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AISECT COLLEGE
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Dr. Priya Trivedi
M.Sc.(BOTANY), M.Ed., Ph.D.
Head ,Academics and Department of Science
at
Compfeeders Aisect College of Professional Studies, Indore
Welcome to the Kingdom of Algae.....
INTRODUCTION TOALGAE
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Welcome to the Kingdom of Algae.....
1. Introduction to Algae
2. Definitions of Algae
3. General characteristics
4. Occurrence
Introduction to Algae:
The term algae (Latin — seaweeds) was first introduced by Linnaeus in 1753, meaning the
Hepaticeae. The algae comprise of a large heterogeneous assemblage of plants which are diverse
in habitat, size, organisation, physiology, biochemistry, and reproduction.
It is an important group of Thallophyta (Gr. Thallos — a sprout; phyton — a plant), the
primitive and simplest division of the plant kingdom. The orderly systematic study of algae is
called Phycology (Gr. phycos — seaweeds; logos — study or discourse).
The algae are chlorophyll-containing primitive plants, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, with
wide range, starting from unicellular to multicellular organisations and Autophytic (which can
manufacture their own food) .
Definitions of Algae:
1. Fritsch, F. (1935) defined algae as the holophytic organisms (as well as their numerous
colourless derivatives) that fail to reach the higher level of differentiation characteristic of the
archegoniate plants.
2. Smith, G. M. (1955) defined algae as simple plants with an autotrophic mode of nutrition.
3. Chapman, V. J. (1962) defined algae (seaweeds of the seashore and green skeins in
stagnant fresh water, ponds and pools) as among the simplest in the plant kingdom.
4. Prescott, G. W. (1969) defined algae as those chlorophyll-bearing organisms (and their
colourless relatives) which are thalloid, i.e., having no true roots, stems and leaves or
leaf-like organs.
5. Singh, R. N. (1974) defined that the algae are by and large simple plants which display
a spectrum of photosynthetic pigments and evolve oxygen during the process of photosynthesis.
General Characteristics of Algae:
1. Algae are chlorophyll-bearing autotrophic thalloid
plant body.
2. Almost all the algae are aquatic.
3. The plant body may be unicellular to large robust
multicellular structure.
4. The multicellular complex thalli lack vascular tissue and
also show little differentiation of tissues.
5. The sex organs are generally unicellular but, when
multicellular, all cells are fertile and in most cases the entire
structure does not have any protection jacket.
6. The zygote undergoes further development either by mitosis
or meiosis, but not through embryo formation.
7. Plants having distinct alternation of generations.
8. Both gametophyte and sporophyte generations — when
present in the life cycle are independent.
Occurrence of Algae :
 The algae are ubiquitous (present everywhere) in distribution, i.e., they are found
in fresh water as well as marine water, on soil, on rock, as epiphytes or parasites
on plants and animals, in hot springs, in desert, on permanent snow-fields etc.
 But they mainly dwell in aquatic environments.
 Based on habitat the algae may be categorized as:
1. Aquatic algae.
2. Terrestrial algae, and
3. Algae of remarkable habitats.
1. Aquatic Algae:
Aquatic algae may be found in fresh water (when
salinity is as low-as 10 ppm) or marine water (when
salinity is 33-40%).
Again, certain algae grow in brackish water which is
unpalatable for drinking, but less salty than sea water.
The fresh water algae usually grow in ponds, lakes, tanks,
ditches etc.
The very common fresh water algae are Chlamydomonas,
Volvox, Ulothrix, Chara, Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Nostoc,
Oscillatoria etc.
A. B. C.
D. E. F.
Some of the very common marine algae are Sargassum,
Laminaria, Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia, Caulerpa, Bangia,
Padina etc.
A. C.
B.
D. E. F.
Fresh water algae may be termed as planktonic when they
grow and remain suspended on the upper part of water (e.g.,
Volvox, Diatom), while the benthic algae are bottom-
dwellers.
The benthic algae may be
epilithic - that grow on stones
epipelic attached to sand or mud
epiphytic — growing on plants and
epizoic — growing on animal body surface.
Cont……..
 The marine algae may be supralittoral or sub- aerial, as they grow
above the water level and in the spray zone.
 edaphic— that grow in and on the soil,
 epilithic— growing on stones,
 epiphytic — growing on plants,
 epizoic— growing on animal body surface, and
 corticolous — growing on tree barks and parasitic on plants and
animals.
