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TRANSLATION
IN
PROKARYOTES
Dr. Priya Trivedi
M.Sc.(BOTANY), M.Ed., Ph.D.(BOTANY)
Asst.Prof.
at
Compfeeder Aisect College of Professional Studies, Indore
L
pl
L
pl
Requirement of translation :-
1. m RNA
2. t RNA
3. Ribosome
4. Accessory protein
Initiation factors – IF1, IF2 , IF3.
Elongation factors – Ef-tu, Ef-ts, Ef-G.
Termination factors – RF1, RF2, RF3.
5. Energy requirement – From GTP & ATP
hydrolysis.
GTP – Ribosome movement , binding of
accessory factors.
ATP – Charging of t RNA & removing secondary
structure from m RNA .
The actual process of protein synthesis occur in
the following steps : -
STEP I.
 Activation of amino acid using ATP : -
(a) Amino acid + ATP + Enzyme Aminoacid – ATP – Enzyme complex
(b) Aminoacid – ATP – Enzyme Amino – acyl – AMP – Enzyme complex
comlpex + p p
STEP II.
 Amino acid binds to its respective t RNA :-
Amino acyl – AMP – Enzyme complex AMP + E
t RNA Aminoacyl – t RNA
(Formation of Polypeptide Chain)
Binding of small ribosomal subunit (30s) with m
RNA.
 Small ribosomal sub unit which is loaded with
IF1, IF3 , & IF2 complex & GTP binds to
Shine – Dalgarno sequence (5’ – AGGAGGU – 3 ’)
at 5’ end of mRNA.
 Small subunit migrates downstream in 3’ direction
to find out AUG, the initiation codon. It codes for
amino acid methionine.
Binding of formylated methionine t RNA to AUG
codon. IF3 is released . It is called initiation compex.
Association of large ribosomal subunit with initiation
Complex.
F1 & IF2 are released & GTP is hydrolysied to GDP.
IF
3
IF
1
IF
3
IF
2
IF
1
IF
2
IF
3
IF
1
IF
2
IF
1
GTP
GTP
MET
GTP
GTP
MET
IF
2
5’
5’
3’
3’
mRNA
mRNA
P site containing
charged t RNA
Empty A site
aa – tRNA/GTP/Ef-Tu comlpex
Charged tRNA
binds to A site
aa – tRNA/GTP/Ef-Tu comlpex
Charged tRNA
binds to A site
Ef – Tu/GDP complex
Peptidyl transferase
( reaction is catalyzed by a
complex enzyme )
tRNA deacylase
( breaks the link between
methionine and its t RNA )
Ef – Tu/GDP complex
Peptidyl transferase
tRNA deacylase
Ef – G/GTP complex
Translocation
(Ribosome moves to next
codon)
Ef – G/GTP complex
Translocation
GDP
ELONGATION
The complex ribosome contains 2 binding sites
positioned to 2 codons of m RNA.
These are :-
• P- site (peptidyl site)
•A- site (aminoacyl site)
The P – site is positioned to initiation codon AUG
which is occupied by methione t RNA complex &
A – site is empty.
Elongation begins with the entry of another t RNA
carrying aminoacid to A – site . Anticodon of this
t RNA should base pair with 2nd codon .
When both sites are occupied with charged t RNA,
two aminoacid are placed in close contact & a
peptide bond is formed between carboxyl group of
methionine & amino group of second amino acid.
The reaction is catalysed by enzyme peptidyl
Transfarase.
Another enzyme t RNA deacylase breaks the link
between methionine & its t RNA after formation of
peptide bond.
Some accessory proteins called elongation factors
( Ef ) are required for elongation process.
These are – Ef – Tu & Ef – Ts.
Ef – Tu is associated with entry of t RNA into
A – site. It binds charged t RNA in association with
GTP.
Following entry to A – site GTP is hydrolysised &
Ef – Tu is released bound to GDP .
Ef – Ts is regenerated with the help of Ef – Ts .
Ef – Ts binds Ef – Tu displacing GDP & then new
GTP molecule replace Ef – Ts .
Ef – Ts is regenerated with the help of Ef – Ts.
Ef – Ts binds Ef – Tu displacing GDP & then
new GTP molecule replace Ef – Ts.
Following peptide bond formation Translocation
occurs & ribosome moves to the next codon.
The newly formed dipeptide bound to 2nd t RNA
Moves to P – site expelling the uncharged t RNA
& the site A becomes vacant.
Now a third charged t RNA enters the A – site &
Elongated cycle is repeated .
In this way ribosome translocates towards the 3’ end
transcribing m RNA .
The free 5’ end of m RNA is occupied successively
by another ribosomal units.
The structure thus formed is called polysome /
polyribosome.
Termination
Translation ends when a termination codon enters the
A – site. There are no tRNA to bind the termination
Codons. Instead of t RNA some protein called
release factor (RF) enter the A – site & cause the
completed polypeptide to be released.
In bacteria Rf – 1 & Rf – 2 perform this function .
Rf – 1 recognizes UAA & UAG stop signals.
Rf – 2 recognizes UAA & UGA.
Rf – 3 plays an ancillary role in the process.
