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TERM
1. Habitat –
2. Habit –
3. Root-
4. Stem –
5. Leaf –
6. Inflorescence –
7. Flower –
8. Calyx –
9. Corolla –
10. Androecium –
11. Gynoecium –
12. Floral Formula –
13. Floral Diagram –
Wild / Ornamental / Cultivated
Plant type
(Habit)
Herb -
Green, usually low, soft
with annual aboveground
stems..
Shrub –
Much – branched woody
perennial plant, usually
without a single trunk.
Liana or vine –
An elongated, weak – stemmed,
often climbing annual or
perennial plant, with herbaceous
or woody texture .
Tree –
A tall, woody perennial
plant usually with a single
trunk.
If Herbs
Annuals –
Living one year of
less .
eg. Mustard,
Pea, Wheat and
Gram Tridax.
Perennials –
Alive for several years.
These plants usually bears
flowers and fruits every
year and do not die after
producing flowers.
e. g. Onion.
Biennials –
Complete their life cycle
in two years- growing,
vegetative and storing
food in the first year,
flowering and fruiting in
the second year.
e.g. Radish, turnip,
carrot.
TYPES OF ROOTS
Tap root :
It develops from radicle and made up of one
main branch and other sub branches.
The primary roots and its branches
constitute tap root system.
e.g. Dicot roots.
Adventitious roots :
In some plants, after sometime of the growth of tap
root which arises from radicle, stops and then
roots, develop from other part of plant, which are
branched or unbranched, fibrous or storage, are
known as adventitious roots and constitute fibrous
root system.
e.g. Monocot roots.
Stem
Aerial
Underground e.g.
Rhizome – ginger
Tuber – potato
Bulb – onion
Corm - gladiolus
Stem
Erect
If Weak
Prostate - Basella
Twinner - Cuscuta
Climber – Pisum sativum
Stem
Branched
e.g. Hibiscus rosa -sinensis
e.g. Calotropis
Unbranched
e.g. Palms
Stem
Herbaceous
e.g. Labiatae
Woody
e. g. China rose
Stem
Cylindrical
e.g. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Angulular
e.g. Tulsi
Stem
Smooth Rough
Hairy
e.g.
Tridax,
Calotropis
Spiny Waxy
Special feature– Presence of latex.
Cauline
• Leaf arising only on
the main axis
• e.g. Palm.
Ramal
• Leaves are found on
lateral branches
• eg. Delbergia,
• Zizypus.
Radical
• Leaves which arise from
a reduced underground
stem
• e.g. Onion.
Cauline&
Ramal
e.g. Mango,
Tamarind,
Tridax.
b. Phyllotaxy – Arrangement of leaves on
main
stem or branches.
Alternate
or
Spiral
•a single leaf arises at
each node in alternate
manner, as in China
rose, Mustard and sun
flower plants
Opposite
Decussate or
Superposed
•a pair of leaves arise at
each node and lie
opposite to each other
as in Calotropis, Tridax
and Guava plants.
Whorled
•If more than two leaves
arise at a node and
form a whorl, it is
called whorled, as in
Alstonia.
Calotropis Guava
c . Stipules / exstipulate :
Stipules - Leaves of some plants have lateral
appendages on either side of leaf base. If stipules
are present in leaf it is called stipulate leaf.
Exstipulate - If absent.
Stipules
Stipules
present on
both sides of
leaf base.
e.g. china
rose
Stipules form
a leaf like
structure.
eg. pisum
Two stipules
lying
between the
petioles of
opposite or
whorled
leaves
Both stipules
are attached
with petiole.
e.g. Rose
Stipules
modified into
spine.
eg. Zizyphus
(Beri), Acacia
Stipules are
modified into
tendrils like
structure.
eg. Smilax
Free lateral Foliaceous Adnate Spiny TendrillarInter/intra
petioler
d. Petiolate / Sessile/Subsessile –
Petiole – Is the part of leaf connecting the lamina with the
branch or stem.
Leaf is called sessile when there is no petiole e.g. Calotropis,
Wheat, rice.
Petiole bearing leaves are known as Petiolate e.g. Peepal,
Mango, Hibiscus, Rose.
e. TYPES OF LEAF
Simple and Compound Leaf
Simple Leaf –Single lamina usually entire. (Continous lamina)
e.g. Mango, China rose, Guava , etc.
Compound leaf – Lamina broken and form small leaflets.
Palmately
compound
leaf
UNIFOLIATE-
Single leaflet is
found.
e.g. Lemon
BIFOLIATE-
Two leaflets are
present.
e.g. Bauhinia
TRIFOLIATE-
Three leaflets
are attached.
e.g. Oxalis
TETRAFOLIATE
-Four leaflets are
attached to the
petiole.
e.g. Marsilea
MULTIFOLIATE
-More than four
leaflet are found
e.g.Silkcotton.
Leaf lets attached at the tip of the petiole ,
thus seem to be radiating from a common
point.
(like fingers from the palm )
Pinnately
compound leaf
UNIPINNATE : Bearing
the leaflets directly
attached on both sides of
rachis.
