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‫طريقة‬ ‫الستخدام‬ ‫واألخصائيين‬ ‫األهل‬ ‫وتدريب‬ ‫تعليم‬‫النمذجة‬‫ت‬ ‫في‬‫عليم‬
‫التأخر‬ ‫ذوي‬ ‫األطفال‬ ‫وتدريب‬‫النمائي‬‫التوحد‬ ‫أطفال‬ ً‫ا‬‫وخاصت‬
Modeling Intervention (Live and Video Modeling)
‫الدكتور‬/‫الزاير‬ ‫منصور‬ ‫محمد‬
‫وتربوي‬ ‫تعليمي‬ ‫مستشار‬
‫العرب‬ ‫المملكة‬ ،‫الشرقية‬ ‫المنطقة‬ ،‫والتربوية‬ ‫التعليمية‬ ‫لالستشارات‬ ‫دمج‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫مدير‬‫السعودية‬ ‫ية‬
‫إعاقة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تكنو‬ ‫مؤتمر‬
December, 2017
‫العمل‬ ‫ورشة‬ ‫أهداف‬:
‫برنامج‬ ‫يعتبر‬‫النمذجة‬‫الدراسات‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫من‬ ً‫ا‬‫علمي‬ ‫جدارتها‬ ‫المثبت‬ ‫األساسية‬ ‫البرامج‬ ‫من‬
‫والموصى‬‫العالمية‬ ‫المراكز‬ ‫من‬ ‫العديد‬ ‫من‬ ‫بها‬.
‫بعد‬‫على‬ ‫قادرين‬ ‫يكونون‬ ‫سوف‬ ‫المشاركين‬ ،‫العمل‬ ‫ورشة‬ ‫من‬ ‫االنتهاء‬:
-‫تحديد‬‫بواسطة‬ ‫التدخل‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫جميع‬ ‫بين‬ ‫الفروق‬‫النمدجة‬
-‫تطبيق‬‫ورشة‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫عملي‬‫العمل‬
‫مجال‬ ‫في‬ ‫واألخصائيين‬ ‫األهل‬ ‫وتعليم‬ ‫تدريب‬ ‫بين‬ ‫الفرق‬
‫الخاصة‬ ‫االحتياجات‬
‫األخصائيين‬ ‫األهل‬
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
‫التوحد‬
A child with an autism usually has difficulties in at least one broad
areas:
• Communication (verbal and nonverbal),
• Social interactions, and
• Restricted or repetitive behavior or interests.
Developmental Delay
‫الـتأخر‬‫النمائي‬
The condition of a child being less developed mentally or physically
than is normal for its age.
Why?
‫كيف‬‫ا‬‫األخصائي‬ ‫يختار‬ ‫كيف‬ ‫لطفلي؟‬ ‫الصحيح‬ ‫التدخل‬ ‫ختار‬
‫الطفل؟‬ ‫مع‬ ‫للعمل‬ ‫البرنامج‬
The National Autism
center’s
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1B4aJu
B4nUk
Interventions
There are many interventions to teach and support
individuals with ASD, including:
• Behavioral Package
• Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children
• Joint Attention Intervention
• Modeling
• Naturalistic Teaching Strategies
• Peer Training Package
• Schedules
• Self-management
• Story-based Intervention Package or social stories
Modeling Interventions
By Albert Bandura in 1960-1961
The best and clearest way to teach someone what to do is to show him
what to do.
Modeling is an observation process during which an individual may
observe a model or models to increase the possibility that the individual
imitates or adapts the target behavior.
Modeling Interventions
Two types of modeling interventions:
• Live modeling
• Video modeling
Live modeling occurs when
an individual watches a live
model or models in order to
imitate or learn new target
behaviors, including: adults,
peers, and siblings live
modeling interventions.
What do we do when implementing a live
modeling intervention?
‫كيفية‬‫تطبيق‬‫النموذج‬‫المباشر‬
Step 1: Selecting Target
Behavior
It is important to keep in mind
general child development as
well as the level at which the
child is currently functioning.
