of solutions and solubility. It defines key terms like solute, solvent, solution, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture, concentration, saturation, and factors that affect solubility. It also discusses quantitative concepts such as molarity, percent by mass, and how to use stoichiometry to calculate amounts in solutions. Specifically, it explains how to calculate amounts of solutes and solvents needed using molarity, percent by mass, and mole ratios from balanced chemical equations.

Lecture 16.2- Concentration

1. This document discusses various methods of measuring concentration in chemistry, including molarity, percent concentration, parts per million, and grams per liter.
2. It explains that concentration is calculated by taking the amount of solute divided by the total amount of solution. The amount of solute and solvent must both be specified.
3. Examples are provided for how to calculate concentration using various units for different types of solutions, including calculating moles of solute in a given volume of a molar solution and determining the mass percent of a NaCl solution.

2 concentration of solutions

This document defines and provides examples for different ways of expressing the concentration of solutions, including mass/volume percent (m/v%), mass/mass percent (m/m%), volume/volume percent (v/v%), parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb), and molar concentration (mol/L). It also discusses how to calculate concentration using the various units and provides examples of dilution calculations.

Preparation of standard, normal and molar solutions

Preparation of standard, Normal and molar solutions
Subscribe to my youtube channel for such great contents
www.youtube.com/c/AwesomeBiochemistry

SOLUTIONS

This document provides an overview of solutions and related concepts. It defines heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures, noting that solutions are homogeneous mixtures composed of solutes and solvents. Key terms discussed include concentration, saturation, solubility factors, and polarity. Solution types include liquid, solid, and gas solutions. Concentration can be expressed using molarity, percent by mass, or molality. Dilutions and solution stoichiometry problems are also reviewed.

Solution 2011 ec

This document discusses different methods of expressing the concentration or strength of solutions. It defines key terms like solvent, solute, stock solution, and working solution. It explains relative expressions of concentration like dilute, concentrated, and saturated. It also covers quantitative expressions of concentration using physical units like percentage and parts per unit, as well as chemical units like molarity, normality, and molality. Several examples are provided for calculating concentrations and preparing solutions from stock solutions to achieve a desired concentration.

Solution preparation

this section helps students how to prepare solution for each laboratory activities. specially life life science fields such as biotechnology, biology, chemistry and medical laboratory

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

This document provides a summary of key concepts relating to solutions and solubility. It begins with definitions of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, and solutions. It then discusses different types of solutions and factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also covers concentration, saturation, and solubility curves. It introduces the concepts of molarity and calculations involving molarity. Finally, it discusses dilutions and calculations involving mass percent and solution stoichiometry.

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt (1).pptx

This document provides a summary of key concepts relating to solutions and solubility. It begins with definitions of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, and solutions. It then discusses different types of solutions and factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also covers concentration, including saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions. It introduces concepts of molarity, dilutions, and calculating concentrations using mass percent. Finally, it discusses using stoichiometry to solve for different units when dealing with solutions and chemical reactions in solutions.

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

This document provides a summary of key concepts relating to solutions and solubility. It begins with definitions of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, and solutions. It then discusses different types of solutions and factors that affect solubility, such as temperature, particle size, and polarity. The document also covers concentration, saturation, and solubility curves. It introduces the concepts of molarity and calculations involving molarity, dilutions, and mass percent. Finally, it discusses using stoichiometry to solve for different units when dealing with solutions and chemical reactions in solutions.

molarity lesson quarter 3 science 7 pdf/file

The document discusses concentration of solutions and molarity. It defines molarity as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution. It provides examples of calculating molarity based on moles of solute and volume of solution. It also discusses making dilute solutions by taking an initial volume of a concentrated stock solution and diluting it with solvent to a final volume. Dilution does not change the total moles of solute.

Preparing, Diluting of solutions of different Strengths & safety measures whi...

This document provides guidance on weighing and preparing solutions of different concentrations and their dilution, as well as handling techniques for solutions. It discusses solutions, measuring chemicals, different chemical concentrations, dilution of stock solutions, labeling, safety, and conclusions. Specifically, it defines types of solutions, provides procedures for preparing solutions by weighing solids or liquids and dilution, discusses units for reporting concentration like molarity and normality, and guidelines for proper labeling, storage, safety practices, and documentation when working with chemical solutions in the lab.

