SlideShare a Scribd company logo
BY: KAREEM HUSSIEN
Proteins biochemistry
 Proteins are organic nitrogenous compounds formed of C H O & “N”
 Proteins are the polymers of 20 naturally occurring amino acids
 Amino acids are organic acids in which one H is replaced by NH3
usually at α carbon (next to COOH group)
 All amino acids have in common
 central α carbon to which COOH & H & NH2 are attached
 α carbon is also attached to a side chain called R group which is different for each
amino acid
 N and C terminals
 There are 3 categories of Amino acids
1. Primary protein amino acids
2. Non primary protein amino acids
3. Non protein amino acids
 DYNAMIC
1. Transport of molecules across cell membrane or between cells
 Haemoglobin carries oxygen
 Protein carriers carry glucose across cell membrane
 Transferrin carry iron
 Albumin carries Ca, fatty acids and bile pigments
2. Catalytic role : Enzymes that are protein in nature
3. Metabolic regulations : some hormones are protein like Insulin
4. Contraction of the muscle : actin and myosin are proteins
5. Storage : ferritin is storage form of iron
 STRUCTURAL
1. They are components of cell membrane, cytoplasm and cell organelles
2. Mechanical support
 Collagen and elastin  ligaments tendon and blood vessels
 Keratin  skin, hair and nails
 Ossien  bone
Classification of AA
structure
aliphatic
aromatic
Hetero-cyclic
Optical activity
D & L
isomers
Non active
R polarity
Polar
non
fate
glucogenic
ketogenic
mixed
value
essential
Non-
Semi-
A. Aliphatic (have no ring structure)
1. Neutral : (NH2=COOH) ex. Glycine
2. Basic : (NH2>COOH) ex. arginine
3. Acidic : (COOH>NH2) ex. Aspartic acid
4. With NH2 in their side chain ex. Asparagine
B. Aromatic (with benzene or phenol rings)
Ex. Phenylalanine & tyrosine
C. Heterocyclic (has also other types of rings)
Ex. Histidine & tryptophan
Proteins biochemistry
 All amino acids are Optically active and show D & L Isomers as they
contain an asymmetric α carbon except “glycine” which is non optically
active
 D-amino acids : with their NH2 to the right of α carbon
 L-amino acids : with their NH2 to the left of α carbon
 All of the amino acids in our body are of the L-amino acids (3aks el
sugars)
1. Non polar (hydrophobic) ( have no reacting groups) (least
soluble in water) (do not bind or give protons)
Ex. Alanine , leusine
 Their side chains tend to coalesce interiorly in an aqueous solution
(hydrophobicity) like a drop of oil in water
2. Polar (hydrophilic) (have reacting groups)
A. Polar Uncharged (have Neutral polar functional group that can
hydrogen bond with water) (containing OH, SH OR NH )
B. Polar Charged (have an active reactive group) (offering or
demanding protons) so they may be ACIDIC or BASIC
Proteins biochemistry
1. Essential amino acids
Cant be synthesized in the body so must be taken in the diet
Ex. Valine , leucine , isoleucine ,…..
1. Non essential amino acids
Can be synthesized in the body
Ex. Glycine , alanine , aspartic ,…..
 Arginine and Histidine are called semi-essential because they are
synthesized in the body in a rate enough for adults but not for growing
individuals
Proteins biochemistry
1. Ketogenic amino acids
Give rise to ketone bodies and fats in the catabolic way
Ex. Leucine
1. Glucogenic amino acid
Give rise to carbohydrates …
Ex. glycine, serine ,….
1. Mixed amino acids
Part will enter the fatty acid metabolic pathway .. The other into glucose
pathway
Ex. Lysine , tryptophan ,….
Proteins biochemistry
1. Optical activity
2. Amphoteric property
In solution, amino acids act as both acid and alkali d.t the presence of
acidic group (COOH-) and basic group (-NH2)
3. Isoelectric point (zwitter ion state)
It’s the pH at which the protein carries equal +ve and –ve charges
At this point
 Proteins and enzymes loose their function
 Their viscosity in solution becomes maximal
 Their solubility becomes minimal (easily precipitated)
 Amino acids  peptide and polypeptides  protein
 Amino acids form peptides in a “dehydration” reaction (peptide bonds)
 Polypeptides contain 10-100 amino acid .. Peptides with more than 100 amino acids
are called proteins
 2 types of bonds are responsible for the structure
1. Covalent (strong bonds)(favor stability resist denaturation)
A. Peptide bonds : COOH combines NH3 with removal of water
B. Disulphide bonds : between 2 Cysteine a.a in the same or diff polypeptide chains
2. Non covalent (weak bonds)(favor protein folding)
A. Hydrogen bonds
B. Hydrophobic bonds (help stabilize protein structure)
C. Ionic bonds )repulsive or attractive)
Proteins biochemistry
 Proteins have a 3 dimensional shape (primary, secondary and tertiary
structure) that is required for its function .. Some proteins formed of 2 or
more polypeptide chains have also a quaternary structure
 Primary : refers to no. and sequence of a.a in polypeptide chain
(straight)
 Secondary : as a result of coiling and folding of the polypeptide chain, it
takes two forms either (α-helical) or (β-pleated sheets)
 Tertiary : it is the three dimensional structure of each polypeptide chain,
it takes the form of either (fibrous) or (globular) domains
 Quaternary : in proteins of 2 or more polypeptide chains .. An example
of this is hemoglobin made of 2 α and 2 β chains
Proteins biochemistry
 Loss of native structure by many causes leading to changes in secondary, tertiary and
quaternary structure due to rupture of non covalent bonds (never peptide bond) with
loss of biological activity
 All levels of structure are disrupted except primary (strong peptide bond)
 CAUSES
 Physical causes : heating above 70, powerful shaking, repeated freezing and melting, UV
and high pressure
 Chemical causes : urea, alcohol, strong bases & acids, salts of heavy metals as MG
 EFFECTS
 Decreased solubility and rate of diffusion
 Increased viscosity due to unfolding
 Loss of activity
 Change in antigenic property