RF1 OR 2, RF3
TERMINATION
CODON
H2O Peptidyltransferase
m RNA is released
ribosome dissociates
t RNA RF1/2 , RF3
small
subunit
LARGE
SUBUNIT
m RNA is released
ribosome dissociates
t RNA RF1/2 , RF3
Translation by Dr. Priya
Translation by Dr. Priya
Translation by Dr. Priya

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Translation by Dr. Priya

  • 1. TRANSLATION IN PROKARYOTES Dr. Priya Trivedi M.Sc.(BOTANY), M.Ed., Ph.D.(BOTANY) Asst.Prof. at Compfeeder Aisect College of Professional Studies, Indore
  • 3. Requirement of translation :- 1. m RNA 2. t RNA 3. Ribosome 4. Accessory protein Initiation factors – IF1, IF2 , IF3. Elongation factors – Ef-tu, Ef-ts, Ef-G. Termination factors – RF1, RF2, RF3. 5. Energy requirement – From GTP & ATP hydrolysis. GTP – Ribosome movement , binding of accessory factors. ATP – Charging of t RNA & removing secondary structure from m RNA .
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  • 5. The actual process of protein synthesis occur in the following steps : -
  • 6. STEP I.  Activation of amino acid using ATP : - (a) Amino acid + ATP + Enzyme Aminoacid – ATP – Enzyme complex (b) Aminoacid – ATP – Enzyme Amino – acyl – AMP – Enzyme complex comlpex + p p STEP II.  Amino acid binds to its respective t RNA :- Amino acyl – AMP – Enzyme complex AMP + E t RNA Aminoacyl – t RNA
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  • 9. Binding of small ribosomal subunit (30s) with m RNA.  Small ribosomal sub unit which is loaded with IF1, IF3 , & IF2 complex & GTP binds to Shine – Dalgarno sequence (5’ – AGGAGGU – 3 ’) at 5’ end of mRNA.  Small subunit migrates downstream in 3’ direction to find out AUG, the initiation codon. It codes for amino acid methionine.
  • 10. Binding of formylated methionine t RNA to AUG codon. IF3 is released . It is called initiation compex. Association of large ribosomal subunit with initiation Complex. F1 & IF2 are released & GTP is hydrolysied to GDP.
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  • 13. P site containing charged t RNA Empty A site aa – tRNA/GTP/Ef-Tu comlpex Charged tRNA binds to A site
  • 14. aa – tRNA/GTP/Ef-Tu comlpex Charged tRNA binds to A site Ef – Tu/GDP complex Peptidyl transferase ( reaction is catalyzed by a complex enzyme ) tRNA deacylase ( breaks the link between methionine and its t RNA )
  • 15. Ef – Tu/GDP complex Peptidyl transferase tRNA deacylase Ef – G/GTP complex Translocation (Ribosome moves to next codon)
  • 16. Ef – G/GTP complex Translocation GDP
  • 17. ELONGATION The complex ribosome contains 2 binding sites positioned to 2 codons of m RNA. These are :- • P- site (peptidyl site) •A- site (aminoacyl site) The P – site is positioned to initiation codon AUG which is occupied by methione t RNA complex & A – site is empty. Elongation begins with the entry of another t RNA carrying aminoacid to A – site . Anticodon of this t RNA should base pair with 2nd codon .
  • 18. When both sites are occupied with charged t RNA, two aminoacid are placed in close contact & a peptide bond is formed between carboxyl group of methionine & amino group of second amino acid. The reaction is catalysed by enzyme peptidyl Transfarase. Another enzyme t RNA deacylase breaks the link between methionine & its t RNA after formation of peptide bond.
  • 19. Some accessory proteins called elongation factors ( Ef ) are required for elongation process. These are – Ef – Tu & Ef – Ts. Ef – Tu is associated with entry of t RNA into A – site. It binds charged t RNA in association with GTP. Following entry to A – site GTP is hydrolysised & Ef – Tu is released bound to GDP . Ef – Ts is regenerated with the help of Ef – Ts . Ef – Ts binds Ef – Tu displacing GDP & then new GTP molecule replace Ef – Ts .
  • 20. Ef – Ts is regenerated with the help of Ef – Ts. Ef – Ts binds Ef – Tu displacing GDP & then new GTP molecule replace Ef – Ts. Following peptide bond formation Translocation occurs & ribosome moves to the next codon. The newly formed dipeptide bound to 2nd t RNA Moves to P – site expelling the uncharged t RNA & the site A becomes vacant.
  • 21. Now a third charged t RNA enters the A – site & Elongated cycle is repeated . In this way ribosome translocates towards the 3’ end transcribing m RNA . The free 5’ end of m RNA is occupied successively by another ribosomal units. The structure thus formed is called polysome / polyribosome.
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  • 23. Termination Translation ends when a termination codon enters the A – site. There are no tRNA to bind the termination Codons. Instead of t RNA some protein called release factor (RF) enter the A – site & cause the completed polypeptide to be released. In bacteria Rf – 1 & Rf – 2 perform this function . Rf – 1 recognizes UAA & UAG stop signals. Rf – 2 recognizes UAA & UGA. Rf – 3 plays an ancillary role in the process.
  • 24. RF1 OR 2, RF3 TERMINATION CODON
  • 26. m RNA is released ribosome dissociates t RNA RF1/2 , RF3
  • 27. small subunit LARGE SUBUNIT m RNA is released ribosome dissociates t RNA RF1/2 , RF3