 Endozoically - (e.g., Chlorella) live in various protozoa, coelenterates,
molasses etc.
2. Terrestrial Algae:
Some algae are found to grow in terrestrial habitats
like soils, rocks, logs etc.
Many blue-greens, on the other hand, grow under
the surface of the soil, and are called
Cryptophytes.
The common terrestrial members are Chlorella lichina,
Euglena sp., Fritschiella sp. and Phormidium sp.
Oscillatoria sancta Vaucheria geminata
 The algae growing in the :-
Desert soil are
 endedaphic (living in soil),
 epidaphic (living on the soil surface),
 hypolithic (growing on the lower surface of the stones on soil),
 chasmolithic (living in rock fissures) and
 endolithic algae (which are rock penetrating).
3. Algae of Remarkable Habitats:
In addition to above mentioned habitats, some algae also occur in uncommon habitats and termed as:
1.Halophytic Algae (or Eurhaline):
They grow in the highly concentrated salt lakes, and include
Chlamydomonas ehrenbergli, Dunaliella and Stephanoptera
sp.
2. Symbiotic Algae:
 They grow in association with fungi, bryophytes, gymnosperms or
angiosperms.
 The best examples of symbiotic algae found in association with fungi are Nostoc,
Gloeocapsa, Rivularia; the members of Cyanophyceae and Chlorella,
Cytococcus, Pleurococcus; the members of Chlorophyceae.
 This symbiotic association consisting of algae and fungi is called lichen.
 Nostoc may also associate with Anthoceros and Anabaena associates with
the roots of Cycas to form coralloid roots.
Nostoc
Lichen
3. Cryophytic Algae:
 This group of algae growing on ice or snow provides attractive colours to snow-
covered mountains.
 The alpine and arctic mountains become red due to the growth of the
Haemotococcous nivalis; green snow in Europe is due to the growth of
Chlamydomonas yellowstonensis.
 Scotiella nivalis and Raphidonema brevirostri cause black colouration of
snow, whereas Ancyclonema nordenskioldii is responsible for brownish
purple colouration.
Haemotococcous nivalis Chlamydomonas yellowstonensis
Scotiella nivalis and Raphidonema brevirostri
4. Thermophytes or Thermal Algae:
This group of algae occurs in hot water springs (50- 70°C) where normal life is not
possible. Many blue-greens (e.g., Heterohormogonium sp.) are grown in such
hot springs.
Oscillatoria brevis Synechococcus elongates
5. Lithophytes:
They grow on the moist surface of stones and rocks, e.g.
Enteromofpha, Batrachospermum etc.
Nostoc Gloeocapsa
6. Epiphytic Algae: Grow on other plants
a. Algae on Algae:
i. Ptilota plumosa and Rhodymenia pseudopalmatta on Laminaria hyperborean,
ii. Diatoms on Oedogonium, Spirogyra etc.
b. Algae on Bryophytes:
i. Blue-green algae like Nostoc, Oscillatoria, diatoms like Achnanthes etc. grow on different
bryophytes.
c. Algae on Angiosperms:
i. Algae like Cocconis, Achnanthes etc. grow epiphytically on Lemna, an aquatic angiosperm.
ii. Algae like Trentepohlia grows on the barks of different angiospermic plants, and is very
common in Darjeeling (India).
7. Epizoic Algae:
The algae growing on animals like fish, snail etc. are called as
epizoic, e.g., Stigeoclonium are found in the gills of fishes.
8. Endozoic Algae:
They grow in the tissues of animals, e.g., Zoochlorella sp. is
found in Hydra viridis.
9. Parasitic Algae:
a. Cephaleuros (Chlorophyceae) is parasitic and grows on the leaves of various
angiosperms, such as tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica),
Rhododendron, Magnolia and pepper (Piper nigrum).
The most important one is Cephaleuros virescens, which causes Red rust of
tea.
b. Rhodochytrium (Chlorophyceae) grows on ragweed (Ambrosia) leaves.
c. Phyllosiphon (Chlorophyceae) grows on the leaves of Arisarum vulgare.
d. Ceratocolax (Rhodophyceae) grows in Phyllophora thallus.
Cephaleuros virescens
10. Psammon:
The algae which grow in sandy beaches are called
psammon, e.g., Vaucheria, Phormidium etc.
