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International Research Journal        ISSN-0975-3486         VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4          RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097

                                       Research Paper—Education
                                     EDUCATIONAL ASPIRATION
                                   OF PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED
                                   CHILDREN – A comparative study
                                         *Ms. Nishat Fatema **Dr. Tripta Trivedi
 Dec.-09—Jan.-2010
       * Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Lucknow, Lucknow.
           ** Reader, Department of Education, University of Lucknow, Lucknow.
Today’s world is world of science and technology. The         and needs special treatment in school.
advancement in this field is affecting all the fields and          Exceptional children are classified into following
education is not an exception. The old aims and               groups :-
concepts are being replaced by new aims and concepts.              a) Mentally exceptional children. b) Emotionally
Today the emphasis is on the overall development of           exceptional children. c) Physically handicapped
an individual, giving him all the opportunities to            children. d) Socially handicapped children. e) Multi
develop to his fullest. Due to this view it is now realized   handicapped children.
that education is a concept philosophically evolved,               The present study is dealing with physically
psychologically developed and socially based. In the          handicapped children. An individual who is affected
words of Swami Vivekananda, “Education is the                 with a physical impairment that in any way, limits or
manifestation of the perfection that is already in man.”      inhibits his/her participation in normal activities may
It means that there is a self in man, which is self-          be referred to as physically handicapped.
contained and is a part of the universal reality. The              Physically handicapped persons are divided as –
purpose of education is to make man aware of this                  a) Visually handicapped. b) Orthopedically
cosmic power in him and enable him to draw this out to        handicapped. c) Speech handicapped. d) Acoustically
lead a complete life. The term education; however is          handicapped. The study is conducted on two type of
the deliberate and conscious efforts exerted by the           physically handicapped children. They are visually
state, society, school and home towards the welfare of        handicapped and deaf and dumb children. The visually
the growing child in order to mould him into a being          handicapped children are those who have problems
who will fit in the society in which he is to live.           with vision. Hearing impairment refers to a defect or
      It is universal truth that all children are different   damage to the hearing mechanism. Due to hearing
basically from each other physically, mentally,               impairment the child becomes unable to hear, speak
educationally and socially up to a limit. Exceptional         and acquire language. Thus, a child may become dumb
individuals are different both in their nature and kind       largely because he is deaf. The children with disability
of potentiality. The question thus arises, who are            show maladjustment within their peer group and also
exceptional children? To understand this it is necessary      with the society. They need special care and training
to first define exceptional children.                         to cope up with this problem. They should have real
      An exceptional child may be defined as one who          goal in their life as it will help them to adjust properly
deviates physically, intellectually and socially so           in the society. The present study is done to know the
market from normal growth and development that he             level of aspiration of visually and deaf and dumb
can not be benefited from regular classroom programme         children in educational field.