Calculations

This document provides guidance on calculations for molecular biology and biochemistry. It discusses:
- Using appropriate units like microliters and micromolar instead of liters and molar when working with small volumes and dilute solutions.
- Strategies for calculations including converting between concentration and number of moles and working with dilutions.
- How to use molecular weights to convert between molarity and weight per volume units.
- Considerations for calculations like anhydrous vs hydrated compounds and working with liquid densities.
- The role of buffers in maintaining pH for biological reactions.

Preparation of solutions.pptx

This document provides instructions for preparing solutions of different concentrations and safely handling chemical solutions in the laboratory. It discusses key topics such as defining different types of solutions, measuring chemicals accurately, preparing stock and diluted solutions using various methods, common units for expressing concentration like molarity and percentage, and guidelines for proper labeling, storage, and disposal of chemical solutions. Safety precautions for working with chemicals and maintaining a clean work area are also outlined.

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

Solubility and mixtures.pptx

Solubility and mixtures.pptx

Concentration of Solutions.pptx

Concentration of Solutions.pptx

Laboratory culculation needed for starters

Laboratory culculation needed for starters

Solutions.ppt

Solutions.ppt

Chapter-16-Solutions-ppt.pptx

Chapter-16-Solutions-ppt.pptx

Solutions ppt.pptx

Solutions ppt.pptx

Lecture 16.2- Concentration

Lecture 16.2- Concentration

2 concentration of solutions

2 concentration of solutions

Preparation of standard, normal and molar solutions

Preparation of standard, normal and molar solutions

SOLUTIONS

SOLUTIONS

Solution 2011 ec

Solution 2011 ec

Solution preparation

Solution preparation

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt (1).pptx

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt (1).pptx

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

Chapter 16 Solutions ppt.pptx

molarity lesson quarter 3 science 7 pdf/file

molarity lesson quarter 3 science 7 pdf/file

Preparing, Diluting of solutions of different Strengths & safety measures whi...

Preparing, Diluting of solutions of different Strengths & safety measures whi...

Calculations

Calculations

Preparation of solutions.pptx

Preparation of solutions.pptx

A Brief Report on Green Natural Dyes Based on Color Index

A Brief Report on Green Natural Dyes Based on Color Index
Introduction
Importance
Classification
Limitations of Natural Dyes
Color Index
CI Natural Green
CI Natural Green 1
CI Natural Green 2
CI Natural Green 3
CI Natural Green 4
CI Natural Green 5
Natural Dyes
Classification
Limitations of Natural Dyes
References

Importance of Paraphrasing in research.pptx

Paraphrasing
Importance of Paraphrasing Skills
Understanding the Source Material
Techniques for Effective Paraphrasing
Avoiding Plagiarism
Practice Exercises for Paraphrasing
Common Mistakes to Avoid
Tips for Improving Paraphrasing Skills
The Art of Effective Paraphrasing
Developing Proficiency in Paraphrasing
Enhancing Writing Through Paraphrasing
Clarity and Originality
Promoting Academic Integrity
Encouraging Critical Thinking

Suzuki Reaction.pptx

Suzuki Reaction and its Mechanism, Akira Suzuki, Trans metalation, Reductive Elimination, Merits, Green synthesis

HECk Reaction green vrs conventional.pptx

HECk Reaction
green synthesis vrs conventional, Mechanism, Pre-activation of Palladium Catalyst, Oxidative addition, Olefin Addition to the Palladium Complex, Migratory Insertion
, β-Hydride Elimination, Regeneration of palladium catalyst, Merits of green synthesis

Microbial fuel cell.pptx

Microbial Fuel Cell
History of MFCs
How do they work ?
Recent Developments
Introduction
History
Working of Microbial fuel cell
Redox Reaction
Components Of Microbial Fuel Cell
Anode Chamber
Cathode Chamber
Exchange Membrane
Electrical Circuit
Substrates
Advantages
Construction of MFC
Recent Improvements
Disadvantages
Applications