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Algae introduction

  • 1. AISECT COLLEGE LIKE, COMMENT AND SHARE NOW Dr. Priya Trivedi M.Sc.(BOTANY), M.Ed., Ph.D. Head ,Academics and Department of Science at Compfeeders Aisect College of Professional Studies, Indore
  • 2. Welcome to the Kingdom of Algae..... INTRODUCTION TOALGAE LIKE, COMMENT AND SHARE NOW
  • 3. Welcome to the Kingdom of Algae..... 1. Introduction to Algae 2. Definitions of Algae 3. General characteristics 4. Occurrence
  • 4. Introduction to Algae: The term algae (Latin — seaweeds) was first introduced by Linnaeus in 1753, meaning the Hepaticeae. The algae comprise of a large heterogeneous assemblage of plants which are diverse in habitat, size, organisation, physiology, biochemistry, and reproduction. It is an important group of Thallophyta (Gr. Thallos — a sprout; phyton — a plant), the primitive and simplest division of the plant kingdom. The orderly systematic study of algae is called Phycology (Gr. phycos — seaweeds; logos — study or discourse). The algae are chlorophyll-containing primitive plants, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, with wide range, starting from unicellular to multicellular organisations and Autophytic (which can manufacture their own food) .
  • 5. Definitions of Algae: 1. Fritsch, F. (1935) defined algae as the holophytic organisms (as well as their numerous colourless derivatives) that fail to reach the higher level of differentiation characteristic of the archegoniate plants. 2. Smith, G. M. (1955) defined algae as simple plants with an autotrophic mode of nutrition. 3. Chapman, V. J. (1962) defined algae (seaweeds of the seashore and green skeins in stagnant fresh water, ponds and pools) as among the simplest in the plant kingdom. 4. Prescott, G. W. (1969) defined algae as those chlorophyll-bearing organisms (and their colourless relatives) which are thalloid, i.e., having no true roots, stems and leaves or leaf-like organs. 5. Singh, R. N. (1974) defined that the algae are by and large simple plants which display a spectrum of photosynthetic pigments and evolve oxygen during the process of photosynthesis.
  • 6. General Characteristics of Algae: 1. Algae are chlorophyll-bearing autotrophic thalloid plant body. 2. Almost all the algae are aquatic. 3. The plant body may be unicellular to large robust multicellular structure. 4. The multicellular complex thalli lack vascular tissue and also show little differentiation of tissues.
  • 7. 5. The sex organs are generally unicellular but, when multicellular, all cells are fertile and in most cases the entire structure does not have any protection jacket. 6. The zygote undergoes further development either by mitosis or meiosis, but not through embryo formation. 7. Plants having distinct alternation of generations. 8. Both gametophyte and sporophyte generations — when present in the life cycle are independent.
  • 8. Occurrence of Algae :  The algae are ubiquitous (present everywhere) in distribution, i.e., they are found in fresh water as well as marine water, on soil, on rock, as epiphytes or parasites on plants and animals, in hot springs, in desert, on permanent snow-fields etc.  But they mainly dwell in aquatic environments.  Based on habitat the algae may be categorized as: 1. Aquatic algae. 2. Terrestrial algae, and 3. Algae of remarkable habitats.
  • 9. 1. Aquatic Algae: Aquatic algae may be found in fresh water (when salinity is as low-as 10 ppm) or marine water (when salinity is 33-40%). Again, certain algae grow in brackish water which is unpalatable for drinking, but less salty than sea water. The fresh water algae usually grow in ponds, lakes, tanks, ditches etc.
  • 10. The very common fresh water algae are Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Ulothrix, Chara, Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Nostoc, Oscillatoria etc. A. B. C. D. E. F.
  • 11. Some of the very common marine algae are Sargassum, Laminaria, Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia, Caulerpa, Bangia, Padina etc. A. C. B. D. E. F.
  • 12. Fresh water algae may be termed as planktonic when they grow and remain suspended on the upper part of water (e.g., Volvox, Diatom), while the benthic algae are bottom- dwellers.
  • 13. The benthic algae may be epilithic - that grow on stones epipelic attached to sand or mud epiphytic — growing on plants and epizoic — growing on animal body surface.
  • 14. Cont……..  The marine algae may be supralittoral or sub- aerial, as they grow above the water level and in the spray zone.  edaphic— that grow in and on the soil,  epilithic— growing on stones,  epiphytic — growing on plants,  epizoic— growing on animal body surface, and  corticolous — growing on tree barks and parasitic on plants and animals.  Endozoically - (e.g., Chlorella) live in various protozoa, coelenterates, molasses etc.
