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Multimedia techniques for helping
learning disabilities students: The case
of Centers in Bahrain
Dr. Hadeel ALOBAIDY DR. Ghadeer ISMAIL
Nawal ASIF , Maryam AL JABER and Badreya AL DOSERI
College of Information Technology, University of Bahrain
Kingdom of Bahrain
70 million people in the
world suffer from
Autism Spectrum Disorder
(ASD)
Autism forms 60% of the total disabilities people
suffer from, in Bahrain specifically.
1
Problems
• Not all of the Centers in Bahrain use IT solutions for learning
disabilities.
• People do not know the benefits of multimedia on the children,
they do not support the idea of eLearning systems and mobile
applications.
• Increased communication gap between parents and teachers, due
to busy routines.
• Children are different from each other, there needs are to be
catered properly and separately.
2
Objectives
• To examine the use of multimedia techniques to help students
with learning disabilities.
• To make use of previous studies to research the effect of
multimedia techniques on students in Bahrain.
• To investigate the influence of multimedia on the students
facing difficulties in learning.
• To investigate that such technologies have a positive impact on
the learning disabilities of the children.
3
4
Objectives (continued)
• To draw on information from the Ministry of
Development and also from Private Centers in Bahrain
which have students with learning disabilities.
• To find out what kind of disabilities are common in
Bahrain and which gender is the most affected?
• To investigate what the Centers in Bahrain find about
the impact of using multimedia techniques.
5
Methodology
• Personal Interviews with the representatives of the
11 Private Centre and Ministry of Development.
• Teachers of the students with learning disabilities.
• Parents of the children with learning disabilities.
6
Findings
Basic details about the students (Gender, Nationality and
Types of Disabilities) from Ministry of Development
7
8% 3%
25%
17%4%
5%
15%
4%
14%
5%
Total Student of Each center
Enmaa
Bedaya
Alia
AlTafaol
Alhidd Center
AlManal(Dr.Badreya)
Hope institute
Ria institute
AlDana
AlWafa
Data from the Private Centres
8
Basic information from the Private Centre collectively
77%
23%
Nationality
Bahraini Non-Bahraini
68%
32%
Gender
male
female
9
0%
100
%
Use of multimedia
No
yes
90%
10%
What Are the Results of using those
multimedia Or Technology?
Good
Bad
90%
10%
Do you think Multimedia
or technology helps in
fighting the issue ?
Yes
No
10
0%
60%
12% 15%
3% 1%
0%5%
0%
1%
0%
0%
1%
0%
0%
2%
3%
Your center handles what kind of
disabilities? Chromosome 16
Autism
Down Syndrome
Mental Impairment
Learning difficulties
Retardation
Barain Paralysis
Developmental
Delay Disorders
Frajialx
Brain Damage
Genetic Disorder
11
Findings from the previous studies
• Study by Ozdemir shows that the multimedia social stories have a
positive effect on the children and can be used as a tool to help them to
feel connected to the social world. But, the social stories should be
made using some guidelines as given by Gray and Garrand.
• Liu & Breslin performed an experiment on a group of 25 children
between 3 -16 years, having 20 boys and 5 girls facing Autism
Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The method applied was visual aids picture
activity, which had different pictures shown to the children using
strategy schedule under two protocols (traditional protocol and picture
activity schedule) in intervention with education and direct attention
relevant simulate task. The performance was enhanced 90% than other
groups. The children successfully performed with visual support.
12
Findings (continued)
• Another study by Dzulkifli was carried out on the students having
autism, dyslexia and other disabilities to know the effect on their
reading and attention. The strategy used to assess their
performance was to use multimedia graphics. The results were
effective and showed that colors have the potential to increase
chances of external stimuli.
• Williams et al support the efficacy of computer-based instruction
over lower tech behavioral program. They found that after
computer assisted learning, 5 of the 8 children with autism could
reliably identify 3 words when the other methods did not have
such gains. Participants could also spend more time on reading the
material given on computer and were also less resistant to it. This
shows that the learning through computer helps in gaining their
attention and somehow affects their learning ability.
13
Multimedia Techniques
• Multimedia could serve to be the right tool to help the betterment
of those students.
• The multimedia social stories, visual aids can be used as tools for
making the students learn as shown by the results of the previous
studies.
• The development of an adaptive multimedia eLearning system for
autistic learners that improves their learning skills and serves as
eLearning environment for learning disabilities also can be a
solution.
14
Proposed System
Conceptual framework of the proposed
Interactive Multimedia eLearning System
(IMeLS)
15
IMeLS
• IMeLS includes interaction, accountability and collaborability.
These all help in the communication skills where there is
interaction, and collaborability where they will be able to share
knowledge with other.
• Interactive Environment contains the personalization services
which will help the users to customize the content provided to the
autistic learner based on their disability levels.
