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ROBOTIC SURGERY 
Abstract---- The field of surgery is entering a time of great change, spurred on by remarkable recent advances in surgical and computer technology. Only recently have robotic systems made their way into the operating room . It has various applications in gastrointestinal surgery, cardiothoracic , urology etc… By adapting this technology the surgical operations are made easy. 
Keywords---- da Vinci system – the da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system made by Intuitive Surgical and designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive ; Telesurgical— Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. ; neuroArm –microsurgical robot; CASPAR— robot to replace knee joints 
I. Introduction 
Robotic surgery a computer-assisted surgery . It is a technological development that currently used in surgical operations . leonardo da vinci was the one gave the idea that robots can be used in surgical operations . The computer translates the surgeon’s movements , which are then carried out on the patient by the robot . It was developed to overcome limitations of Minimally Invasive Surgery(MIS) where in the surgeon uses a computer console to manipulate the instruments attached to multiple robot arms. 
II. Robotic Surgery 
Fig. 1 Robot Hand and an Human Hand 
Robotic surgery procedure is similar to laparoscopic surgery . It also can be performed through smaller surgical cuts than traditional open surgery . Once it is placed in the abdomen , a robotic arm is easier for the surgeon to use than the instruments in endoscopic surgery. The robot reduces the surgeon’s movements (for example , moving 1/2 inch for every 1 inch the surgeon moves ), which reduces some of the hand tremors and movements that might otherwise make the surgery less precise. Also , robotic instruments can access hard-to-reach areas of your body more easily through smaller incisions compared to traditional open and laparoscopic surgery. 
III. Types of Robotic Surgery 
Following are the types of robotic surgery systems: 
A. Supervisory-Controlled systems 
The surgeon undertakes considerable preparation work , inputs data into the robotic system , plans the course of action , takes x-rays, tests the robot's motions, places the robot in the appropriate start position and oversees the robotic action to ensure everything goes as planned. Eg: Its commonly used in orthopedic surgeries. 
B. Telesurgical systems Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. It is a form of telepresence. Remote surgery combines elements of robotics, cutting edge communication technology such as high-speed data connections and elements of management information systems. While the field of robotic surgery is fairly well established, most of these robots are controlled by surgeons at the location of the surgery. Remote surgery is essentially advanced telecommuting for surgeons, where the physical distance between the surgeon and the patient is immaterial. It promises to allow the expertise of specialized surgeons to be available to patients worldwide, without the need for patients to travel beyond their local hospital. Eg: Artery repair and valve repair can be done without long recovery times or bodily injury. 
C. Shared-Control systems
In this system, the human does the bulk of the work, but the robot assists when needed. The robot provides stability and support . Safe regions are the main focus of the surgery. 
D. Robotic Radiosurgery Systems 
Robots are also used in delivering radiation for the treatment of tumors. These systems use robotics to control highly focused beams of ionizing radiation to precise locations within the body.. This reduces the risk of damage to surrounding tissue 
IV. Application 
A. Cardiothoracic Surgery 
It is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax . Endoscopic coronary artery bypass operations are being performed with the da Vinci system. Mitral valve repairs and replacements have also been performed 
B. Gastrointestinal Surgery 
Refers to a practise of surgery that focuses on the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Robotic approaches to Surgeries such as colon resection, pancreatectomy, esophagectomy have been performed. 
Fig. 2 Robotic Abdominal Surgery 
C. Neurosurgery 
Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. MD Robotic's NeuroArm is the world’s first Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI)- compatible surgical robo 
D. Orthopedics 
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. The Acrobot Company Ltd. sells the "Acrobot Sculptor", a robot that constrains a bone cutting tool to a pre-defined volume . Another example is the CASPAR robot produced by U.R.S.-Ortho GmbH & Co. KG , which is used for total hip replacement, total knee replacement and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. 
E. Pediatrics 
Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.Surgical robotics has been used in many types of pediatric surgical procedures including: tracheoesophageal fistula repair, cholecystectomy, nissen fundoplication, morgagni's hernia repair, kasai portoenterostomy, congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair, and others. The results are less pain , faster recoveries, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, and happier patients and families. 