Tunable Laser (1).pptx

Tunable Laser,Basic tunable Laser Setup, Tunable Laser diode, Tunable Laser Optics, History, Tunable laser Absorption Spectrometer, Types and categories of Tunable Lasers, solid-state bulk laser, Dye lasers, Types of tenability, Single line tuning, Multi-line tuning, Narrowband tuning, Simulating Laser Tuning, Wavelength-swept Lasers, Dynamic sensors based on wavelength-swept lasers, Wavelength-swept Lasers Spectrum, Widely tunable lasers,Quantum cascade lasers, Applications of Tunable Lasers, Suppliers,Laser Quantum, NKT Photonics, TOPTICA photonics

3.pptxNMR sub topics

A brief description of NMR sub topics regarding to Volume and Concentration, Consideration in NMR Spectroscopy, Biomolecule samples, Small molecule samples, Sample volume, Spectrometer setup, NMR instrumentation, Deuterium Lock, Probe Tunning for optimizing NMR signal, Sample Tube Placement

sub topics of NMR 2.pptx

Sub topics of NMR spectroscopy.Volume and Concentration Consideration in NMR Spectroscopy,Spectrometer setup,Deuterium Lock,Probe Tunning for optimizing NMR signal,Sample Tune Placement,

sub topics of NMR.pptx

NMR is a Powerful analytical technique used to characterize organic molecules by identifying carbon-hydrogen frameworks within molecules.
This file elaborate following sub topics of NMR spectroscopy.
Oversampling and its importance
Digital filtration
purpose of digital filtration
Decoupling for X nuclei
and NMR spectra
Excitation modes in NMR
Inverse detection and its superiority
Data processing
data acquisition
spectrum generation

Presentation.pptx. Green Chemistry and principal of green Chemistry

A complete and comprehensive approach towards green chemistry & its applications. it plays significance role to sustain user friendly environment by reducing waste and enhance energy efficiency & atom economy. It leads less hazardous chemicals that are easy to discard.

wound healing (1).pptx

Role of Biomaterials in wound healing. Recent Advancement in technologies replaces conventional ways of wound healing. Biomaterials play pivotal role in wound healing.

Ion exchange Chromatography as QC ^0 QA in diary Industry.pdf

A technical approach to evaluate phosphate contents in skim milk, acidified milk and in three different types of cheese.

Caffeine

Quantitative determination of caffeine in tea, chocolate products and in carbonated beverages by HPLC and fragmentation pattern of Caffeine by MS

A Brief Report on Green Natural Dyes Based on Color Index

A Brief Report on Green Natural Dyes Based on Color Index

Importance of Paraphrasing in research.pptx

Importance of Paraphrasing in research.pptx

Suzuki Reaction.pptx

Suzuki Reaction.pptx

HECk Reaction green vrs conventional.pptx

HECk Reaction green vrs conventional.pptx

Microbial fuel cell.pptx

Microbial fuel cell.pptx

Tunable Laser (1).pptx

Tunable Laser (1).pptx

3.pptxNMR sub topics

3.pptxNMR sub topics

sub topics of NMR 2.pptx

sub topics of NMR 2.pptx

sub topics of NMR.pptx

sub topics of NMR.pptx

Presentation.pptx. Green Chemistry and principal of green Chemistry

Presentation.pptx. Green Chemistry and principal of green Chemistry

wound healing (1).pptx

wound healing (1).pptx

Ion exchange Chromatography as QC ^0 QA in diary Industry.pdf

Ion exchange Chromatography as QC ^0 QA in diary Industry.pdf

Caffeine

Caffeine

Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf

Ozturkcan, S., Berndt, A., & Angelakis, A. (2024). Mending clothing to support sustainable fashion. Presented at the 31st Annual Conference by the Consortium for International Marketing Research (CIMaR), 10-13 Jun 2024, University of Gävle, Sweden.

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project PDF File

Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)

Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

We will metaverse into the essence of immersive learning, into its three dimensions and conceptual models. This approach encompasses elements from teaching methodologies to social involvement, through organizational concerns and technologies. Challenging the perception of learning as knowledge transfer, we introduce a 'Uses, Practices & Strategies' model operationalized by the 'Immersive Learning Brain' and ‘Immersion Cube’ frameworks. This approach offers a comprehensive guide through the intricacies of immersive educational experiences and spotlighting research frontiers, along the immersion dimensions of system, narrative, and agency. Our discourse extends to stakeholders beyond the academic sphere, addressing the interests of technologists, instructional designers, and policymakers. We span various contexts, from formal education to organizational transformation to the new horizon of an AI-pervasive society. This keynote aims to unite the iLRN community in a collaborative journey towards a future where immersive learning research and practice coalesce, paving the way for innovative educational research and practice landscapes.

Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms

Basics of crystallography

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Slides from talk:
Aleš Zamuda: Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE .
Austrian-Slovenian HPC Meeting 2024 – ASHPC24, Seeblickhotel Grundlsee in Austria, 10–13 June 2024
https://ashpc.eu/

11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf

Storagedeteriorationisanyformoflossinquantityandqualityofbio-materials.
Themajorcausesofdeteriorationinstorage
•Physical
•Biological
•Mechanical
•Chemical
Storageonlypreservesquality.Itneverimprovesquality.
Itisadvisabletostartstoragewithqualityfoodproduct.Productwithinitialpoorqualityquicklydepreciates

快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样

学校原件一模一样【微信：741003700 】《(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证》【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
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二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才

(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...

(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...Scintica Instrumentation

Targeting Hsp90 and its pathogen Orthologs with Tethered Inhibitors as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategy for cancer and infectious diseases with Dr. Timothy Haystead.The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

This is a short talk that I gave at the Banff International Research Station workshop on Modeling and Theory in Population Biology. The idea is to try to understand how the burden of natural selection relates to the amount of information that selection puts into the genome.
It's based on the first part of this research paper:
The cost of information acquisition by natural selection
Ryan Seamus McGee, Olivia Kosterlitz, Artem Kaznatcheev, Benjamin Kerr, Carl T. Bergstrom
bioRxiv 2022.07.02.498577; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.02.498577

Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf

InIndia-post-harvestlosses-unscientificstorage,insects,rodents,micro-organismsetc.,accountforabout10percentoftotalfoodgrains
Graininfestation
Directdamage
Indirectly
•theexuviae,skin,deadinsects
•theirexcretawhichmakefoodunfitforhumanconsumption
About600speciesofinsectshavebeenassociatedwithstoredgrainproducts
100speciesofinsectpestsofstoredproductscauseeconomiclosses

HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1

reproduction part 1
class 10 ncert

waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

The technology uses reclaimed CO₂ as the dyeing medium in a closed loop process. When pressurized, CO₂ becomes supercritical (SC-CO₂). In this state CO₂ has a very high solvent power, allowing the dye to dissolve easily.

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...Advanced-Concepts-Team

Presentation in the Science Coffee of the Advanced Concepts Team of the European Space Agency on the 07.06.2024.
Speaker: Diego Blas (IFAE/ICREA)
Title: Gravitational wave detection with orbital motion of Moon and artificial
Abstract:
In this talk I will describe some recent ideas to find gravitational waves from supermassive black holes or of primordial origin by studying their secular effect on the orbital motion of the Moon or satellites that are laser ranged.Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...

Thematic analysis in qualitative research is a time-consuming and systematic task, typically done using teams. Team members must ground their activities on common understandings of the major concepts underlying the thematic analysis, and define criteria for its development. However, conceptual misunderstandings, equivocations, and lack of adherence to criteria are challenges to the quality and speed of this process. Given the distributed and uncertain nature of this process, we wondered if the tasks in thematic analysis could be supported by readily available artificial intelligence chatbots. Our early efforts point to potential benefits: not just saving time in the coding process but better adherence to criteria and grounding, by increasing triangulation between humans and artificial intelligence. This tutorial will provide a description and demonstration of the process we followed, as two academic researchers, to develop a custom ChatGPT to assist with qualitative coding in the thematic data analysis process of immersive learning accounts in a survey of the academic literature: QUAL-E Immersive Learning Thematic Analysis Helper. In the hands-on time, participants will try out QUAL-E and develop their ideas for their own qualitative coding ChatGPT. Participants that have the paid ChatGPT Plus subscription can create a draft of their assistants. The organizers will provide course materials and slide deck that participants will be able to utilize to continue development of their custom GPT. The paid subscription to ChatGPT Plus is not required to participate in this workshop, just for trying out personal GPTs during it.

molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx

orthodontic topic

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young

The Milky Way’s (MW) inner stellar halo contains an [Fe/H]-rich component with highly eccentric orbits, often referred to as the
‘last major merger.’ Hypotheses for the origin of this component include Gaia-Sausage/Enceladus (GSE), where the progenitor
collided with the MW proto-disc 8–11 Gyr ago, and the Virgo Radial Merger (VRM), where the progenitor collided with the
MW disc within the last 3 Gyr. These two scenarios make different predictions about observable structure in local phase space,
because the morphology of debris depends on how long it has had to phase mix. The recently identified phase-space folds in Gaia
DR3 have positive caustic velocities, making them fundamentally different than the phase-mixed chevrons found in simulations
at late times. Roughly 20 per cent of the stars in the prograde local stellar halo are associated with the observed caustics. Based
on a simple phase-mixing model, the observed number of caustics are consistent with a merger that occurred 1–2 Gyr ago.
We also compare the observed phase-space distribution to FIRE-2 Latte simulations of GSE-like mergers, using a quantitative
measurement of phase mixing (2D causticality). The observed local phase-space distribution best matches the simulated data
1–2 Gyr after collision, and certainly not later than 3 Gyr. This is further evidence that the progenitor of the ‘last major merger’
did not collide with the MW proto-disc at early times, as is thought for the GSE, but instead collided with the MW disc within
the last few Gyr, consistent with the body of work surrounding the VRM.

Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx

ukaryotic Transcription Presentation and RNA Precessing

Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...

By harnessing the power of High Flux Vacuum Membrane Distillation, Travis Hills from MN envisions a future where clean and safe drinking water is accessible to all, regardless of geographical location or economic status.

The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects

Assuming spherical symmetry and weak field, it is shown that if one solves the Poisson equation or the Einstein field
equations sourced by a topological defect, i.e. a singularity of a very specific form, the result is a localized gravitational
field capable of driving flat rotation (i.e. Keplerian circular orbits at a constant speed for all radii) of test masses on a thin
spherical shell without any underlying mass. Moreover, a large-scale structure which exploits this solution by assembling
concentrically a number of such topological defects can establish a flat stellar or galactic rotation curve, and can also deflect
light in the same manner as an equipotential (isothermal) sphere. Thus, the need for dark matter or modified gravity theory is
mitigated, at least in part.

Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf

Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf

AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf

Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)

Sciences of Europe journal No 142 (2024)

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward

Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms

Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE

11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf

11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf

快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样

快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样

(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...

(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...

The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf

Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf

HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1

HOW DO ORGANISMS REPRODUCE?reproduction part 1

waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

waterlessdyeingtechnolgyusing carbon dioxide chemicalspdf

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...

ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...

Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...

Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...

molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx

molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young

Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx

Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx

Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...

Travis Hills of MN is Making Clean Water Accessible to All Through High Flux ...