PARIPINNATE : Even
IMPARIPINNATE:
Odd
e.g. Cassia fistula,
Tridax..
BIPINNATE : Twice
pinnate compound
leaf
eg. Acacia,
Gulmohar, Mimosa.
TRIPINNATE :
Thrice pinnate
compound leaf
eg. Moringa.
DECOMPOUND :
More than thrice
pinnate
eg. Carrot,
Coriander.
In this type of leaf mid rib is known
as rachis. Leaflets are arranged on
both sides of rachis. eg. Neem
f. Shape of Leaf
BANYANPINUS RICE NERIUM
GUAVA
BANANA
LOTUS
BETEL SAGITTARIA IPOMEA
g. Leaf Apex
A) MANGO,
CHINA ROSE
B) FICUS,
PEEPAL
C) BANYAN D )VINCA ROSA,
IXORA
J) KACHNAR
h. Leaf Margin
A) BANYAN
B) POLYALTHIA
C) CHINA ROSE
J) ARGEMONE
i. Leaf Base
A)BANYAN, GULMOHAR, TAMRINDUS B) BANANA, SUGARCANE
C) CROTOLARIA D) POLYGONUM
j. Leaf Surface
• Glaucous
• Green & Shining e.g. citrus.
• Glabrous
• Smooth surface free from hairs e.g. china rose.
• Hairy
• Covered with hairs.e.g. Tridax
• Spiny
• Covered with spines e.g. Argemone.
k.Venation – The arrangement of veins
and veinlets in leaves (Lamina).
VENATION
Reticulate –
Main vein divided
into various
branches (veinlets)
and form a net like
structure
Unicostate –
eg. Mango,
guava,
Peepal,
Multicostate
Divergent –
e.g Cucurbita,
grape
Convergent –
e.g China
rose, plum.
Parallel –
All veins run
parallel to each
other and they do
not from network
Unicostate –
e.g Banana,
Ginger,
Multicostate
Divergent –
e.g Coconut,
Date palm
Convergent-
e.g.Wheat,
Sugar-cane,
Bamboo
Inflorescence - Arrangement of flower on floral axis
or
a cluster of flowers, all flowers arising from the main stem axis or
peduncle.
Types of Inflorescence :-
Solitary terminal flower of
Poppy
Solitary axillary flower of
China - rose
Solitary flower
• The main axis continues to
grow and does not terminate
in a flower and give off
flower laterally in acropetal
manner where old flowers
are arranged toward base
and young flowers are at tip.
Racemose
( = Indefinite)
• The peduncle terminate in a
flower. In it the older
flowers are present at tip and
young buds are arranged
towards base. This
arrangement is called
basipetal succession.
CYMOSE
( = Definite)
SPECIAL TYPE OF
INFLORESCENCE
acropetal manner basipetal manner
RACEME
Unbranched, indeterminate
inflorescence with pedicelled
flowers.
e.g. Radish, characteristic feature
of cruciferae family, Musturd
SPIKE
Unbranched, indeterminate
inflorescence with sessile flower.
e.g. Achyranthes
RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Elongated
RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Elongated
SPADIX
Unbranched, inderminate inflorescence with flowers embedded in the
rachis.
(Peduncle is thick, long and fleshy and have small sessile and unisexual male and female
flowers covered with one or more green or colourful bracts known as spathe.)
e.g. Colocasia
CORYMB
A flat – topped or convex indeterminate
cluster of flower.
(In it peduncle is short and all flowers are
present at same level because the lower
flower has much long pedicel than the
upper one .)
e.g. Candytuft (Iberis amara).
UMBEL
A determinate or indeterminate flat –
topped or convex inflorescence with the
pedicels arising at a common point.
(An inflorescence in which the flower
stalks of different flowers are of more or
less equal length, arise from the same
point. At the base of flowers stalks, there
is whorl of bracts forming the involucre)
e.g. Centella
RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Shortened
Capitulum (HEAD) : e.g. - Composite family
1. Receptacle is flattened.
2. Each flower contain bract.
3. Whole cluster of florets surrounded by a whorl bracts
collectively called Involucre.
4. Flower are sessile and grouped closely.
5. Two kinds of floret - a) Ray floret b) Disc floret.
6. Ray floret – Arranged on rim of receptacle,
yellow color, female or sterile, zygomorphic.
7. Disc floret – Groped in the center and are bisexual, actinomorphic.
RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Flattened
Globose head or capitate in Acacia
CYMOSE
Uniparous cyme / Monochasial cyme –
The peduncle ending in a flower producing lateral
branch at a time of ending in flower.
It is of two types -
Helicoid cyme –
A determinate infloresence in which the branches
develop on one side only, appearing simple.
eg. Heliotropium, Saraca, Atropa, Datura.
Scorpioid cyme –
A zigzag determinateForming zigzag.
eg. Bignonia, Ranunculus bulbosus.
CYMOSE
Dichasial or biparous cyme –
A determinate infloresence in which the main axis ends in a flower after
producing two daughter axis of flower ( older in the center ) .
eg. Bougainvillea, Jasmine, Teak, Mirabilis, Dianthus, Nyctanthes.
