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PHILOSOPHY OF MAN
“Philosophy may not
teach us how to make
a living; but it shows
us that life is worth
living”
MARIONITO L. HINACAY
PHILOSOPHY
The love
of
wisdom
A discipline not to
be defined but to
be inquired into
It knows no limits
just as the human
mind knows no
boundaries
A desire or
interest for an
intellectual
inquiry
It search for the
rational
explanations of
reality and of man
himself
WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?
PHILOSOPHY
PHILOS
(LOVE)
SOPHIA
(WISDOM)
???
DERIVED FROM THE TWO GREEK WORDS
QUESTIONING
The core in every
philosophical inquiry
PHILOSOPHIZING
Anyone who asks
questions
QUESTION
It is a conscious
search for knowledge
PHILOSOPHY IS A DISCIPLINE OF QUESTIONING
THREE
FUNDAMENTAL
CONDITIONS
OF AN
AUTHENTIC
QUESTION
It is for the
knowledge of
something
THE PHILOSOPHICAL METHOD
LOGIC
The art of correct thinking and reasoning
which is considered as a tool in facilitating
questions and answers
Serve to support in arriving at clear, correct,
valid, and consistent answers to questions
which is the primary consideration in the
other branches of philosophy
PHILOSOPHY
As a Discipline of Questioning can be Explain in
Two Points:
• Because it is an unending series
of questions
• Every answers become a new
question
DYNAMIC
• Man’s answer to a question may
be valid to him but not to others
• Philosophical concepts are not
immutable because it differs
from one to another
PERSONAL
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPROVED PHILOSOPHICAL REASONING
•Considering things from disinterested
point of view, honestly considering
difficulties and problems, objections,
and alternative point of view
•Avoiding inconsistencies
and incoherence
•Observing certain order or
procedure
•Following the established
scientific rules for correct
thinking
CRITICAL SYSTEMATIC
OBJECTIVE
Or
UNBIASED
RIGOROUS
THE MAJOR DIVISION OF PHILOSPHY
•The study of reality or
what is real
METAPHYSICS
•The study of knowledge
and what we can know
EPISTEMOLOGY
•The study of the goodETHICS
THREE ULTIMATE QUESTION IN PHILOSOPHY
What
can we
Know?
What is
Good?
What is
Real?
DIVISION SUBJECT MATTER QUESTIONS
1. METAPHISICS Study of Reality
1. What is ultimate reality
2. Is it one thing or is it many
different things
3. Can reality be grasped by
the senses or is it
transcendent
4. What is the mind and
what is its relation to the
body
2. EPISTEMOLOGY Study of
Knowledge
1. What is knowledge
2. Is knowledge acquired
exclusively through the
senses or by some other
means
3. How do we know that
what we perceive through
our senses is correct
3. ETHICS Study of Human
Action
1. What is right
2. Are there any objective
standards of right and
wrong
3. Are moral values absolute
or relative
IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHY
“AN UNEXAMINEDLIFE IS NOT
WORTHLIVING”
ARISTOTLE
1. Philosophy is a way of
life
2. Philosophy helps us
achieved better
understanding of
ourselves and the
world
3. Philosophy opens up
solutions to the
pressing economic,
political and social
problems
“Character is that which
reveals moral purpose,
exposing the class of
things a man choose or
avoids”
ARISTOTLE
THREE SUBJECT MATTERS IN PHILOSOPHY
GOD
COSMOS
MAN
“PHILOSOPHY IS MERELY AN
OSCILLATION OF THE PENDULUM
FROM ONE EXREME TO THE OTHER
EXTREME”
EMERITA S. QUITO
IT SWINGS FROM ONE POINT OF
HISTORY TO ANOTHER POINT
IN A SPECIFIC ERA OF PHILOSOPHICAL
HISTORY THERE IS A CORRESPONDING
PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH
THREE PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES
ANTHROPOCENTRIC
This is the approach being used in the
modern times
Man becomes the center of philosophical
studies and seen as the macrocosm
THEOCENTRIC
The medieval times used this kind of
approach
God was the center of their philosophical
studies and man was studied always in
relation to the existence of a super natural
being
COSMOCENTRIC
This was the approach of the ancient
times when the world was the center
of philosophical studies
Man during those time was seen as a
microcosm
Assignment
1. What is the meaning of the following terms?
1. Confucianism
2. Taoism
3. Yin-Yang
4. Tao-Te-Ching
5. Wu-Wei
2. What are the countries that are most strongly influenced by Confucianism and Taoism?
3. Explain what is meant by the Confucian concept that in “order to govern others, one
must first govern oneself”
4. Confucius praised those kings who left their kingdoms to those apparently most
qualified rather than to their elder sons. Do you agree to such political system? Justify
your answer
5. Why do you think Confucianism and Taoism were repressed by Chinese communism?
6. What is your point of view about the statement that Confucius was a “king without a
crown”? Elaborate well your answer
7. Do you agree in all the philosophical concepts of man by Confucianism and Taoism? If
no, which are those in which you agree and disagree? Why?