More Related Content

What's hot

Amino acid
Amino acid Amino acid
Amino acid
sridarshini chandra
 
Glycolysis
GlycolysisGlycolysis
Glycolysis
nj1992
 
classification of Amino acids
classification of Amino acids classification of Amino acids
classification of Amino acids
Arjun Kumar
 
Krebs cycle
Krebs cycleKrebs cycle
Krebs cycle
Sathish Rajamani
 
Lipids Notes
Lipids NotesLipids Notes
Lipids Notes
Asad Afridi
 
Classification of enzymes
Classification of enzymesClassification of enzymes
Classification of enzymes
Rakhi Adarsh
 
Phospholipids
PhospholipidsPhospholipids
Phospholipids
Ashfaq Ahmad
 
Protein classification
Protein classificationProtein classification
Protein classification
Dr. Aamir Ali Khan
 
The proteins metabolism
The proteins metabolismThe proteins metabolism
The proteins metabolism
Dr Hakim Mehenni
 
amino acids
amino acidsamino acids
amino acids
Ameenah
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids
madhula
 
Proteins: Biochemistry
Proteins: BiochemistryProteins: Biochemistry
Proteins: Biochemistry
SHIVANEE VYAS
 
Classification of protein
Classification of proteinClassification of protein
Classification of protein
Dr. d y patil acs college pimpri pune
 
Biochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An Introduction
Biochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An IntroductionBiochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An Introduction
Biochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An Introduction
Princy Agarwal
 
Protein chemistry
Protein chemistry Protein chemistry
Protein chemistry
subramaniam sethupathy
 
Amino acids and Structure of Proteins
Amino acids and Structure of ProteinsAmino acids and Structure of Proteins
Amino acids and Structure of Proteins
Sehrish Nadyme
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
Sidra Javed
 
Digestion and absorption of lipids
Digestion and absorption of lipidsDigestion and absorption of lipids
Digestion and absorption of lipids
Ashok Katta
 
proteins and its classification
proteins and its classificationproteins and its classification
proteins and its classification
Amit Kumar
 
Lipids
LipidsLipids

What's hot (20)

Amino acid
Amino acid Amino acid
Amino acid
 
Glycolysis
GlycolysisGlycolysis
Glycolysis
 
classification of Amino acids
classification of Amino acids classification of Amino acids
classification of Amino acids
 
Krebs cycle
Krebs cycleKrebs cycle
Krebs cycle
 
Lipids Notes
Lipids NotesLipids Notes
Lipids Notes
 
Classification of enzymes
Classification of enzymesClassification of enzymes
Classification of enzymes
 
Phospholipids
PhospholipidsPhospholipids
Phospholipids
 
Protein classification
Protein classificationProtein classification
Protein classification
 