Multiparous cyme / polychasial –
Producing number of daughter axis or flower around.
In it peduncle ends in a flower and from the base of it many lateral
branches arise which also terminates in flower, this arrangement now
also occur on these lateral branches.
e.g. Calotropis (Madar), Nerium, Asclepias, Hamelia.
SPECIAL TYPE OF INFLORESCENCE
CYATHIUM –
• Cup – shaped involucre, often provided with nectary, encloses a single
female flower ( reduced to pistil ) in the center and a number of male flower
(each reduced to a solitary stamen ) around it.
found in Euphorbiaceae family like Euphorbia, Poinsettia, Pedilanthus.
Hypoanthodium–
• In it peduncle is modified in narrow cup like structure.
At the base of cup female flowers develop while towards mouth male
flower develops.
All three types of flowers are present in this inflorescence.
e.g. Banyan, Peepal, Ficus species.
VERTICILLASTER –
• Dichasial cyme.
•. Main axis two opposite bracts at each node.
• Axil of each bract arises a large flower on the sides of which are borne two
smaller flower .
• After this Dihasial cyme changes into monochasial cyme scorpoid type.
• One cluster there are 7 flower in all . e..g. Ocimum.
• A typical flower consists of 4 sets of floral leaves.
1)Calyx :- Group of sepals. Outer whorl (First whorl) commonly green and helps in protection.
2) Corolla :- Group of petals. Second whorl, general coloured and helps in attraction.
3) Androecium :- Group of stamens. Third whorl, represents male sex organs.
4) gynoecium :- Group of carpels. Fourth whorl, represents female sex organs.
• Calyx and corolla : Commonly called perianth, Non-essential organs. .
• Androecium and gynoecium : Commonly called essential organs.
• Bract:-Specialized leaves produce
flowers.
• Bracteoles :- Small leaf like structures
present on the pedicel.
• Bracteate (Br):- Bracts present.
• Ebracteate (Ebr):- Bracts are absent.
• Bracteolate(Brl):-Bracteoles present.
• Ebracteolate (Ebrl):- Bracteoles absent.
• Pedicellate:- Flower with pedicel.
• Sessile:- Flower without pedicel.
• Complete flower:- Flower with all floral parts.
• Incomplete flower:- Flower without one or
more than one floral parts.
• Bisexual :- Flower with androecium and Gynoecium.
• Unisexual :- Flower with androecium or Gynoecium.
• Staminate flower:- Flower with androecium (with stamens)
• Pistillate flower:- Flower with gynoecium (with carpels) .
Actinomorphic (Regular) :-
A flower can be divided in
to two equal halves by any
vertical section through
centre.
Eg. Hibiscus, Mustard.
Zygomorphic (Half irregular
or Half regular) :-
Flower can be divided into
two equal halves by one
vertical section only.
Eg.Pea, Ocimum.
Structural symmetry: It is of two types.
Calyx -
• The outer or first whorl of flower of sepals.
• No. of Sepals – 3,5, or indefinite sepals.
• A) Polysepalous (free) / Gamosepalous
(fused).
• Green/Petaloid.
Special feature– Modification of calyx into pappus.
Corolla -
• Second whorl of flower made of petals.
• No. of petals – 3,5, or indefinite petals.
• Polypetalous (free) / Gamopetalous (fused).
• Colourful.
Mustard China rose Cassia,
Caesalpinia.
Ranunculus,
Cucurbita maxima
Pea,
Gram
Aestivation –
The mode (the method) of arrangement of perianth ( PETALS/SEPALS ) in bud
condition.
In Corolla Imbricate aestivation -
Imbricate descending
e.g. Pisum sativum
Imbricate ascending
e.g. Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Perianth –
When calyx and corolla are
indistinct the condition is called
Perianth.
Found in Monocotyledons.
A unit of perianth is called tepal.
Gamophyllous (fused) / Polyphyllous(free).
Androecium:
• Group of stamens It represents third whorl of
flower and outer whorl of essential organs:
• Stamens are male reproductive organs.
• Stamens – Male sporophylls within the flower ;
floral organ that bears pollen in angiosperms.
• Stamen has two parts,
(i) Filament (ii) Anther
i) Filament:- Stamen Stalk .
ii) Anther:- Pollen – bearing portion of stamen.
Connective :- The filament or tissue connects
two anther lobes.
Anther :
Monothecous: Anther with one lobe.
Eg. Hibiscus.
Dithecous : Anther with two lobes.
Eg. Datura.
Exertred:
When filaments are very long
stamens protrude out of the
flower.
Inserted:
When stamens remain
within the flower.
On the basis of Dehiscence :
Extrorse :
Dehiscence of anthers occurs towards
outerside of the flower.
Ex. Hibiscus.
Introrse :
Dehiscence of anthers occurs towards
inner side of the flower.
Ex. Datura.
2) Attachment of filament to anther lobe :
The attachment of filament to another lobe is of 4 type -
Adnate – Filament runs through the whole length of the anther
from the base to the apex.
e.g. Michelia (Champa), Magnolia.