  • 15. 2. Terrestrial Algae: Some algae are found to grow in terrestrial habitats like soils, rocks, logs etc. Many blue-greens, on the other hand, grow under the surface of the soil, and are called Cryptophytes.
  • 16. The common terrestrial members are Chlorella lichina, Euglena sp., Fritschiella sp. and Phormidium sp. Oscillatoria sancta Vaucheria geminata
  • 17.  The algae growing in the :- Desert soil are  endedaphic (living in soil),  epidaphic (living on the soil surface),  hypolithic (growing on the lower surface of the stones on soil),  chasmolithic (living in rock fissures) and  endolithic algae (which are rock penetrating).
  • 18. 3. Algae of Remarkable Habitats: In addition to above mentioned habitats, some algae also occur in uncommon habitats and termed as: 1.Halophytic Algae (or Eurhaline): They grow in the highly concentrated salt lakes, and include Chlamydomonas ehrenbergli, Dunaliella and Stephanoptera sp.
  • 19. 2. Symbiotic Algae:  They grow in association with fungi, bryophytes, gymnosperms or angiosperms.  The best examples of symbiotic algae found in association with fungi are Nostoc, Gloeocapsa, Rivularia; the members of Cyanophyceae and Chlorella, Cytococcus, Pleurococcus; the members of Chlorophyceae.  This symbiotic association consisting of algae and fungi is called lichen.  Nostoc may also associate with Anthoceros and Anabaena associates with the roots of Cycas to form coralloid roots.
  • 21. 3. Cryophytic Algae:  This group of algae growing on ice or snow provides attractive colours to snow- covered mountains.  The alpine and arctic mountains become red due to the growth of the Haemotococcous nivalis; green snow in Europe is due to the growth of Chlamydomonas yellowstonensis.  Scotiella nivalis and Raphidonema brevirostri cause black colouration of snow, whereas Ancyclonema nordenskioldii is responsible for brownish purple colouration.
  • 22. Haemotococcous nivalis Chlamydomonas yellowstonensis Scotiella nivalis and Raphidonema brevirostri
  • 23. 4. Thermophytes or Thermal Algae: This group of algae occurs in hot water springs (50- 70°C) where normal life is not possible. Many blue-greens (e.g., Heterohormogonium sp.) are grown in such hot springs. Oscillatoria brevis Synechococcus elongates
  • 24. 5. Lithophytes: They grow on the moist surface of stones and rocks, e.g. Enteromofpha, Batrachospermum etc. Nostoc Gloeocapsa
  • 25. 6. Epiphytic Algae: Grow on other plants a. Algae on Algae: i. Ptilota plumosa and Rhodymenia pseudopalmatta on Laminaria hyperborean, ii. Diatoms on Oedogonium, Spirogyra etc. b. Algae on Bryophytes: i. Blue-green algae like Nostoc, Oscillatoria, diatoms like Achnanthes etc. grow on different bryophytes. c. Algae on Angiosperms: i. Algae like Cocconis, Achnanthes etc. grow epiphytically on Lemna, an aquatic angiosperm. ii. Algae like Trentepohlia grows on the barks of different angiospermic plants, and is very common in Darjeeling (India).
  • 26. 7. Epizoic Algae: The algae growing on animals like fish, snail etc. are called as epizoic, e.g., Stigeoclonium are found in the gills of fishes.
  • 27. 8. Endozoic Algae: They grow in the tissues of animals, e.g., Zoochlorella sp. is found in Hydra viridis.
  • 28. 9. Parasitic Algae: a. Cephaleuros (Chlorophyceae) is parasitic and grows on the leaves of various angiosperms, such as tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica), Rhododendron, Magnolia and pepper (Piper nigrum). The most important one is Cephaleuros virescens, which causes Red rust of tea. b. Rhodochytrium (Chlorophyceae) grows on ragweed (Ambrosia) leaves. c. Phyllosiphon (Chlorophyceae) grows on the leaves of Arisarum vulgare. d. Ceratocolax (Rhodophyceae) grows in Phyllophora thallus.
  • 30. 10. Psammon: The algae which grow in sandy beaches are called psammon, e.g., Vaucheria, Phormidium etc.
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