The proteins metabolism
The proteins metabolismThe proteins metabolism
The proteins metabolism
 
amino acids
amino acidsamino acids
amino acids
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids
 
Proteins: Biochemistry
Proteins: BiochemistryProteins: Biochemistry
Proteins: Biochemistry
 
Classification of protein
Classification of proteinClassification of protein
Classification of protein
 
Biochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An Introduction
Biochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An IntroductionBiochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An Introduction
Biochemistry, Biomolecules and Cell: An Introduction
 
Protein chemistry
Protein chemistry Protein chemistry
Protein chemistry
 
Amino acids and Structure of Proteins
Amino acids and Structure of ProteinsAmino acids and Structure of Proteins
Amino acids and Structure of Proteins
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
 
Digestion and absorption of lipids
Digestion and absorption of lipidsDigestion and absorption of lipids
Digestion and absorption of lipids
 
proteins and its classification
proteins and its classificationproteins and its classification
proteins and its classification
 
Lipids
LipidsLipids
Lipids
 

Viewers also liked

Protein
ProteinProtein
Protein
Ch'an Khun
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
deepika46
 
Proteins slides
Proteins slidesProteins slides
Proteins slides
Quanina Quan
 
Chemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acidsChemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acids
Namrata Chhabra
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteinsPlasma proteins
Plasma proteins
Namrata Chhabra
 
Chemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acidsChemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acids
Namrata Chhabra
 
Reactions of amino acids
Reactions of amino acidsReactions of amino acids
Reactions of amino acids
Namrata Chhabra
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Protein
ProteinProtein
Protein
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
 
Proteins slides
Proteins slidesProteins slides
Proteins slides
 
Chemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acidsChemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acids
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteinsPlasma proteins
Plasma proteins
 
Chemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acidsChemistry of amino acids
Chemistry of amino acids
 
Reactions of amino acids
Reactions of amino acidsReactions of amino acids
Reactions of amino acids
 

Similar to Proteins biochemistry

Protein Chemistry
Protein ChemistryProtein Chemistry
Protein Chemistry
Dex Marco Tiu Guibelondo
 
BIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptx
JmAlversado
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sir
Amino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sirAmino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sir
Amino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sir
KAUSHAL SAHU
 
03 amino acids and protein
03 amino acids and protein 03 amino acids and protein
03 amino acids and protein
Helwan University
 
Amino acids and protein
Amino acids and proteinAmino acids and protein
Amino acids and protein
UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA
 
Proteins lecture 10
Proteins lecture 10Proteins lecture 10
Proteins lecture 10
Ashfaq Ahmad
 
Amino acids and protein.ppt
Amino acids and protein.pptAmino acids and protein.ppt
Amino acids and protein.ppt
AbdulhussienAljebory1
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins 1.pptx
Proteins 1.pptxProteins 1.pptx
Proteins 1.pptx
AsmatAli34
 
Proteins and Amino Acids
Proteins and Amino AcidsProteins and Amino Acids
Proteins and Amino Acids
Juliet Antiaye
 
Amino Acids for Dentistry
Amino Acids  for DentistryAmino Acids  for Dentistry
Amino Acids for Dentistry
Ayman Abdo
 
chemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdf
chemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdfchemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdf
chemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdf
Santosh kumar Pasagadugula
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids
kerrymab
 
Protein by waheed
Protein by waheedProtein by waheed
Bio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptx
Bio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptxBio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptx
Bio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptx
gpushpalatha2k17
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids
CharthaGaglani
 
Ionization and Ph of Amino Acid
Ionization and Ph of Amino AcidIonization and Ph of Amino Acid
Ionization and Ph of Amino Acid
Anm Sharif
 
1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx
1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx
1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx
StanleyOdira
 
aamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptx
aamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptxaamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptx
aamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptx
amanuelmoges96
 

Similar to Proteins biochemistry (20)

Protein Chemistry
Protein ChemistryProtein Chemistry
Protein Chemistry
 
BIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY_GROUP2_REPORT.pptx
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids
 
Amino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sir
Amino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sirAmino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sir
Amino acids structure classification & function by KK Sahu sir
 
03 amino acids and protein
03 amino acids and protein 03 amino acids and protein
03 amino acids and protein
 
Amino acids and protein
Amino acids and proteinAmino acids and protein
Amino acids and protein
 
Proteins lecture 10
Proteins lecture 10Proteins lecture 10
Proteins lecture 10
 
Amino acids and protein.ppt
Amino acids and protein.pptAmino acids and protein.ppt
Amino acids and protein.ppt
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
 