Adult
Peer
SiblingStep 2: Select the Models
Step 3: Writing a Script or
Developing a Task Analysis
Writing a Script
Developing a Task Analysis
Step 4: Obtaining Baseline
Data
Step 5: Think about the live
modeling
• Deciding Which Aspects to
perform
• Prepare the Models
• Practice
• Including Spoken Instructions or
not
Step 6: Arranging the
Teaching Environment
Step 7: Presenting or showing
the model to the child
Step 8: Monitoring Progress
to determine if change need
to be made
Step 9: Troubleshooting or
problem solve if progress is
slow
Step 10: Fading and
Promoting Generalization and
Maintenance
‫من؟‬ ‫التأكد‬ ‫يجب‬ ‫التدخل‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫قبل‬
‫يستطيع‬ ‫المستهدف‬ ‫الشخص‬:
‫التقليد‬
‫التركيز‬
Imitate or orient and attend to models
Groups activity
Video modeling occurs when
an individual watches a video
model or models to imitate or
acquire targeted skills or
behaviors, including: adults,
peers, point – of – you, and
the self.
point – of – you video modeling
Point-of-View Video Modeling Example
https://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=hzYFBZPaaoc
self video modeling example
https://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=s_n1aZy1NV8&list=PLUV-
VLbs4zCpnKD2A7-
3I_2BvkNuUHm-S
Peer video modeling example
https://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=3Ra00nNhsgI
iPad-Based Video Modeling Intervention
Using iPad – based video modeling instead of using the normal video
modeling can help caregivers and parents to provide high quality
models faster and easier.
Video Prompting Intervention
Video modeling involves having a student watch an extended video and
typically entails providing instruction and support for attention and
imitation of targeted skills. However, with video prompting, instead of
watching the entire video, sub videos will be provided.
What do we do when implementing a video
modeling intervention?
‫بالفيديو‬ ‫النموذج‬ ‫تطبيق‬ ‫كيفية‬
Step 1: Selecting Target
Behavior
It is important to keep in mind
general child development as
well as the level at which the
child is currently functioning.
Step 2: Getting the Right
Equipment
Step 3: Writing a Script or
Developing a Task Analysis
Writing a Script
Developing a Task Analysis
Step 4: Obtaining Baseline
Data
Step 5: Making the Video
• Deciding Which Aspects to Film
• Select and Prepare the Model
• Record the video
• Including Spoken Instructions
• Edit the video
Step 6: Arranging the
Teaching Environment
Step 7: Presenting or showing
the video to the child
Facilitate skill development
following the viewing of the
video or before
Step 8: Monitoring Progress
to determine if change need
to be made
Step 9: Troubleshooting or
problem solve if progress is
slow
Step 10: Fading and
Promoting Generalization and
Maintenance
Live vs Video Modeling
Researchers have noted that video modeling has several advantages over live modeling:
First, videotapes can be made and used in many naturalistic settings where it would not be
as simple to use live models.
Second, the teacher or therapist has the opportunity to re-record and improve the
videotape until achieving the desired scene or behavior.
Third, it is difficult to present a live model every time for target students to observe;
therefore, using a videotape makes it simple to re-watch a model or a behavior.
Fourth, videotapes can be used for multiple children .
Finally, as the previous researchers showed, video modeling appears to be more effective
more quickly than live modeling; it also provides better generalization for children with
ASD (Banda et al., 2010; Charlop-Christy et al., 2000; Sherer et al., 2001). On the other
hand, some studies suggest that live or in viva modeling is also effective to teach children
language and communication skills. One advantage of live modeling is that it is more
natural. Another advantage is that live models can prompt and support the target child
during the occurrence of an intervention.
Four Factors Necessary for Model
Intervention to be Effective
Researchers have identified four factors that are necessary to create an
effective model:
• length of modeling, (time of the video, how many times , and
different environments).
• competency of modeling,
• nature of the relationship, (with different people) and
• the children’s attention to the model.
Groups activity
An example for a
study:
Purpose of the Study:
The primary purpose of this
study was to examine the
effectiveness of an iPad-based
video modeling plus
prompting package to teach
conversational skills to
children with autism.
Step 1: Selecting Target
Behavior
Step 2: Getting the Right
Equipment
Step 3: Writing a Script or
Developing a Task Analysis
Writing a Script
Developing a Task Analysis
Step 4: Obtaining Baseline
Data
‫جمع‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫السلوكي‬ ‫الهدف‬ ‫تغيير‬ ‫تم‬
‫األولية‬ ‫المعلومات‬
‫الخطوة‬ ‫الى‬ ‫الرجوع‬ ‫تم‬1
An example of the observational code of Episodes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
Room # Student # Date: Question #
Antecedent support Teacher Student Response Student’s verbal response
Video Prompt
- Attend
- N Attend
Question _____
1 2 3
S NS
If NS what:
Answer
Verbal response
AP ___ 5 10
Q LQ
NA___ 5 10
No ___
Comment _____
1 2 3
S NS
If NS what:
Comment or Reply
Verbal response
AP ___ 5 10
Q LQ
NA___ 5 10
No ___
Step 5: Making the Video
• Deciding Which Aspects to Film
• Select and Prepare the Model
• Record the video
• Including Spoken Instructions
• Edit the video
Experimental Design and Procedures
The procedure was part of the regular curriculum or activities, and participants did not miss any regularly
scheduled work/class. Training sessions to use modeling intervention were provided for teachers. Data collected
by two graduate students enrolled at the University of Northern Iowa.