98
International Research Journal         ISSN-0975-3486        VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4         RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
      The concept of level of aspiration was developed        achievement.
Kurt Lewin. Level of Aspiration is the standard a person           Prakash, V. (1984) conducted a study of the
expects and hopes to reach in a given performance. It         factors affecting level of aspiration. He found in his
is the discrepancy between his achieved and stated            study that area and sex as single variable did not show
goals. It may be realistic in the sense that the person       any significant difference on the level of aspiration.
has a good chance of success or it may be unrealistic         Area, sex, risk-tasking and locus of control together
if his chance of reaching the stated goal is in doubt.        showed significant interaction on level of aspiration.
The factors which affect the level of aspiration are               Mathur, Abha (1985) conducted a comparative
success and failure, motivation, school environment,          study between crippled and normal children to check
past experiences, values, parental ambitions, culture         their adjustment problems, level of aspiration, self
etc.                                                          concept and academic achievement. The major finding
      Need of the study –The physically handicapped           was that significant differences were found between
children are the exceptional children. Though they are        crippled and normal children with respect to level of
exceptional children but they have the same                   aspiration measured in terms of goal discrepancy score.
characteristics as that of the normal children. The only           Suman, S. (1986) conducted a socio-
difference is that they lack the vision or hearing or         psychological study on female students to study their
speech power. Due to their differences the physically         goals and aspirations. The major findings are :
handicapped children have variations among them               unmarried girls had significantly higher educational
also. Hence they have certain limitations in their life. If   goals than married girls and father’s education,
they aspire without considering their limitations they        economic status, self concept of academic ability,
can become the victims of frustration and                     academic motivation had significant positive
maladjustment. Many a times the society compares              association with educational goals. The studies taken
the different physically handicapped children without         up so far are based on the level of aspiration of normal
considering their limitations and it results into higher      children. One study is taken up as a comparison
expectations and wrong setting of goals. Hence there          between crippled and normal children but no study
is a need to know the aspirations of these children and       has been conducted on the physically handicapped
also to compare different physically handicapped              children. Hence the investigator took this problem as
children, so that they can be directed into right             the study.
direction for their all round development and also for             Methodology - The present study is qualitative
the betterment of society and nation.                         descriptive research, which was qualitative methods
      Objectives of the study –1. To compare the              to describe what is, describing, recording, analyzing
educational aspirations of visually handicapped and           and interpreting conditions that exists. The survey
deaf and dumb children. 2. To compare the educational         method is used to study the level of aspiration of
aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb         physically handicapped children. Survey study are
boys. 3. To compare the educational aspirations of            conducted to collect detailed description of existing
visually handicapped and deaf and dumb girls.                 phenomena with the intent of employing data to justify
      Review of Related Literature – The following            current conditions. The dependent variable in the
research works were related to the study.                     study is level of aspiration and the independent
      Muthayya, B.C. (1960) conducted a study on              variable is physically handicapped children. The
adolescents to study the level of aspiration and its          sample in this study is group of 15 visually
relation to modes of reaction to frustration. The major       handicapped and 15 deaf and dumb children. The
findings were : aspiration was set above the past             sample was chosen by the purposive sampling method.
performance in all cases, the educational level had no        The tool used for collecting data was self made
influence over one’s aspiration level and there was           interview schedule and a formal interview was
negligible correlation between aspiration and school          conducted to record the data.

çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ                                                                                   99
International Research Journal      ISSN-0975-3486        VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4         RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
     Analysis and Interpretation – To analyse the data    Objective 1 - To compare the education aspirations
frequency and percentage were calculated. The of visually handicapped and deaf & dumb children.
findings are reported objective wise -
     Table 1 - Comparison of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb children wrt educational aspirations




     From the data obtained we can say that the level      deaf anddumb children have aspired only for class
of educational aspiration of visually handicapped          XII. The reason behind this is that, due to their
children are high in comparison to deaf and dumb           disability they lack behind in communication power.
children. Majority of visually handicapped children        This hinder them in finding new opportunities for
have aspired to complete graduation whereas deaf and       themselves. The atmosphere of their institutions is also
dumb have aspired to complete class XII. This              not so motivating as compared to visually handicapped
difference is because of their limitation. The visually    children. The teachers are also few hence they are not
handicapped children have the awareness of what is         able to give that much attention on the students. The
going around them. The gent proper guidance,               finding reveals that the visually handicapped children
motivation and care from their teachers and hence they     have high aspiration in comparison to deaf and dumb
are able to aspire to such an extent. The visually         children but both have realistic aspirations or which
handicapped children those who have aspired to study       could be achieved by them. Both have aspired
up to class XII are those who have come new to the         according to their potentialities.
institution and they are still adjusting with the change        Objective 2 – To compare the educational
and exploring new horizons. The children those who         aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf & dumb
have aspired very high i.e. they want to complete post     boys.
graduation have a good educational background. The
                Table 2 –Educational aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb boys.