Proteins 1.pptx
Proteins 1.pptxProteins 1.pptx
Proteins 1.pptx
 
Proteins and Amino Acids
Proteins and Amino AcidsProteins and Amino Acids
Proteins and Amino Acids
 
Amino Acids for Dentistry
Amino Acids  for DentistryAmino Acids  for Dentistry
Amino Acids for Dentistry
 
chemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdf
chemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdfchemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdf
chemistry of amino acids and proteins for I AHS.pdf
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids
 
Protein by waheed
Protein by waheedProtein by waheed
Protein by waheed
 
Bio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptx
Bio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptxBio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptx
Bio Molecules [Autosaved]- essential.pptx
 
Amino acids
Amino acidsAmino acids
Amino acids
 
Ionization and Ph of Amino Acid
Ionization and Ph of Amino AcidIonization and Ph of Amino Acid
Ionization and Ph of Amino Acid
 
1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx
1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx
1. Amino acids and proteins.pptx
 
aamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptx
aamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptxaamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptx
aamino acids and proteinsHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH.pptx
 

More from Kareem Hussien

Fm
FmFm
Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
Kareem Hussien
 
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)
Kareem Hussien
 
Lab diagnosis of viral infection
Lab diagnosis of viral infectionLab diagnosis of viral infection
Lab diagnosis of viral infection
Kareem Hussien
 
Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry
Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry
Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry
Kareem Hussien
 
Medical Terminology of the body systems
Medical Terminology of the body systemsMedical Terminology of the body systems
Medical Terminology of the body systems
Kareem Hussien
 
Medical terminlogy
Medical terminlogyMedical terminlogy
Medical terminlogy
Kareem Hussien
 

More from Kareem Hussien (7)

Fm
FmFm
Fm
 
Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
Investigations of Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
 
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (tb)
 
Lab diagnosis of viral infection
Lab diagnosis of viral infectionLab diagnosis of viral infection
Lab diagnosis of viral infection
 
Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry
Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry
Carbohydrate and Lipid biochemistry
 
Medical Terminology of the body systems
Medical Terminology of the body systemsMedical Terminology of the body systems
Medical Terminology of the body systems
 
Medical terminlogy
Medical terminlogyMedical terminlogy
Medical terminlogy
 

Recently uploaded

CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDFCTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
hammadmughal76316
 
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List ScanningOdoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Celine George
 
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdfAZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
OlivierLumeau1
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
MJDuyan
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
lakitawilson
 
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj TripathiPower of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Pankaj523992
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cátedra Banco Santander
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Julie Sarpy
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
artenzmartenkai
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
NurFitriah45
 
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 SlidesE-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
MJDuyan
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDFCTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
 
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List ScanningOdoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
 
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdfAZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals Summary.pdf
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
 
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
How To Update One2many Field From OnChange of Field in Odoo 17
 
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj TripathiPower of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
Power of Ignored Skills: Change the Way You Think and Decide by Manoj Tripathi
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
What is Packaging of Products in Odoo 17
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 24/254
 
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 SlidesE-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
 