A Single – Subject multiple across participants design was used to examine the effects of the four experimental
conditions:
1. Baseline (no intervention),
2. Video modeling,
3. Video modeling plus video prompting 1,
4. Video modeling plus video prompting 2, and
5. Video modeling plus video prompting 3,
Experimental sessions occurred five days a week in each classroom.
Step 6: Arranging the
Teaching Environment
Step 7: Presenting or showing
the video to the child
Facilitate skill development
following the viewing of the
video
Step 8: Monitoring Progress
to determine if change need
to be made
Step 9: Troubleshooting or
problem solve if progress is
slow
RESULTS
RESULTS
Step 10: Fading and
Promoting Generalization and
Maintenance
Quality plus fidelity of the video modeling training sessions
Introduction to video modeling Viewing the video After the video
Get students’ attention and remove
distractions
Turn the video on Summarize information about target
skills
Greet the student Identify the target skills for the student Describe upcoming (group opening
activity)
Specify today goal Facilitate the student’s imitation and
performance of the target skills
Describe what the teacher expects from
the student to perform the target skills
Identify skills to be practiced and
learned
Give the student opportunities to practice
the skills
Explain that it is important to learn the
skills and the benefit of modeling
Give feedback
Have the student watch the video for the
second time without any support or
interruption and turn off the video
Conclusion
The benefits of modeling interventions can be larger and broader. A
variety of skills and behaviors can be addressed using modeling
interventions in general. The use of video modeling and prompting can
create many opportunities for children with disabilities, including the
children with ASD to learn and develop positive skills or behaviors.
Thank you
Questions
1

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عرض د.محمد منصور الزاير لمؤتمر تكنو لا اعاقة تعليم وتدريب الأهل والأخصائيين لاستخدام طريقة النمذجة في تعليم وتدريب الأطفال ذوي التأخر النمائي وخاصة أطفال التوحد

  • 1. ‫طريقة‬ ‫الستخدام‬ ‫واألخصائيين‬ ‫األهل‬ ‫وتدريب‬ ‫تعليم‬‫النمذجة‬‫ت‬ ‫في‬‫عليم‬ ‫التأخر‬ ‫ذوي‬ ‫األطفال‬ ‫وتدريب‬‫النمائي‬‫التوحد‬ ‫أطفال‬ ً‫ا‬‫وخاصت‬ Modeling Intervention (Live and Video Modeling) ‫الدكتور‬/‫الزاير‬ ‫منصور‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫وتربوي‬ ‫تعليمي‬ ‫مستشار‬ ‫العرب‬ ‫المملكة‬ ،‫الشرقية‬ ‫المنطقة‬ ،‫والتربوية‬ ‫التعليمية‬ ‫لالستشارات‬ ‫دمج‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫مدير‬‫السعودية‬ ‫ية‬ ‫إعاقة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تكنو‬ ‫مؤتمر‬ December, 2017
  • 2. ‫العمل‬ ‫ورشة‬ ‫أهداف‬: ‫برنامج‬ ‫يعتبر‬‫النمذجة‬‫الدراسات‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫من‬ ً‫ا‬‫علمي‬ ‫جدارتها‬ ‫المثبت‬ ‫األساسية‬ ‫البرامج‬ ‫من‬ ‫والموصى‬‫العالمية‬ ‫المراكز‬ ‫من‬ ‫العديد‬ ‫من‬ ‫بها‬. ‫بعد‬‫على‬ ‫قادرين‬ ‫يكونون‬ ‫سوف‬ ‫المشاركين‬ ،‫العمل‬ ‫ورشة‬ ‫من‬ ‫االنتهاء‬: -‫تحديد‬‫بواسطة‬ ‫التدخل‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫جميع‬ ‫بين‬ ‫الفروق‬‫النمدجة‬ -‫تطبيق‬‫ورشة‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫عملي‬‫العمل‬
  • 3.