• Lastly, and the most important one is the multimedia instruction
to show how multimedia effects the autistic children.
16
Cognitive Theory of
Multimedia
Block Diagram for the cognitive theory of multimedia
17
Cognitive Theory of
Multimedia
• Clark and Mayer claim according to the multimedia
principle which says that the students learn better from
words and pictures than from words alone. The principle
states that the text or auditory alone are less effective than
the text or narration when augmented with the visual
images.
• Hillman and Mayer state that the active learning occurs
when the learner selects, organizes and integrates the verbal
and non- verbal information, therefore these multimedia
elements are put together to make the content using both
visual and text or narration to help the autistic learners.
18
Conclusion
• Autism forms 60% of the total disabilities found in Bahrain, followed by Mental
Impairment and Down Syndrome (respectively).
• Majority of the affected children are males.
• Technology helps in the betterment of the problems being faced by the autistic children.
• Results show multimedia tools help them learn better
• Previous studies show numerous ways of using multimedia as tool to enhance learning
disabilities.
• Techniques such as visual aids, story aids should be used but only for the betterment and
not in making the case worse.
19
Recommendations
• Provide an Adaptive Multimedia eLearning system
which makes learning easier.
• Provide communication channel to lessen the gap.
• Provide personalization techniques to cater the
needs of the children specifically.
20
References
• Ozdemir, S. (2008). Using Multimedia Social Stories To Increase
Appropriate Social Engagement In Young Children With. The
Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, [online] 7(3),
pp.80-86. Available at:
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502678.pdf [Accessed 28 Feb.
2017].
• Gray, C., & Garand, J. (1993). Social Stories: Improving responses
of students with autism with accurate social information. Focus on
Autistic Behavior, 8, 1-10.
• Liu, T., & Breslin, C. M. (2013). The Effect of a Picture Activity
Schedule on Performance of the MABC–2 for Children with
Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research quarterly for exercise and
sport, 84(2), 206-21.
21
References (continued)
• Dzulkifli, M. A., & Mustafar, M. F. (2013). The influence of color on memory
performance: A review. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 20(2),
3.
• Williams, C., Wright, B., Callaghan, G., & Coughlan, B. (2002). Do children with
autism learn to read more readily by computer assisted instruction or traditional
book methods? Autism, 6, 71-91.
• Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). e-Learning and the science of instruction.
San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
• Hillman, D. C. (1999). A new method for analyzing patterns of interaction.
American Journal of Distance Education. 13(2), 37-47.
• Mayer, R. E. (2003). Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.

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عرض د هديل العبيدي

  • 1. Multimedia techniques for helping learning disabilities students: The case of Centers in Bahrain Dr. Hadeel ALOBAIDY DR. Ghadeer ISMAIL Nawal ASIF , Maryam AL JABER and Badreya AL DOSERI College of Information Technology, University of Bahrain Kingdom of Bahrain
  • 2. 70 million people in the world suffer from Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Autism forms 60% of the total disabilities people suffer from, in Bahrain specifically. 1
  • 3. Problems • Not all of the Centers in Bahrain use IT solutions for learning disabilities. • People do not know the benefits of multimedia on the children, they do not support the idea of eLearning systems and mobile applications. • Increased communication gap between parents and teachers, due to busy routines. • Children are different from each other, there needs are to be catered properly and separately. 2
  • 4. Objectives • To examine the use of multimedia techniques to help students with learning disabilities. • To make use of previous studies to research the effect of multimedia techniques on students in Bahrain. • To investigate the influence of multimedia on the students facing difficulties in learning. • To investigate that such technologies have a positive impact on the learning disabilities of the children. 3
  • 5. 4 Objectives (continued) • To draw on information from the Ministry of Development and also from Private Centers in Bahrain which have students with learning disabilities. • To find out what kind of disabilities are common in Bahrain and which gender is the most affected? • To investigate what the Centers in Bahrain find about the impact of using multimedia techniques.
  • 6. 5 Methodology • Personal Interviews with the representatives of the 11 Private Centre and Ministry of Development. • Teachers of the students with learning disabilities. • Parents of the children with learning disabilities.