Basifixed – Filament is attached to anther by its base.
e.g. Datura, Radish, Mustard.
Dorsifixed – The filament is attached at the centre to the back
of the anther and anther is immobile.
e.g. Passion flower
Versatile – Filament attached to the back of the anther at a
point only, thus the anther can swing freely.
e.g. Wheat, grass, maize.
Monoadelphous – When all the filaments are united
into a single bundle but anthers are free from each
other.
In this type of cohesion a tube is formed around the
gynoecium which is called staminal tube.
e.g. china rose.
Diadelphous – When the filaments are united in two
bundles but the anther remains free.
e.g. Gram, Pea, Bean.
Polyadelphous – When filaments are united into
more then two bundles but anthers are free.
e.g. Citrus, Castor.
Adelphous : When stamens are united by their filament only, it is
called adelphous. It is of following types –
Syngenesious –
With fused anther and filament free.
e.g. Composite family (sunflower).
Synandrous –
When anthers as well as filaments
of stamens are united through
their whole length.
e.g. Cucurbitaceae family.
When the stamens of an androecium are free from one another, it
is called polyandrous condition.
If Polyandrous :
Didynamous – With stamen in two unequal pairs.
e.g. Labiatae family.
Tetradynamous – With stamens in two groups, usually four
long and two short .
e.g. Cruciferae family.
Didynamous Tetradynamous
Adhesion of stamens :
When the stamens are attached to other parts of
flower, then it is called adhesion of stamens.
Epipetalous – When stamens are attached to petals.
e.g. Brinjal, Datura, Tobacco, Sunflower, Potato.
Epiphyllous – When stamens are attached to tepals.
e.g. Onion, Lily.
Gynandrous – When stamens are attached to
gynonecium either throughout their whole length
or by their anther.
e.g. Calotropis.
Special feature–
Anther are modified into pollinia.
Presence of staminal corona.
GYNOECIUM (PISTIL) :
 Gynoecium or pistil is the fourth and innermost whorl of flower.
• It consists of one or more carpels.
• It is the female reproductive organ of a flower.
• Carpel consists of 3 parts.
i) Ovary: Ovule – bearing part of pistil .
ii) Style: Nonovule – bearing portion of pistil between
stigma and ovary.
iii) Stigma: Pollen – receptive portion of pistil.
On the basis of carpel (female sporophyll
within flower ; floral organ that bears ovules)
:
If only one carpel is present in gynoecium this
condition is called monocarpellary.
If more than one carpel is present in gynoecium this
condition is called polycarpellary.
With carpel separate. apocarpous.
With stigma , style and ovaries completely fused.
syncarpous
Hypogynous (Superior ovary) : Ovary is at the
upper level than other floral parts. Ex. Hibiscus,Datura.
Perigynous (Half (semi) inferior ovary) : Gynoecium is
at the centre and other floral parts are along with the
margin. Ex. Rose.
Epigynous (Inferior ovary): Thalamus a deep cup like
structure with gynoecium inside. Thalamus and ovary
are fused. Other floral parts are above the level of the
ovary. Ex. Tridax.
Position of gynoecium on the thalamus : It is of three types :
Number of locules (ovary cavity) in the ovary:
a) Unilocular - One locule- Ex. Dolichos.
b) Bilocular - Two locules - Ex. Solanum.
c) Trilocular- Three locules - Ex. Allium.
d) Tetralocular - Four locules - Ex. Ipomoea.
e) Pentalocular - Five locules - Ex. Hibiscus.
Placentation : Part of the ovary that bears ovules is called Placenta.
Placentation: The mode (method) of arrangement of ovules in the ovary.
Placentation is of different types.
a) Marginal placentation: With the placenta along the margin of the
simple ovary.
Ex. pea.
b) Parietal placentation: With the placenta on the wall or intruding
partition of a unilocular compound ovary.
Ex. Brassica, Cucurbita.
c) Axile placentation: With the placenta along the central axis in a
compound ovary with septa.
Ex Hibiscus, Solanum.
d) Free central placentation: With the placenta along the central axis in a
compound ovary without septa.
Ex. Dianthus.
e) Basal placentation: With the placenta at the base of the ovary.
.Ex. Tridax, Helianthus Sunflower.
Stigma type
Special feature–
Presence of gynostegium or
gynostemium
Pentangular stigmatic head in
Calotropis
Stigma minute in
Acacia & Caesalpinia
Stigma five lobed and
knob like in Hibiscus
Stigma bifid in
Tridax
Stigma capitate
in Brassica
Style:
Elongated part of the gynoecium and Stalk like structure situated between the ovary and the stigma.
Types of styles: Three types on the basis of position.
Terminal style: arises from the apical part of the ovary e.g: Hibiscus.
Lateral Style: Arises from the lateral side of the ovary eg: Mangifera.
Gynobasis style: Arises from the base of the ovary in between four locules Eg: Ocimum.
Floral Internodal elongation in flower :
Anthophore – Internode between calyx and corolla is called anthophore. e.g. Silane
Androphore – Internode between corolla and androecium is called androphore. e.g. Passiflora
Gynophore – Internode between androecium and gynoecium is called gynophore. e.g. Capparis.