  • 4. ‫مجال‬ ‫في‬ ‫واألخصائيين‬ ‫األهل‬ ‫وتعليم‬ ‫تدريب‬ ‫بين‬ ‫الفرق‬ ‫الخاصة‬ ‫االحتياجات‬ ‫األخصائيين‬ ‫األهل‬
  • 5. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ‫التوحد‬ A child with an autism usually has difficulties in at least one broad areas: • Communication (verbal and nonverbal), • Social interactions, and • Restricted or repetitive behavior or interests.
  • 6. Developmental Delay ‫الـتأخر‬‫النمائي‬ The condition of a child being less developed mentally or physically than is normal for its age. Why?
  • 7. ‫كيف‬‫ا‬‫األخصائي‬ ‫يختار‬ ‫كيف‬ ‫لطفلي؟‬ ‫الصحيح‬ ‫التدخل‬ ‫ختار‬ ‫الطفل؟‬ ‫مع‬ ‫للعمل‬ ‫البرنامج‬
  • 9. Interventions There are many interventions to teach and support individuals with ASD, including: • Behavioral Package • Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children • Joint Attention Intervention • Modeling • Naturalistic Teaching Strategies • Peer Training Package • Schedules • Self-management • Story-based Intervention Package or social stories
  • 10. Modeling Interventions By Albert Bandura in 1960-1961 The best and clearest way to teach someone what to do is to show him what to do. Modeling is an observation process during which an individual may observe a model or models to increase the possibility that the individual imitates or adapts the target behavior.
  • 11. Modeling Interventions Two types of modeling interventions: • Live modeling • Video modeling
  • 12. Live modeling occurs when an individual watches a live model or models in order to imitate or learn new target behaviors, including: adults, peers, and siblings live modeling interventions.
  • 13. What do we do when implementing a live modeling intervention? ‫كيفية‬‫تطبيق‬‫النموذج‬‫المباشر‬
  • 14. Step 1: Selecting Target Behavior It is important to keep in mind general child development as well as the level at which the child is currently functioning.
  • 16. Step 3: Writing a Script or Developing a Task Analysis Writing a Script Developing a Task Analysis
  • 17. Step 4: Obtaining Baseline Data
  • 18. Step 5: Think about the live modeling • Deciding Which Aspects to perform • Prepare the Models • Practice • Including Spoken Instructions or not
  • 19. Step 6: Arranging the Teaching Environment
  • 20. Step 7: Presenting or showing the model to the child
  • 21. Step 8: Monitoring Progress to determine if change need to be made
  • 22. Step 9: Troubleshooting or problem solve if progress is slow
  • 23. Step 10: Fading and Promoting Generalization and Maintenance
  • 24. ‫من؟‬ ‫التأكد‬ ‫يجب‬ ‫التدخل‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫يستطيع‬ ‫المستهدف‬ ‫الشخص‬: ‫التقليد‬ ‫التركيز‬ Imitate or orient and attend to models
  • 26. Video modeling occurs when an individual watches a video model or models to imitate or acquire targeted skills or behaviors, including: adults, peers, point – of – you, and the self.
  • 27. point – of – you video modeling
  • 28. Point-of-View Video Modeling Example https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=hzYFBZPaaoc
  • 29. self video modeling example https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=s_n1aZy1NV8&list=PLUV- VLbs4zCpnKD2A7- 3I_2BvkNuUHm-S
  • 30. Peer video modeling example https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=3Ra00nNhsgI
  • 31. iPad-Based Video Modeling Intervention Using iPad – based video modeling instead of using the normal video modeling can help caregivers and parents to provide high quality models faster and easier.
  • 32. Video Prompting Intervention Video modeling involves having a student watch an extended video and typically entails providing instruction and support for attention and imitation of targeted skills. However, with video prompting, instead of watching the entire video, sub videos will be provided.
  • 33. What do we do when implementing a video modeling intervention? ‫بالفيديو‬ ‫النموذج‬ ‫تطبيق‬ ‫كيفية‬
  • 34. Step 1: Selecting Target Behavior It is important to keep in mind general child development as well as the level at which the child is currently functioning.