100
International Research Journal         ISSN-0975-3486          VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4           RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097
     The findings reveal that the educational                   only for class XII and visually handicapped girls have
aspirations of visually handicapped boys are higher             aspired for graduation. The difference is due to their
than the deaf and dumb boys. The reason behind this             limitations and also because of their atmosphere. In
is that the factor which affects aspiration most is             majority of our families the emphasis is on the educa-
personality and communication skill. The more the               tion is a secondary issue The institutes of these spe-
interaction the more is aspiration. In this respect, the        cial children are less so the families are not able to
visually handicapped boys are more communicative                send them to the schools. The parents are in the view
with others but deaf and dumb boys are not so and               that they are getting their daughter educated so that
thus it causes an effect on their educational aspirations.      she may be able to read and write and not for voca-
The visually handicapped children lack behind only in           tional purposes. This low expectation from the par-
mobility. They have communication skill same as that            ents side also causes a hindrance in the educational
of normal children hence they can comprehend things             aspirations. The educational aspirations of visually
very easily. The deaf and dumb children have the main           handicapped girls are high as compared to deaf and
problem in their communication skill. They can                  dumb girls but both have realistic aspirations.
communicate with only those people who know the                      Conclusion – The educational aspirations of
sign language and that is know only by few people,              visually handicapped children are high as compared
hence their area for communication is confined. A               to the deaf and dumb children. But both have realistic
normal person feels handicapped in communicating                aspirations means that can be achieved by them. The
with them. The data shows that though the educational           have made aspirations keeping in view their limitations.
aspiration of deaf and dumb children are low with               The visually handicapped children have high
respect to visually handicapped but it is realistic.            aspirations as they have got an atmosphere which is
     Objective 3 –To compare the educational                    very supportive and motivating. The teachers and
aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb           parents are giving proper guidance and care which in
girls.                                                          makes them more self reliant and more prepared to face
     Table 3 – Educational aspirations of visually              the challenges of the live.
handicapped and deaf and dumb girls.                                 The deaf and dumb children lack the
                                                                communication skill. this make them less interactive.
                                                                Their limitation hinder them to comprehend the things
                                                                around them. The atmosphere which they get in their
                                                                school is not very motivating as compared to visually
                                                                handicapped children. The changes should be made
                                                                in the education system and a more encouraging and
     The findings shows that the educational aspira-            supportive environment should be provided by the
tions of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb girls           teachers and parents so that deaf and dumb children
are different. The deaf and dumb girls have aspired             could also aspire to their fullest.


R E F E R E N C E
     1. Best, J.W. and J.V. Kahn; (2004), “Research in Education”; New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. pp 61-63. 2.
Dash, M; (2003), “Education of Exceptional Children”; New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. pp 70-87 3. Mathur,
Abha; (1985); “A Comparative Study of the Adjustment Problems, Level of Aspiration, Self Concept & Academic Achievement
of Crippled and Normal Children” Fourth Survey of Research in Education, Vol. II pp. 1330-1331. 4. Muthayya, B.C. (1960) ;
“A study of Level of Aspiration and Its relation to Modes of Reaction to Frustration among Adolescents”; Third Survey of
Research in Education. p 381 5. Prakash, V. (1984); “A study of the factors affecting Level of Aspiration”; Fourth Survey of
Research in Education, Vol II pp. 414-415. 6. Suman, S. (1986); “Socio – psychological study of goals and Aspiration of Female
Students”; Fourth Survey of Research in Education Vol. I p 448

çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ                                                                                         101

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RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