Gynandrophore or Androgynophore – When both androphore and gynophore both conditions are
found in same flower then this condition is called gynandrophore or androgynophore. e.g. Cleome gynandra.
Carpophore – Elongation of thalamus beyond carpels. e.g. Coriandrum
Note : - Part of flower which lies near to mother axis is posterior part while the part which is far from
mother axis is anterior part of flower.
THANKS

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Plant terminology presentation

  • 1.
  • 2. TERM 1. Habitat – 2. Habit – 3. Root- 4. Stem – 5. Leaf – 6. Inflorescence – 7. Flower – 8. Calyx – 9. Corolla – 10. Androecium – 11. Gynoecium – 12. Floral Formula – 13. Floral Diagram –
  • 3. Wild / Ornamental / Cultivated
  • 4. Plant type (Habit) Herb - Green, usually low, soft with annual aboveground stems.. Shrub – Much – branched woody perennial plant, usually without a single trunk. Liana or vine – An elongated, weak – stemmed, often climbing annual or perennial plant, with herbaceous or woody texture . Tree – A tall, woody perennial plant usually with a single trunk.
  • 5.
  • 6. If Herbs Annuals – Living one year of less . eg. Mustard, Pea, Wheat and Gram Tridax. Perennials – Alive for several years. These plants usually bears flowers and fruits every year and do not die after producing flowers. e. g. Onion. Biennials – Complete their life cycle in two years- growing, vegetative and storing food in the first year, flowering and fruiting in the second year. e.g. Radish, turnip, carrot.
  • 7. TYPES OF ROOTS Tap root : It develops from radicle and made up of one main branch and other sub branches. The primary roots and its branches constitute tap root system. e.g. Dicot roots. Adventitious roots : In some plants, after sometime of the growth of tap root which arises from radicle, stops and then roots, develop from other part of plant, which are branched or unbranched, fibrous or storage, are known as adventitious roots and constitute fibrous root system. e.g. Monocot roots.
  • 8. Stem Aerial Underground e.g. Rhizome – ginger Tuber – potato Bulb – onion Corm - gladiolus
  • 9. Stem Erect If Weak Prostate - Basella Twinner - Cuscuta Climber – Pisum sativum
  • 10. Stem Branched e.g. Hibiscus rosa -sinensis e.g. Calotropis Unbranched e.g. Palms
  • 14.
  • 15. Cauline • Leaf arising only on the main axis • e.g. Palm. Ramal • Leaves are found on lateral branches • eg. Delbergia, • Zizypus. Radical • Leaves which arise from a reduced underground stem • e.g. Onion. Cauline& Ramal e.g. Mango, Tamarind, Tridax.
  • 16. b. Phyllotaxy – Arrangement of leaves on main stem or branches.
  • 17. Alternate or Spiral •a single leaf arises at each node in alternate manner, as in China rose, Mustard and sun flower plants Opposite Decussate or Superposed •a pair of leaves arise at each node and lie opposite to each other as in Calotropis, Tridax and Guava plants. Whorled •If more than two leaves arise at a node and form a whorl, it is called whorled, as in Alstonia. Calotropis Guava
  • 18. c . Stipules / exstipulate : Stipules - Leaves of some plants have lateral appendages on either side of leaf base. If stipules are present in leaf it is called stipulate leaf. Exstipulate - If absent.
  • 19. Stipules Stipules present on both sides of leaf base. e.g. china rose Stipules form a leaf like structure. eg. pisum Two stipules lying between the petioles of opposite or whorled leaves Both stipules are attached with petiole. e.g. Rose Stipules modified into spine. eg. Zizyphus (Beri), Acacia Stipules are modified into tendrils like structure. eg. Smilax Free lateral Foliaceous Adnate Spiny TendrillarInter/intra petioler
  • 20. d. Petiolate / Sessile/Subsessile – Petiole – Is the part of leaf connecting the lamina with the branch or stem. Leaf is called sessile when there is no petiole e.g. Calotropis, Wheat, rice. Petiole bearing leaves are known as Petiolate e.g. Peepal, Mango, Hibiscus, Rose.
  • 21. e. TYPES OF LEAF Simple and Compound Leaf Simple Leaf –Single lamina usually entire. (Continous lamina) e.g. Mango, China rose, Guava , etc. Compound leaf – Lamina broken and form small leaflets.