F. Radiosurgery 
Radiosurgery is a medical procedure that allows non-invasive treatment of benign and malignant tumors. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System uses image guidance and computer controlled robotics to treat tumors throughout the body by delivering multiple beams of high-energy radiation to the tumor from virtually any direction. Mounting the radiation source on the robot allows very fast repositioning of the source , which enables the system to deliver radiation from many different directions without the need to move both the patient and source as required by current gantry configurations. 
G. Urology 
Urology is a medical and surgical specialty that deals with diseases of the urinary tract . Robotic surgery in the field of urology has become very popular , especially in the United States . It is also utilized for kidney cancer surgeries and to lesser extent surgeries of the bladder . New minimally invasive robotic devices include ultrasound probes for selective excisions of kidney tumors , steerable flexible needles for use in prostate brachytherapy. 
V. Benefits of Robotic Surgery
The most significant advantage of Robotic Surgery to the patient is the decrease in pain and scaring. It reduces trauma to the patient by allowing surgery to be performed through small ports or "keyholes" rather than large incisions , resulting in shorter recovery times , fewer complications and a reduced hospital stay. 
The patient may experience the following benefits 
1. Reduced trauma to the body 
2. Less anesthesia 
3. Often less blood loss and need for transfusions 
4. Less post-operative pain and discomfort 
5. Less risk of infection 
6. Shorter hospital stay 
The surgeons have the following benefits 
1. Enhanced 3-D Visualization 
2. Greater Surgical Precision 
3. Simplifies many existing MIS surgical techniques 
4. Makes difficult MIS operations routine 
VI. Complications of Robotic Surgery 
1. Flawed design 
2. Malfunction of hardware and software components 
3. misinterpretation and incorrect or inadequate specification 
4. increase in cost , complexity , or both 
VII. Conclusion: 
90% of the operation carried on by a robot is a successful. This idea is not yet famous because of high cost associated with it. Though some hospitals are implementing them in certain rare surgeries such as cardiothoracic surgery , gynecologic surgery, abdominal surgery etc… It’s a boon to the upcoming generations. 
Reference : 
[1] ROBODOC history. Robodoc.com. Retrieved on 29 November 2011. 
[2] The Robotic Surgeon Protomag.com. Retrieved on 29 November 2011.

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Robotic surgery

  • 1. ROBOTIC SURGERY Abstract---- The field of surgery is entering a time of great change, spurred on by remarkable recent advances in surgical and computer technology. Only recently have robotic systems made their way into the operating room . It has various applications in gastrointestinal surgery, cardiothoracic , urology etc… By adapting this technology the surgical operations are made easy. Keywords---- da Vinci system – the da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system made by Intuitive Surgical and designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive ; Telesurgical— Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. ; neuroArm –microsurgical robot; CASPAR— robot to replace knee joints I. Introduction Robotic surgery a computer-assisted surgery . It is a technological development that currently used in surgical operations . leonardo da vinci was the one gave the idea that robots can be used in surgical operations . The computer translates the surgeon’s movements , which are then carried out on the patient by the robot . It was developed to overcome limitations of Minimally Invasive Surgery(MIS) where in the surgeon uses a computer console to manipulate the instruments attached to multiple robot arms. II. Robotic Surgery Fig. 1 Robot Hand and an Human Hand Robotic surgery procedure is similar to laparoscopic surgery . It also can be performed through smaller surgical cuts than traditional open surgery . Once it is placed in the abdomen , a robotic arm is easier for the surgeon to use than the instruments in endoscopic surgery. The robot reduces the surgeon’s movements (for example , moving 1/2 inch for every 1 inch the surgeon moves ), which reduces some of the hand tremors and movements that might otherwise make the surgery less precise. Also , robotic instruments can access hard-to-reach areas of your body more easily through smaller incisions compared to traditional open and laparoscopic surgery. III. Types of Robotic Surgery Following are the types of robotic surgery systems: A. Supervisory-Controlled systems The surgeon undertakes considerable preparation work , inputs data into the robotic system , plans the course of action , takes x-rays, tests the robot's motions, places the robot in the appropriate start position and oversees the robotic action to ensure everything goes as planned. Eg: Its commonly used in orthopedic surgeries. B. Telesurgical systems Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. It is a form of telepresence. Remote surgery combines elements of robotics, cutting edge communication technology such as high-speed data connections and elements of management information systems. While the field of robotic surgery is fairly well established, most of these robots are controlled by surgeons at the location of the surgery. Remote surgery is essentially advanced telecommuting for surgeons, where the physical distance between the surgeon and the patient is immaterial. It promises to allow the expertise of specialized surgeons to be available to patients worldwide, without the need for patients to travel beyond their local hospital. Eg: Artery repair and valve repair can be done without long recovery times or bodily injury. C. Shared-Control systems