  • 1. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 Research Paper—Education EDUCATIONAL ASPIRATION OF PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN – A comparative study *Ms. Nishat Fatema **Dr. Tripta Trivedi Dec.-09—Jan.-2010 * Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Lucknow, Lucknow. ** Reader, Department of Education, University of Lucknow, Lucknow. Today’s world is world of science and technology. The and needs special treatment in school. advancement in this field is affecting all the fields and Exceptional children are classified into following education is not an exception. The old aims and groups :- concepts are being replaced by new aims and concepts. a) Mentally exceptional children. b) Emotionally Today the emphasis is on the overall development of exceptional children. c) Physically handicapped an individual, giving him all the opportunities to children. d) Socially handicapped children. e) Multi develop to his fullest. Due to this view it is now realized handicapped children. that education is a concept philosophically evolved, The present study is dealing with physically psychologically developed and socially based. In the handicapped children. An individual who is affected words of Swami Vivekananda, “Education is the with a physical impairment that in any way, limits or manifestation of the perfection that is already in man.” inhibits his/her participation in normal activities may It means that there is a self in man, which is self- be referred to as physically handicapped. contained and is a part of the universal reality. The Physically handicapped persons are divided as – purpose of education is to make man aware of this a) Visually handicapped. b) Orthopedically cosmic power in him and enable him to draw this out to handicapped. c) Speech handicapped. d) Acoustically lead a complete life. The term education; however is handicapped. The study is conducted on two type of the deliberate and conscious efforts exerted by the physically handicapped children. They are visually state, society, school and home towards the welfare of handicapped and deaf and dumb children. The visually the growing child in order to mould him into a being handicapped children are those who have problems who will fit in the society in which he is to live. with vision. Hearing impairment refers to a defect or It is universal truth that all children are different damage to the hearing mechanism. Due to hearing basically from each other physically, mentally, impairment the child becomes unable to hear, speak educationally and socially up to a limit. Exceptional and acquire language. Thus, a child may become dumb individuals are different both in their nature and kind largely because he is deaf. The children with disability of potentiality. The question thus arises, who are show maladjustment within their peer group and also exceptional children? To understand this it is necessary with the society. They need special care and training to first define exceptional children. to cope up with this problem. They should have real An exceptional child may be defined as one who goal in their life as it will help them to adjust properly deviates physically, intellectually and socially so in the society. The present study is done to know the market from normal growth and development that he level of aspiration of visually and deaf and dumb can not be benefited from regular classroom programme children in educational field. 98
  • 2. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 The concept of level of aspiration was developed achievement. Kurt Lewin. Level of Aspiration is the standard a person Prakash, V. (1984) conducted a study of the expects and hopes to reach in a given performance. It factors affecting level of aspiration. He found in his is the discrepancy between his achieved and stated study that area and sex as single variable did not show goals. It may be realistic in the sense that the person any significant difference on the level of aspiration. has a good chance of success or it may be unrealistic Area, sex, risk-tasking and locus of control together if his chance of reaching the stated goal is in doubt. showed significant interaction on level of aspiration. The factors which affect the level of aspiration are Mathur, Abha (1985) conducted a comparative success and failure, motivation, school environment, study between crippled and normal children to check past experiences, values, parental ambitions, culture their adjustment problems, level of aspiration, self etc. concept and academic achievement. The major finding Need of the study –The physically handicapped was that significant differences were found between children are the exceptional children. Though they are crippled and normal children with respect to level of exceptional children but they have the same aspiration measured in terms of goal discrepancy score. characteristics as that of the normal children. The only Suman, S. (1986) conducted a socio- difference is that they lack the vision or hearing or psychological study on female students to study their speech power. Due to their differences the physically goals and aspirations. The major findings are : handicapped children have variations among them unmarried girls had significantly higher educational also. Hence they have certain limitations in their life. If goals than married girls and father’s education, they aspire without considering their limitations they economic status, self concept of academic ability, can become the victims of frustration and academic motivation had significant positive maladjustment. Many a times the society compares association with educational goals. The studies taken the different physically handicapped children without up so far are based on the level of aspiration of normal considering their limitations and it results into higher children. One study is taken up as a comparison expectations and wrong setting of goals. Hence there between crippled and normal children but no study is a need to know the aspirations of these children and has been conducted on the physically handicapped also to compare different physically handicapped children. Hence the investigator took this problem as children, so that they can be directed into right the study. direction for their all round development and also for Methodology - The present study is qualitative the betterment of society and nation. descriptive research, which was qualitative methods Objectives of the study –1. To compare the to describe what is, describing, recording, analyzing educational aspirations of visually handicapped and and interpreting conditions that exists. The survey deaf and dumb children. 2. To compare the educational method is used to study the level of aspiration of aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb physically handicapped children. Survey study are boys. 3. To compare the educational aspirations of conducted to collect detailed description of existing visually handicapped and deaf and dumb girls. phenomena with the intent of employing data to justify Review of Related Literature – The following current conditions. The dependent variable in the research works were related to the study. study is level of aspiration and the independent Muthayya, B.C. (1960) conducted a study on variable is physically handicapped children. The adolescents to study the level of aspiration and its sample in this study is group of 15 visually relation to modes of reaction to frustration. The major handicapped and 15 deaf and dumb children. The findings were : aspiration was set above the past sample was chosen by the purposive sampling method. performance in all cases, the educational level had no The tool used for collecting data was self made influence over one’s aspiration level and there was interview schedule and a formal interview was negligible correlation between aspiration and school conducted to record the data. çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 99