  • 22. Palmately compound leaf UNIFOLIATE- Single leaflet is found. e.g. Lemon BIFOLIATE- Two leaflets are present. e.g. Bauhinia TRIFOLIATE- Three leaflets are attached. e.g. Oxalis TETRAFOLIATE -Four leaflets are attached to the petiole. e.g. Marsilea MULTIFOLIATE -More than four leaflet are found e.g.Silkcotton. Leaf lets attached at the tip of the petiole , thus seem to be radiating from a common point. (like fingers from the palm )
  • 23. Pinnately compound leaf UNIPINNATE : Bearing the leaflets directly attached on both sides of rachis. PARIPINNATE : Even IMPARIPINNATE: Odd e.g. Cassia fistula, Tridax.. BIPINNATE : Twice pinnate compound leaf eg. Acacia, Gulmohar, Mimosa. TRIPINNATE : Thrice pinnate compound leaf eg. Moringa. DECOMPOUND : More than thrice pinnate eg. Carrot, Coriander. In this type of leaf mid rib is known as rachis. Leaflets are arranged on both sides of rachis. eg. Neem
  • 24. f. Shape of Leaf BANYANPINUS RICE NERIUM GUAVA BANANA LOTUS BETEL SAGITTARIA IPOMEA
  • 25. g. Leaf Apex A) MANGO, CHINA ROSE B) FICUS, PEEPAL C) BANYAN D )VINCA ROSA, IXORA J) KACHNAR
  • 26. h. Leaf Margin A) BANYAN B) POLYALTHIA C) CHINA ROSE J) ARGEMONE
  • 27. i. Leaf Base A)BANYAN, GULMOHAR, TAMRINDUS B) BANANA, SUGARCANE C) CROTOLARIA D) POLYGONUM
  • 28. j. Leaf Surface • Glaucous • Green & Shining e.g. citrus. • Glabrous • Smooth surface free from hairs e.g. china rose. • Hairy • Covered with hairs.e.g. Tridax • Spiny • Covered with spines e.g. Argemone.
  • 29. k.Venation – The arrangement of veins and veinlets in leaves (Lamina).
  • 30. VENATION Reticulate – Main vein divided into various branches (veinlets) and form a net like structure Unicostate – eg. Mango, guava, Peepal, Multicostate Divergent – e.g Cucurbita, grape Convergent – e.g China rose, plum. Parallel – All veins run parallel to each other and they do not from network Unicostate – e.g Banana, Ginger, Multicostate Divergent – e.g Coconut, Date palm Convergent- e.g.Wheat, Sugar-cane, Bamboo
  • 31. Inflorescence - Arrangement of flower on floral axis or a cluster of flowers, all flowers arising from the main stem axis or peduncle. Types of Inflorescence :-
  • 32. Solitary terminal flower of Poppy Solitary axillary flower of China - rose Solitary flower
  • 33. • The main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and give off flower laterally in acropetal manner where old flowers are arranged toward base and young flowers are at tip. Racemose ( = Indefinite) • The peduncle terminate in a flower. In it the older flowers are present at tip and young buds are arranged towards base. This arrangement is called basipetal succession. CYMOSE ( = Definite) SPECIAL TYPE OF INFLORESCENCE acropetal manner basipetal manner
  • 34. RACEME Unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with pedicelled flowers. e.g. Radish, characteristic feature of cruciferae family, Musturd SPIKE Unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flower. e.g. Achyranthes RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Elongated
  • 35. RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Elongated SPADIX Unbranched, inderminate inflorescence with flowers embedded in the rachis. (Peduncle is thick, long and fleshy and have small sessile and unisexual male and female flowers covered with one or more green or colourful bracts known as spathe.) e.g. Colocasia
  • 36. CORYMB A flat – topped or convex indeterminate cluster of flower. (In it peduncle is short and all flowers are present at same level because the lower flower has much long pedicel than the upper one .) e.g. Candytuft (Iberis amara). UMBEL A determinate or indeterminate flat – topped or convex inflorescence with the pedicels arising at a common point. (An inflorescence in which the flower stalks of different flowers are of more or less equal length, arise from the same point. At the base of flowers stalks, there is whorl of bracts forming the involucre) e.g. Centella RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Shortened
  • 37. Capitulum (HEAD) : e.g. - Composite family 1. Receptacle is flattened. 2. Each flower contain bract. 3. Whole cluster of florets surrounded by a whorl bracts collectively called Involucre. 4. Flower are sessile and grouped closely. 5. Two kinds of floret - a) Ray floret b) Disc floret. 6. Ray floret – Arranged on rim of receptacle, yellow color, female or sterile, zygomorphic. 7. Disc floret – Groped in the center and are bisexual, actinomorphic. RACEMOSE :- Main Axis Flattened Globose head or capitate in Acacia
  • 38. CYMOSE Uniparous cyme / Monochasial cyme – The peduncle ending in a flower producing lateral branch at a time of ending in flower. It is of two types - Helicoid cyme – A determinate infloresence in which the branches develop on one side only, appearing simple. eg. Heliotropium, Saraca, Atropa, Datura. Scorpioid cyme – A zigzag determinateForming zigzag. eg. Bignonia, Ranunculus bulbosus.
  • 39. CYMOSE Dichasial or biparous cyme – A determinate infloresence in which the main axis ends in a flower after producing two daughter axis of flower ( older in the center ) . eg. Bougainvillea, Jasmine, Teak, Mirabilis, Dianthus, Nyctanthes. Multiparous cyme / polychasial – Producing number of daughter axis or flower around. In it peduncle ends in a flower and from the base of it many lateral branches arise which also terminates in flower, this arrangement now also occur on these lateral branches. e.g. Calotropis (Madar), Nerium, Asclepias, Hamelia.