The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects

The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects

- 2. The importance of water Important component of solutions Water quality, composition, and pH can drastically affect an experiment
- 3. Which water should I use? Tap water • Variable chemistry and purity Laboratory grade water • Reverse osmosis or distillation • Rinsing glassware, media preparation Reagent grade water • Filtration, deionization, and carbon adsorption • Most laboratory uses Other specialized types (dd, microfiltered, electrically deionized, etc.)
- 4. Solution terminology Solution: A mixture in which individual molecules or ions are dispersed in a liquid. Solvent: The liquid that makes up the majority of the solution. • e.g., water (aqueous solution) Solute: The minority component of the solution. Often a solid before mixing.
- 5. Measurements of concentration In almost all cases, these are amount of solute per volume of SOLUTION.* Weight-per-volume (e.g., mg/L) Percent (parts per hundred) PPT, PPM, PPB Molar solutions * [The exception is molal solutions (moles of solute per liter of solvent) but we will not discuss them further in this class.]
- 6. Weight-per-volume concentration g/L, µg/mL, etc. How to make up a 10 g/L aqueous solution: • Weigh out 10 g of the substance. • Put it in a vol. flask or grad. cylinder • Add water up to the 1 L mark. If you mix 1 L water with 10 g solute, then the total volume would be >1 L, and the concentration would be <10 g/L.
- 7. Percent (parts per hundred) w/w = grams per hundred grams total • (this applies to compounds in solid materials, too) v/v = mL per hundred mL solution w/v = g per hundred mL solution Example: to make 100 mL of 10% v/v methanol solution, use 10 mL methanol and add water to a total volume of 100 mL.
- 8. PPT, PPM, PPB Like percent, except more dilute • parts per thousand • parts per million • parts per billion 1 ppm = 1 µg/g = 1 µg/mL = 1 mg/L (1 g of water = 1 mL)
- 9. Molar (M) Solutions • 1 mole is 6x1023 molecules. • The mass of 1 mole of a compound is the molecular weight (MW) of that compound Definition: moles of solute per liter of solution • Volume desired • Concentration desired • Formula weight (FW) (FW = MW + water of hydration, if any) What you need to know:
- 10. A 1M solution is the FW of a substance in 1 liter of solution. Example 1: Make up 1 liter of 1M NaCl…
- 12. Example 2: Make up 400 ml of 0.25M NaCl Example 3: Make up 1L of 5mM NaH2PO4
- 13. Normal (N) solutions Definition: The molarity of hydrogen ion equivalents produced by a compound in solution. (Usually applies to acids/bases.) What does this mean? • For many chemicals the molarity and normality are the same • 1M HCl is the same composition as 1N HCl • Same for HNO3, HF, most organic acids (e.g. HCOOH)
- 14. Differences between molar and normal solutions occur when you are working with molecules with >1 exchangeable proton. • Sulfate, phosphate, carbonate • 18M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is 36N • There are 2 H+ ions (protons) per molecule • Multiply the molarity of a solution by the number of H+ to get normality • 5M phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is 15N
- 15. Dilution from one concentration to another C1V1=C2V2 C1 = initial concentration V1 = initial volume C2 = desired final concentration V2 = desired final volume
- 16. Examples You need 100 ml of 1M NaCl and you have a stock solution of 5M NaCl • What do you know? • C1 = 5M • C2 = 1M • V2 = 100ml • Answer … solve for V1 = C2V2/C1 • = 1M x 100 ml/5M = 20 ml of the stock
- 17. Making very dilute solutions When making very dilute solutions (micromolar concentrations, etc.) you may need to design a 2-step protocol. You can’t weigh out <10 mg easily. So use more, make a concentrated stock solution, and then dilute from the stock.
- 18. One other complication Sometimes a concentration is specified in terms of one element in the solution: Make up 1 L of 10 ppm Zn solution That would be 10 mg Zn per liter. But elemental Zn is an insoluble metal! Use zinc sulfate (heptahydrate) – ZnSO4 You’ll need to use more than 10 mg of zinc sulfate to get the 10 mg of zinc that you want. Multiply amount of zinc needed by the ratio of formula weight to atomic weight of Zn.
- 19. Special considerations for strong acids and bases SAFETY: Whenever possible, add acid to water, not water to acid. • Important primarily for very concentrated acids • Prevents splashing & over-heating of acid “Full-Strength” is not necessarily 100%. • Ex.: 100% HCl is a gas! The most concentrated liquid form is a 36% aqueous solution. • So when diluting to make 10% HCl, you are starting from 36%, not 100%. • Acid concentration chart
- 20. Practice problems 1. Describe how you would make up • 250 ml of 200 mM NaCl. • 250 ml of a 0.05M glucose solution • 10 ml of 10-5 M glucose solution starting from a 0.05 M stock solution 2. How many grams of acetic acid would you use to make 10L of a 0.1 M solution of acetic acid?
- 21. Practice problems 3. What volume of 10 M acetic acid is required to produce 1 liter of 0.5 M acetic acid? 4. Describe how to make a 2 N solution of sulfuric acid.
- 22. More Practice Problems For hints and answers to these problems go to: http://facweb.furman.edu/~apollard/bio22/solution_problems.htm Outline how you would prepare 250 ml of a 500 mM solution of potassium chloride. For this problem only, and not for those that follow, give complete details of what glassware you would use, and the mechanics of making the solution. How would you prepare 100 ml of a 5 µM solution of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)? Pete Paladin measures out 30 ml of 1M sucrose solution, and then adds water to make a total volume of one liter. What is the molarity of the final solution? Outline how you would prepare 1 liter of 10% lactic acid, from a bottle you would probably find in the laboratory supply cabinet. What extra step should you take as a safety precaution? Outline how you would prepare one liter of a solution of 5 ppm nickel. The chemical available to you is nickel chloride (NiCl2·6H20). What is the molarity of nickel in the 5 ppm solution prepared above?