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 

Proteins biochemistry

  • 3.  Proteins are organic nitrogenous compounds formed of C H O & “N”  Proteins are the polymers of 20 naturally occurring amino acids  Amino acids are organic acids in which one H is replaced by NH3 usually at α carbon (next to COOH group)  All amino acids have in common  central α carbon to which COOH & H & NH2 are attached  α carbon is also attached to a side chain called R group which is different for each amino acid  N and C terminals  There are 3 categories of Amino acids 1. Primary protein amino acids 2. Non primary protein amino acids 3. Non protein amino acids
  • 4.  DYNAMIC 1. Transport of molecules across cell membrane or between cells  Haemoglobin carries oxygen  Protein carriers carry glucose across cell membrane  Transferrin carry iron  Albumin carries Ca, fatty acids and bile pigments 2. Catalytic role : Enzymes that are protein in nature 3. Metabolic regulations : some hormones are protein like Insulin 4. Contraction of the muscle : actin and myosin are proteins 5. Storage : ferritin is storage form of iron  STRUCTURAL 1. They are components of cell membrane, cytoplasm and cell organelles 2. Mechanical support  Collagen and elastin  ligaments tendon and blood vessels  Keratin  skin, hair and nails  Ossien  bone
  • 5. Classification of AA structure aliphatic aromatic Hetero-cyclic Optical activity D & L isomers Non active R polarity Polar non fate glucogenic ketogenic mixed value essential Non- Semi-
  • 6. A. Aliphatic (have no ring structure) 1. Neutral : (NH2=COOH) ex. Glycine 2. Basic : (NH2>COOH) ex. arginine 3. Acidic : (COOH>NH2) ex. Aspartic acid 4. With NH2 in their side chain ex. Asparagine B. Aromatic (with benzene or phenol rings) Ex. Phenylalanine & tyrosine C. Heterocyclic (has also other types of rings) Ex. Histidine & tryptophan
  • 8.  All amino acids are Optically active and show D & L Isomers as they contain an asymmetric α carbon except “glycine” which is non optically active  D-amino acids : with their NH2 to the right of α carbon  L-amino acids : with their NH2 to the left of α carbon  All of the amino acids in our body are of the L-amino acids (3aks el sugars)
  • 9. 1. Non polar (hydrophobic) ( have no reacting groups) (least soluble in water) (do not bind or give protons) Ex. Alanine , leusine  Their side chains tend to coalesce interiorly in an aqueous solution (hydrophobicity) like a drop of oil in water 2. Polar (hydrophilic) (have reacting groups) A. Polar Uncharged (have Neutral polar functional group that can hydrogen bond with water) (containing OH, SH OR NH ) B. Polar Charged (have an active reactive group) (offering or demanding protons) so they may be ACIDIC or BASIC
  • 11. 1. Essential amino acids Cant be synthesized in the body so must be taken in the diet Ex. Valine , leucine , isoleucine ,….. 1. Non essential amino acids Can be synthesized in the body Ex. Glycine , alanine , aspartic ,…..  Arginine and Histidine are called semi-essential because they are synthesized in the body in a rate enough for adults but not for growing individuals
  • 13. 1. Ketogenic amino acids Give rise to ketone bodies and fats in the catabolic way Ex. Leucine 1. Glucogenic amino acid Give rise to carbohydrates … Ex. glycine, serine ,…. 1. Mixed amino acids Part will enter the fatty acid metabolic pathway .. The other into glucose pathway Ex. Lysine , tryptophan ,….
  • 15. 1. Optical activity 2. Amphoteric property In solution, amino acids act as both acid and alkali d.t the presence of acidic group (COOH-) and basic group (-NH2) 3. Isoelectric point (zwitter ion state) It’s the pH at which the protein carries equal +ve and –ve charges At this point  Proteins and enzymes loose their function  Their viscosity in solution becomes maximal  Their solubility becomes minimal (easily precipitated)
  • 16.  Amino acids  peptide and polypeptides  protein  Amino acids form peptides in a “dehydration” reaction (peptide bonds)  Polypeptides contain 10-100 amino acid .. Peptides with more than 100 amino acids are called proteins  2 types of bonds are responsible for the structure 1. Covalent (strong bonds)(favor stability resist denaturation) A. Peptide bonds : COOH combines NH3 with removal of water B. Disulphide bonds : between 2 Cysteine a.a in the same or diff polypeptide chains 2. Non covalent (weak bonds)(favor protein folding) A. Hydrogen bonds B. Hydrophobic bonds (help stabilize protein structure) C. Ionic bonds )repulsive or attractive)
  • 18.  Proteins have a 3 dimensional shape (primary, secondary and tertiary structure) that is required for its function .. Some proteins formed of 2 or more polypeptide chains have also a quaternary structure  Primary : refers to no. and sequence of a.a in polypeptide chain (straight)  Secondary : as a result of coiling and folding of the polypeptide chain, it takes two forms either (α-helical) or (β-pleated sheets)  Tertiary : it is the three dimensional structure of each polypeptide chain, it takes the form of either (fibrous) or (globular) domains  Quaternary : in proteins of 2 or more polypeptide chains .. An example of this is hemoglobin made of 2 α and 2 β chains
  • 20.  Loss of native structure by many causes leading to changes in secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure due to rupture of non covalent bonds (never peptide bond) with loss of biological activity  All levels of structure are disrupted except primary (strong peptide bond)  CAUSES  Physical causes : heating above 70, powerful shaking, repeated freezing and melting, UV and high pressure  Chemical causes : urea, alcohol, strong bases & acids, salts of heavy metals as MG  EFFECTS  Decreased solubility and rate of diffusion  Increased viscosity due to unfolding  Loss of activity  Change in antigenic property