  • 40.
  • 41. SPECIAL TYPE OF INFLORESCENCE
  • 42. CYATHIUM – • Cup – shaped involucre, often provided with nectary, encloses a single female flower ( reduced to pistil ) in the center and a number of male flower (each reduced to a solitary stamen ) around it. found in Euphorbiaceae family like Euphorbia, Poinsettia, Pedilanthus.
  • 43. Hypoanthodium– • In it peduncle is modified in narrow cup like structure. At the base of cup female flowers develop while towards mouth male flower develops. All three types of flowers are present in this inflorescence. e.g. Banyan, Peepal, Ficus species.
  • 44. VERTICILLASTER – • Dichasial cyme. •. Main axis two opposite bracts at each node. • Axil of each bract arises a large flower on the sides of which are borne two smaller flower . • After this Dihasial cyme changes into monochasial cyme scorpoid type. • One cluster there are 7 flower in all . e..g. Ocimum.
  • 45.
  • 46. • A typical flower consists of 4 sets of floral leaves. 1)Calyx :- Group of sepals. Outer whorl (First whorl) commonly green and helps in protection. 2) Corolla :- Group of petals. Second whorl, general coloured and helps in attraction. 3) Androecium :- Group of stamens. Third whorl, represents male sex organs. 4) gynoecium :- Group of carpels. Fourth whorl, represents female sex organs. • Calyx and corolla : Commonly called perianth, Non-essential organs. . • Androecium and gynoecium : Commonly called essential organs.
  • 47. • Bract:-Specialized leaves produce flowers. • Bracteoles :- Small leaf like structures present on the pedicel. • Bracteate (Br):- Bracts present. • Ebracteate (Ebr):- Bracts are absent. • Bracteolate(Brl):-Bracteoles present. • Ebracteolate (Ebrl):- Bracteoles absent.
  • 48. • Pedicellate:- Flower with pedicel. • Sessile:- Flower without pedicel. • Complete flower:- Flower with all floral parts. • Incomplete flower:- Flower without one or more than one floral parts. • Bisexual :- Flower with androecium and Gynoecium. • Unisexual :- Flower with androecium or Gynoecium. • Staminate flower:- Flower with androecium (with stamens) • Pistillate flower:- Flower with gynoecium (with carpels) .
  • 49. Actinomorphic (Regular) :- A flower can be divided in to two equal halves by any vertical section through centre. Eg. Hibiscus, Mustard. Zygomorphic (Half irregular or Half regular) :- Flower can be divided into two equal halves by one vertical section only. Eg.Pea, Ocimum. Structural symmetry: It is of two types.
  • 50. Calyx - • The outer or first whorl of flower of sepals. • No. of Sepals – 3,5, or indefinite sepals. • A) Polysepalous (free) / Gamosepalous (fused). • Green/Petaloid. Special feature– Modification of calyx into pappus.
  • 51. Corolla - • Second whorl of flower made of petals. • No. of petals – 3,5, or indefinite petals. • Polypetalous (free) / Gamopetalous (fused). • Colourful.
  • 52. Mustard China rose Cassia, Caesalpinia. Ranunculus, Cucurbita maxima Pea, Gram Aestivation – The mode (the method) of arrangement of perianth ( PETALS/SEPALS ) in bud condition.
  • 53. In Corolla Imbricate aestivation - Imbricate descending e.g. Pisum sativum Imbricate ascending e.g. Caesalpinia pulcherrima
  • 54. Perianth – When calyx and corolla are indistinct the condition is called Perianth. Found in Monocotyledons. A unit of perianth is called tepal. Gamophyllous (fused) / Polyphyllous(free).
  • 55. Androecium: • Group of stamens It represents third whorl of flower and outer whorl of essential organs: • Stamens are male reproductive organs. • Stamens – Male sporophylls within the flower ; floral organ that bears pollen in angiosperms. • Stamen has two parts, (i) Filament (ii) Anther i) Filament:- Stamen Stalk . ii) Anther:- Pollen – bearing portion of stamen. Connective :- The filament or tissue connects two anther lobes.
  • 56. Anther : Monothecous: Anther with one lobe. Eg. Hibiscus. Dithecous : Anther with two lobes. Eg. Datura.
  • 57. Exertred: When filaments are very long stamens protrude out of the flower. Inserted: When stamens remain within the flower.
  • 58. On the basis of Dehiscence : Extrorse : Dehiscence of anthers occurs towards outerside of the flower. Ex. Hibiscus. Introrse : Dehiscence of anthers occurs towards inner side of the flower. Ex. Datura.
  • 59. 2) Attachment of filament to anther lobe : The attachment of filament to another lobe is of 4 type - Adnate – Filament runs through the whole length of the anther from the base to the apex. e.g. Michelia (Champa), Magnolia. Basifixed – Filament is attached to anther by its base. e.g. Datura, Radish, Mustard. Dorsifixed – The filament is attached at the centre to the back of the anther and anther is immobile. e.g. Passion flower Versatile – Filament attached to the back of the anther at a point only, thus the anther can swing freely. e.g. Wheat, grass, maize.