  • 35. Step 2: Getting the Right Equipment
  • 36. Step 3: Writing a Script or Developing a Task Analysis Writing a Script Developing a Task Analysis
  • 37. Step 4: Obtaining Baseline Data
  • 38. Step 5: Making the Video • Deciding Which Aspects to Film • Select and Prepare the Model • Record the video • Including Spoken Instructions • Edit the video
  • 39. Step 6: Arranging the Teaching Environment
  • 40. Step 7: Presenting or showing the video to the child Facilitate skill development following the viewing of the video or before
  • 41. Step 8: Monitoring Progress to determine if change need to be made
  • 42. Step 9: Troubleshooting or problem solve if progress is slow
  • 43. Step 10: Fading and Promoting Generalization and Maintenance
  • 44. Live vs Video Modeling Researchers have noted that video modeling has several advantages over live modeling: First, videotapes can be made and used in many naturalistic settings where it would not be as simple to use live models. Second, the teacher or therapist has the opportunity to re-record and improve the videotape until achieving the desired scene or behavior. Third, it is difficult to present a live model every time for target students to observe; therefore, using a videotape makes it simple to re-watch a model or a behavior. Fourth, videotapes can be used for multiple children . Finally, as the previous researchers showed, video modeling appears to be more effective more quickly than live modeling; it also provides better generalization for children with ASD (Banda et al., 2010; Charlop-Christy et al., 2000; Sherer et al., 2001). On the other hand, some studies suggest that live or in viva modeling is also effective to teach children language and communication skills. One advantage of live modeling is that it is more natural. Another advantage is that live models can prompt and support the target child during the occurrence of an intervention.
  • 45. Four Factors Necessary for Model Intervention to be Effective Researchers have identified four factors that are necessary to create an effective model: • length of modeling, (time of the video, how many times , and different environments). • competency of modeling, • nature of the relationship, (with different people) and • the children’s attention to the model.
  • 47. An example for a study: Purpose of the Study: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an iPad-based video modeling plus prompting package to teach conversational skills to children with autism.
  • 48. Step 1: Selecting Target Behavior
  • 49. Step 2: Getting the Right Equipment
  • 50. Step 3: Writing a Script or Developing a Task Analysis Writing a Script Developing a Task Analysis
  • 51. Step 4: Obtaining Baseline Data ‫جمع‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫السلوكي‬ ‫الهدف‬ ‫تغيير‬ ‫تم‬ ‫األولية‬ ‫المعلومات‬ ‫الخطوة‬ ‫الى‬ ‫الرجوع‬ ‫تم‬1
  • 52. An example of the observational code of Episodes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Room # Student # Date: Question # Antecedent support Teacher Student Response Student’s verbal response Video Prompt - Attend - N Attend Question _____ 1 2 3 S NS If NS what: Answer Verbal response AP ___ 5 10 Q LQ NA___ 5 10 No ___ Comment _____ 1 2 3 S NS If NS what: Comment or Reply Verbal response AP ___ 5 10 Q LQ NA___ 5 10 No ___
  • 53. Step 5: Making the Video • Deciding Which Aspects to Film • Select and Prepare the Model • Record the video • Including Spoken Instructions • Edit the video
  • 54. Experimental Design and Procedures The procedure was part of the regular curriculum or activities, and participants did not miss any regularly scheduled work/class. Training sessions to use modeling intervention were provided for teachers. Data collected by two graduate students enrolled at the University of Northern Iowa. A Single – Subject multiple across participants design was used to examine the effects of the four experimental conditions: 1. Baseline (no intervention), 2. Video modeling, 3. Video modeling plus video prompting 1, 4. Video modeling plus video prompting 2, and 5. Video modeling plus video prompting 3, Experimental sessions occurred five days a week in each classroom.
  • 55. Step 6: Arranging the Teaching Environment
  • 56. Step 7: Presenting or showing the video to the child Facilitate skill development following the viewing of the video
  • 57. Step 8: Monitoring Progress to determine if change need to be made
  • 58. Step 9: Troubleshooting or problem solve if progress is slow
  • 61. Step 10: Fading and Promoting Generalization and Maintenance
  • 62. Quality plus fidelity of the video modeling training sessions Introduction to video modeling Viewing the video After the video Get students’ attention and remove distractions Turn the video on Summarize information about target skills Greet the student Identify the target skills for the student Describe upcoming (group opening activity) Specify today goal Facilitate the student’s imitation and performance of the target skills Describe what the teacher expects from the student to perform the target skills Identify skills to be practiced and learned Give the student opportunities to practice the skills Explain that it is important to learn the skills and the benefit of modeling Give feedback Have the student watch the video for the second time without any support or interruption and turn off the video
  • 63. Conclusion The benefits of modeling interventions can be larger and broader. A variety of skills and behaviors can be addressed using modeling interventions in general. The use of video modeling and prompting can create many opportunities for children with disabilities, including the children with ASD to learn and develop positive skills or behaviors.
  • 65. 1