  • 2. In this system, the human does the bulk of the work, but the robot assists when needed. The robot provides stability and support . Safe regions are the main focus of the surgery. D. Robotic Radiosurgery Systems Robots are also used in delivering radiation for the treatment of tumors. These systems use robotics to control highly focused beams of ionizing radiation to precise locations within the body.. This reduces the risk of damage to surrounding tissue IV. Application A. Cardiothoracic Surgery It is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax . Endoscopic coronary artery bypass operations are being performed with the da Vinci system. Mitral valve repairs and replacements have also been performed B. Gastrointestinal Surgery Refers to a practise of surgery that focuses on the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Robotic approaches to Surgeries such as colon resection, pancreatectomy, esophagectomy have been performed. Fig. 2 Robotic Abdominal Surgery C. Neurosurgery Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. MD Robotic's NeuroArm is the world’s first Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI)- compatible surgical robo D. Orthopedics Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. The Acrobot Company Ltd. sells the "Acrobot Sculptor", a robot that constrains a bone cutting tool to a pre-defined volume . Another example is the CASPAR robot produced by U.R.S.-Ortho GmbH & Co. KG , which is used for total hip replacement, total knee replacement and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. E. Pediatrics Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.Surgical robotics has been used in many types of pediatric surgical procedures including: tracheoesophageal fistula repair, cholecystectomy, nissen fundoplication, morgagni's hernia repair, kasai portoenterostomy, congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair, and others. The results are less pain , faster recoveries, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, and happier patients and families. F. Radiosurgery Radiosurgery is a medical procedure that allows non-invasive treatment of benign and malignant tumors. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System uses image guidance and computer controlled robotics to treat tumors throughout the body by delivering multiple beams of high-energy radiation to the tumor from virtually any direction. Mounting the radiation source on the robot allows very fast repositioning of the source , which enables the system to deliver radiation from many different directions without the need to move both the patient and source as required by current gantry configurations. G. Urology Urology is a medical and surgical specialty that deals with diseases of the urinary tract . Robotic surgery in the field of urology has become very popular , especially in the United States . It is also utilized for kidney cancer surgeries and to lesser extent surgeries of the bladder . New minimally invasive robotic devices include ultrasound probes for selective excisions of kidney tumors , steerable flexible needles for use in prostate brachytherapy. V. Benefits of Robotic Surgery
  • 3. The most significant advantage of Robotic Surgery to the patient is the decrease in pain and scaring. It reduces trauma to the patient by allowing surgery to be performed through small ports or "keyholes" rather than large incisions , resulting in shorter recovery times , fewer complications and a reduced hospital stay. The patient may experience the following benefits 1. Reduced trauma to the body 2. Less anesthesia 3. Often less blood loss and need for transfusions 4. Less post-operative pain and discomfort 5. Less risk of infection 6. Shorter hospital stay The surgeons have the following benefits 1. Enhanced 3-D Visualization 2. Greater Surgical Precision 3. Simplifies many existing MIS surgical techniques 4. Makes difficult MIS operations routine VI. Complications of Robotic Surgery 1. Flawed design 2. Malfunction of hardware and software components 3. misinterpretation and incorrect or inadequate specification 4. increase in cost , complexity , or both VII. Conclusion: 90% of the operation carried on by a robot is a successful. This idea is not yet famous because of high cost associated with it. Though some hospitals are implementing them in certain rare surgeries such as cardiothoracic surgery , gynecologic surgery, abdominal surgery etc… It’s a boon to the upcoming generations. Reference : [1] ROBODOC history. Robodoc.com. Retrieved on 29 November 2011. [2] The Robotic Surgeon Protomag.com. Retrieved on 29 November 2011.