8. If you were to be Confucius or Lao-Tzu in the present time, do you accept such
challenge? Reason out
ASSIGNMENT
1. What are the meaning of the following terms?
1. Buddhism
2. Hinduism
3. Karma
4. Nirvana
5. Dharma
6. Reincarnation
7. Samsara
8. Doctrine of Anatman
2. Why do you think Buddha, who was sheltered in luxury, renounced early attachments
and embarked on a quest for peace? Support your answer
3. Explain elaborately what you understand by the Four Noble Truths
4. Do you think that the modern man can achieve the Noble Eightfold Path? Justify your
answer
5. Explain the statement “life is a renewed cycle of birth, old age and death” in the
concept of Buddhism
6. According to Hinduism concept of man, “man is divine”, explain what this statement
means
7. Why is Hinduism did not prosper as a philosophy and religion in the present times?
Justify your answer

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Philosophy of man

  • 1. PHILOSOPHY OF MAN “Philosophy may not teach us how to make a living; but it shows us that life is worth living” MARIONITO L. HINACAY
  • 2. PHILOSOPHY The love of wisdom A discipline not to be defined but to be inquired into It knows no limits just as the human mind knows no boundaries A desire or interest for an intellectual inquiry It search for the rational explanations of reality and of man himself
  • 4. QUESTIONING The core in every philosophical inquiry PHILOSOPHIZING Anyone who asks questions QUESTION It is a conscious search for knowledge PHILOSOPHY IS A DISCIPLINE OF QUESTIONING
  • 6. THE PHILOSOPHICAL METHOD LOGIC The art of correct thinking and reasoning which is considered as a tool in facilitating questions and answers Serve to support in arriving at clear, correct, valid, and consistent answers to questions which is the primary consideration in the other branches of philosophy
  • 7. PHILOSOPHY As a Discipline of Questioning can be Explain in Two Points: • Because it is an unending series of questions • Every answers become a new question DYNAMIC • Man’s answer to a question may be valid to him but not to others • Philosophical concepts are not immutable because it differs from one to another PERSONAL
  • 8. ELEMENTS OF AN IMPROVED PHILOSOPHICAL REASONING •Considering things from disinterested point of view, honestly considering difficulties and problems, objections, and alternative point of view •Avoiding inconsistencies and incoherence •Observing certain order or procedure •Following the established scientific rules for correct thinking CRITICAL SYSTEMATIC OBJECTIVE Or UNBIASED RIGOROUS
  • 9. THE MAJOR DIVISION OF PHILOSPHY •The study of reality or what is real METAPHYSICS •The study of knowledge and what we can know EPISTEMOLOGY •The study of the goodETHICS
  • 10. THREE ULTIMATE QUESTION IN PHILOSOPHY What can we Know? What is Good? What is Real?
  • 11. DIVISION SUBJECT MATTER QUESTIONS 1. METAPHISICS Study of Reality 1. What is ultimate reality 2. Is it one thing or is it many different things 3. Can reality be grasped by the senses or is it transcendent 4. What is the mind and what is its relation to the body 2. EPISTEMOLOGY Study of Knowledge 1. What is knowledge 2. Is knowledge acquired exclusively through the senses or by some other means 3. How do we know that what we perceive through our senses is correct 3. ETHICS Study of Human Action 1. What is right 2. Are there any objective standards of right and wrong 3. Are moral values absolute or relative
  • 12. IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHY “AN UNEXAMINEDLIFE IS NOT WORTHLIVING” ARISTOTLE 1. Philosophy is a way of life 2. Philosophy helps us achieved better understanding of ourselves and the world 3. Philosophy opens up solutions to the pressing economic, political and social problems
  • 13. “Character is that which reveals moral purpose, exposing the class of things a man choose or avoids” ARISTOTLE
  • 14. THREE SUBJECT MATTERS IN PHILOSOPHY GOD COSMOS MAN
  • 15. “PHILOSOPHY IS MERELY AN OSCILLATION OF THE PENDULUM FROM ONE EXREME TO THE OTHER EXTREME” EMERITA S. QUITO IT SWINGS FROM ONE POINT OF HISTORY TO ANOTHER POINT IN A SPECIFIC ERA OF PHILOSOPHICAL HISTORY THERE IS A CORRESPONDING PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH
  • 16. THREE PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES ANTHROPOCENTRIC This is the approach being used in the modern times Man becomes the center of philosophical studies and seen as the macrocosm THEOCENTRIC The medieval times used this kind of approach God was the center of their philosophical studies and man was studied always in relation to the existence of a super natural being COSMOCENTRIC This was the approach of the ancient times when the world was the center of philosophical studies Man during those time was seen as a microcosm
  • 17. Assignment 1. What is the meaning of the following terms? 1. Confucianism 2. Taoism 3. Yin-Yang 4. Tao-Te-Ching 5. Wu-Wei 2. What are the countries that are most strongly influenced by Confucianism and Taoism? 3. Explain what is meant by the Confucian concept that in “order to govern others, one must first govern oneself” 4. Confucius praised those kings who left their kingdoms to those apparently most qualified rather than to their elder sons. Do you agree to such political system? Justify your answer 5. Why do you think Confucianism and Taoism were repressed by Chinese communism? 6. What is your point of view about the statement that Confucius was a “king without a crown”? Elaborate well your answer 7. Do you agree in all the philosophical concepts of man by Confucianism and Taoism? If no, which are those in which you agree and disagree? Why? 8. If you were to be Confucius or Lao-Tzu in the present time, do you accept such challenge? Reason out
  • 18. ASSIGNMENT 1. What are the meaning of the following terms? 1. Buddhism 2. Hinduism 3. Karma 4. Nirvana 5. Dharma 6. Reincarnation 7. Samsara 8. Doctrine of Anatman 2. Why do you think Buddha, who was sheltered in luxury, renounced early attachments and embarked on a quest for peace? Support your answer 3. Explain elaborately what you understand by the Four Noble Truths 4. Do you think that the modern man can achieve the Noble Eightfold Path? Justify your answer 5. Explain the statement “life is a renewed cycle of birth, old age and death” in the concept of Buddhism 6. According to Hinduism concept of man, “man is divine”, explain what this statement means 7. Why is Hinduism did not prosper as a philosophy and religion in the present times? Justify your answer