  • 60. Monoadelphous – When all the filaments are united into a single bundle but anthers are free from each other. In this type of cohesion a tube is formed around the gynoecium which is called staminal tube. e.g. china rose. Diadelphous – When the filaments are united in two bundles but the anther remains free. e.g. Gram, Pea, Bean. Polyadelphous – When filaments are united into more then two bundles but anthers are free. e.g. Citrus, Castor. Adelphous : When stamens are united by their filament only, it is called adelphous. It is of following types –
  • 61. Syngenesious – With fused anther and filament free. e.g. Composite family (sunflower). Synandrous – When anthers as well as filaments of stamens are united through their whole length. e.g. Cucurbitaceae family.
  • 62. When the stamens of an androecium are free from one another, it is called polyandrous condition. If Polyandrous : Didynamous – With stamen in two unequal pairs. e.g. Labiatae family. Tetradynamous – With stamens in two groups, usually four long and two short . e.g. Cruciferae family. Didynamous Tetradynamous
  • 63. Adhesion of stamens : When the stamens are attached to other parts of flower, then it is called adhesion of stamens. Epipetalous – When stamens are attached to petals. e.g. Brinjal, Datura, Tobacco, Sunflower, Potato. Epiphyllous – When stamens are attached to tepals. e.g. Onion, Lily. Gynandrous – When stamens are attached to gynonecium either throughout their whole length or by their anther. e.g. Calotropis.
  • 64. Special feature– Anther are modified into pollinia. Presence of staminal corona.
  • 65. GYNOECIUM (PISTIL) :  Gynoecium or pistil is the fourth and innermost whorl of flower. • It consists of one or more carpels. • It is the female reproductive organ of a flower. • Carpel consists of 3 parts. i) Ovary: Ovule – bearing part of pistil . ii) Style: Nonovule – bearing portion of pistil between stigma and ovary. iii) Stigma: Pollen – receptive portion of pistil.
  • 66. On the basis of carpel (female sporophyll within flower ; floral organ that bears ovules) : If only one carpel is present in gynoecium this condition is called monocarpellary. If more than one carpel is present in gynoecium this condition is called polycarpellary. With carpel separate. apocarpous. With stigma , style and ovaries completely fused. syncarpous
  • 67. Hypogynous (Superior ovary) : Ovary is at the upper level than other floral parts. Ex. Hibiscus,Datura. Perigynous (Half (semi) inferior ovary) : Gynoecium is at the centre and other floral parts are along with the margin. Ex. Rose. Epigynous (Inferior ovary): Thalamus a deep cup like structure with gynoecium inside. Thalamus and ovary are fused. Other floral parts are above the level of the ovary. Ex. Tridax. Position of gynoecium on the thalamus : It is of three types :
  • 68. Number of locules (ovary cavity) in the ovary: a) Unilocular - One locule- Ex. Dolichos. b) Bilocular - Two locules - Ex. Solanum. c) Trilocular- Three locules - Ex. Allium. d) Tetralocular - Four locules - Ex. Ipomoea. e) Pentalocular - Five locules - Ex. Hibiscus.
  • 69. Placentation : Part of the ovary that bears ovules is called Placenta. Placentation: The mode (method) of arrangement of ovules in the ovary. Placentation is of different types. a) Marginal placentation: With the placenta along the margin of the simple ovary. Ex. pea. b) Parietal placentation: With the placenta on the wall or intruding partition of a unilocular compound ovary. Ex. Brassica, Cucurbita. c) Axile placentation: With the placenta along the central axis in a compound ovary with septa. Ex Hibiscus, Solanum. d) Free central placentation: With the placenta along the central axis in a compound ovary without septa. Ex. Dianthus. e) Basal placentation: With the placenta at the base of the ovary. .Ex. Tridax, Helianthus Sunflower.
  • 70. Stigma type Special feature– Presence of gynostegium or gynostemium Pentangular stigmatic head in Calotropis Stigma minute in Acacia & Caesalpinia Stigma five lobed and knob like in Hibiscus Stigma bifid in Tridax Stigma capitate in Brassica
  • 71. Style: Elongated part of the gynoecium and Stalk like structure situated between the ovary and the stigma. Types of styles: Three types on the basis of position. Terminal style: arises from the apical part of the ovary e.g: Hibiscus. Lateral Style: Arises from the lateral side of the ovary eg: Mangifera. Gynobasis style: Arises from the base of the ovary in between four locules Eg: Ocimum.
  • 72. Floral Internodal elongation in flower : Anthophore – Internode between calyx and corolla is called anthophore. e.g. Silane Androphore – Internode between corolla and androecium is called androphore. e.g. Passiflora Gynophore – Internode between androecium and gynoecium is called gynophore. e.g. Capparis. Gynandrophore or Androgynophore – When both androphore and gynophore both conditions are found in same flower then this condition is called gynandrophore or androgynophore. e.g. Cleome gynandra. Carpophore – Elongation of thalamus beyond carpels. e.g. Coriandrum Note : - Part of flower which lies near to mother axis is posterior part while the part which is far from mother axis is anterior part of flower.
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