  • 7. 6 Findings Basic details about the students (Gender, Nationality and Types of Disabilities) from Ministry of Development
  • 8. 7 8% 3% 25% 17%4% 5% 15% 4% 14% 5% Total Student of Each center Enmaa Bedaya Alia AlTafaol Alhidd Center AlManal(Dr.Badreya) Hope institute Ria institute AlDana AlWafa Data from the Private Centres
  • 9. 8 Basic information from the Private Centre collectively 77% 23% Nationality Bahraini Non-Bahraini 68% 32% Gender male female
  • 10. 9 0% 100 % Use of multimedia No yes 90% 10% What Are the Results of using those multimedia Or Technology? Good Bad 90% 10% Do you think Multimedia or technology helps in fighting the issue ? Yes No
  • 11. 10 0% 60% 12% 15% 3% 1% 0%5% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 2% 3% Your center handles what kind of disabilities? Chromosome 16 Autism Down Syndrome Mental Impairment Learning difficulties Retardation Barain Paralysis Developmental Delay Disorders Frajialx Brain Damage Genetic Disorder
  • 12. 11 Findings from the previous studies • Study by Ozdemir shows that the multimedia social stories have a positive effect on the children and can be used as a tool to help them to feel connected to the social world. But, the social stories should be made using some guidelines as given by Gray and Garrand. • Liu & Breslin performed an experiment on a group of 25 children between 3 -16 years, having 20 boys and 5 girls facing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The method applied was visual aids picture activity, which had different pictures shown to the children using strategy schedule under two protocols (traditional protocol and picture activity schedule) in intervention with education and direct attention relevant simulate task. The performance was enhanced 90% than other groups. The children successfully performed with visual support.
  • 13. 12 Findings (continued) • Another study by Dzulkifli was carried out on the students having autism, dyslexia and other disabilities to know the effect on their reading and attention. The strategy used to assess their performance was to use multimedia graphics. The results were effective and showed that colors have the potential to increase chances of external stimuli. • Williams et al support the efficacy of computer-based instruction over lower tech behavioral program. They found that after computer assisted learning, 5 of the 8 children with autism could reliably identify 3 words when the other methods did not have such gains. Participants could also spend more time on reading the material given on computer and were also less resistant to it. This shows that the learning through computer helps in gaining their attention and somehow affects their learning ability.
  • 14. 13 Multimedia Techniques • Multimedia could serve to be the right tool to help the betterment of those students. • The multimedia social stories, visual aids can be used as tools for making the students learn as shown by the results of the previous studies. • The development of an adaptive multimedia eLearning system for autistic learners that improves their learning skills and serves as eLearning environment for learning disabilities also can be a solution.
  • 15. 14 Proposed System Conceptual framework of the proposed Interactive Multimedia eLearning System (IMeLS)
  • 16. 15 IMeLS • IMeLS includes interaction, accountability and collaborability. These all help in the communication skills where there is interaction, and collaborability where they will be able to share knowledge with other. • Interactive Environment contains the personalization services which will help the users to customize the content provided to the autistic learner based on their disability levels. • Lastly, and the most important one is the multimedia instruction to show how multimedia effects the autistic children.
  • 17. 16 Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Block Diagram for the cognitive theory of multimedia
  • 18. 17 Cognitive Theory of Multimedia • Clark and Mayer claim according to the multimedia principle which says that the students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. The principle states that the text or auditory alone are less effective than the text or narration when augmented with the visual images. • Hillman and Mayer state that the active learning occurs when the learner selects, organizes and integrates the verbal and non- verbal information, therefore these multimedia elements are put together to make the content using both visual and text or narration to help the autistic learners.
  • 19. 18 Conclusion • Autism forms 60% of the total disabilities found in Bahrain, followed by Mental Impairment and Down Syndrome (respectively). • Majority of the affected children are males. • Technology helps in the betterment of the problems being faced by the autistic children. • Results show multimedia tools help them learn better • Previous studies show numerous ways of using multimedia as tool to enhance learning disabilities. • Techniques such as visual aids, story aids should be used but only for the betterment and not in making the case worse.
  • 20. 19 Recommendations • Provide an Adaptive Multimedia eLearning system which makes learning easier. • Provide communication channel to lessen the gap. • Provide personalization techniques to cater the needs of the children specifically.
  • 21. 20 References • Ozdemir, S. (2008). Using Multimedia Social Stories To Increase Appropriate Social Engagement In Young Children With. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, [online] 7(3), pp.80-86. Available at: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502678.pdf [Accessed 28 Feb. 2017]. • Gray, C., & Garand, J. (1993). Social Stories: Improving responses of students with autism with accurate social information. Focus on Autistic Behavior, 8, 1-10. • Liu, T., & Breslin, C. M. (2013). The Effect of a Picture Activity Schedule on Performance of the MABC–2 for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 84(2), 206-21.
  • 22. 21 References (continued) • Dzulkifli, M. A., & Mustafar, M. F. (2013). The influence of color on memory performance: A review. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 20(2), 3. • Williams, C., Wright, B., Callaghan, G., & Coughlan, B. (2002). Do children with autism learn to read more readily by computer assisted instruction or traditional book methods? Autism, 6, 71-91. • Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). e-Learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. • Hillman, D. C. (1999). A new method for analyzing patterns of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education. 13(2), 37-47. • Mayer, R. E. (2003). Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.