  • 3. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 &4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 Analysis and Interpretation – To analyse the data Objective 1 - To compare the education aspirations frequency and percentage were calculated. The of visually handicapped and deaf & dumb children. findings are reported objective wise - Table 1 - Comparison of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb children wrt educational aspirations From the data obtained we can say that the level deaf anddumb children have aspired only for class of educational aspiration of visually handicapped XII. The reason behind this is that, due to their children are high in comparison to deaf and dumb disability they lack behind in communication power. children. Majority of visually handicapped children This hinder them in finding new opportunities for have aspired to complete graduation whereas deaf and themselves. The atmosphere of their institutions is also dumb have aspired to complete class XII. This not so motivating as compared to visually handicapped difference is because of their limitation. The visually children. The teachers are also few hence they are not handicapped children have the awareness of what is able to give that much attention on the students. The going around them. The gent proper guidance, finding reveals that the visually handicapped children motivation and care from their teachers and hence they have high aspiration in comparison to deaf and dumb are able to aspire to such an extent. The visually children but both have realistic aspirations or which handicapped children those who have aspired to study could be achieved by them. Both have aspired up to class XII are those who have come new to the according to their potentialities. institution and they are still adjusting with the change Objective 2 – To compare the educational and exploring new horizons. The children those who aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf & dumb have aspired very high i.e. they want to complete post boys. graduation have a good educational background. The Table 2 –Educational aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb boys. 100
  • 4. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 VOL. I * ISSUE—3&4 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/30097 The findings reveal that the educational only for class XII and visually handicapped girls have aspirations of visually handicapped boys are higher aspired for graduation. The difference is due to their than the deaf and dumb boys. The reason behind this limitations and also because of their atmosphere. In is that the factor which affects aspiration most is majority of our families the emphasis is on the educa- personality and communication skill. The more the tion is a secondary issue The institutes of these spe- interaction the more is aspiration. In this respect, the cial children are less so the families are not able to visually handicapped boys are more communicative send them to the schools. The parents are in the view with others but deaf and dumb boys are not so and that they are getting their daughter educated so that thus it causes an effect on their educational aspirations. she may be able to read and write and not for voca- The visually handicapped children lack behind only in tional purposes. This low expectation from the par- mobility. They have communication skill same as that ents side also causes a hindrance in the educational of normal children hence they can comprehend things aspirations. The educational aspirations of visually very easily. The deaf and dumb children have the main handicapped girls are high as compared to deaf and problem in their communication skill. They can dumb girls but both have realistic aspirations. communicate with only those people who know the Conclusion – The educational aspirations of sign language and that is know only by few people, visually handicapped children are high as compared hence their area for communication is confined. A to the deaf and dumb children. But both have realistic normal person feels handicapped in communicating aspirations means that can be achieved by them. The with them. The data shows that though the educational have made aspirations keeping in view their limitations. aspiration of deaf and dumb children are low with The visually handicapped children have high respect to visually handicapped but it is realistic. aspirations as they have got an atmosphere which is Objective 3 –To compare the educational very supportive and motivating. The teachers and aspirations of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb parents are giving proper guidance and care which in girls. makes them more self reliant and more prepared to face Table 3 – Educational aspirations of visually the challenges of the live. handicapped and deaf and dumb girls. The deaf and dumb children lack the communication skill. this make them less interactive. Their limitation hinder them to comprehend the things around them. The atmosphere which they get in their school is not very motivating as compared to visually handicapped children. The changes should be made in the education system and a more encouraging and The findings shows that the educational aspira- supportive environment should be provided by the tions of visually handicapped and deaf and dumb girls teachers and parents so that deaf and dumb children are different. The deaf and dumb girls have aspired could also aspire to their fullest. R E F E R E N C E 1. Best, J.W. and J.V. Kahn; (2004), “Research in Education”; New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. pp 61-63. 2. Dash, M; (2003), “Education of Exceptional Children”; New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. pp 70-87 3. Mathur, Abha; (1985); “A Comparative Study of the Adjustment Problems, Level of Aspiration, Self Concept & Academic Achievement of Crippled and Normal Children” Fourth Survey of Research in Education, Vol. II pp. 1330-1331. 4. Muthayya, B.C. (1960) ; “A study of Level of Aspiration and Its relation to Modes of Reaction to Frustration among Adolescents”; Third Survey of Research in Education. p 381 5. Prakash, V. (1984); “A study of the factors affecting Level of Aspiration”; Fourth Survey of Research in Education, Vol II pp. 414-415. 6. Suman, S. (1986); “Socio – psychological study of goals and Aspiration of Female Students”; Fourth Survey of Research in Education Vol. I p 448 çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 101