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AN INTRODUCTION
RODOLFO V. BAGAY,JR.
DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY DASMARINAS
SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT
INTRODUCTION
TO
PHILOSOPHY
Make a personal insight on the following statements:
1.”Freedom of speech is useless without freedom of
thought.”Spiro Agnew
2. “Knowledge is knowing that we cannot
know.”Ralph Waldo Emerson
3. “The only stable state is one which all men are
equal before the law.”Aristotle
4. “You are what you repeatedly do. Excellence then
is not an act but a habit”Aristotle
5.Thinking changes.
Course Outline
Philosophy:Definitions,nature, historical outline
Why Philosophy
Philosophizing on insights or philosophical insights
Nature of Philosophical inquiry
Philosophy and Crisis situation
Philosophy as a field of study
A Science
3 major fields-epistemology, metaphysics,
axiology
Perceptions and importance
Branches
Methods
Issues and problems
Problem of being
Problem of knowledge
Problem of ethics
Problem of the human person
Problem of religion
Problem of society
Philosophical writing:introduction to Philosophy
Thesis Writing
PHILOSOPHY:DEFINITIONS
Greek Philein “love” and sophia “wisdom”.Coined
based on Thales of Miletus’s response when asked on
whether he was a wise man to which he said
modestly that he was just a ‘lover of wisdom’
A Search for meaning. What then does ”searching”
mean? What does “searching” do to a person? Does
“searching” ever end?
How is it to search?
To search is to find, to seek something more
seriously, more intensively, more of a quest.
1. The object of search is of real value to the
subject. “Object” refers to a thing known or treated
in discussion while ”subject” pertains to the person
dealing with the object.
2. Searching consumes the subject. One observes,
reads, reflects, and writes on what to him is the
most important thing in his life
3. Searching is a continuous undertaking until
the answer is found though such is coupled with
the conviction that whatever is reached is for the
moment at least the best possible though imperfect
answer.
The searcher, the philosopher, therefore seeks
for the meaning of life– its importance,
significance, value, and relevance.
It is then the very nature of philosophy that man
searches for the meaning of himself and his world.
It can truly be said then that philosophy was born
the very first time man started wondering at what
he saw around him.
PHILOSOPH
Y
is
the science and art
of the ultimate reasons,
causes and principles
PHILOSOPHY IS
The clarification of meanings of words, phrases and
sentences
The rational, critical study using logic of abstract
and ultimate questions, notably the nature of
existence, knowledge and value
An activity or a way of thinking about certain
questions or the attempt to think rationally and
critically about the most important questions
Thinking about thinking-realizing
Knowledge sought for its own sake and not for
anything else
Worldview-weltanschauung
Common Perceptions about Philosophy
An extremely complex intellectual activity, an
undertaking for the wise ,intelligent, and well-off
A boring and tedious task. It is a useless
wrangling about things that cannot be decided. It is
an endless disagreement among thinkers who wasted
their lifetime speculating on things only to be talked
about after they die.
It is an obsolete course due to technological
advancements. Classical discussions on God,
religion, society, law, and freedom are untangibles
and abstract that pale in value with the so called
tangible and concrete aspects of today’s world.
Today, competence and skillfullness are superior to
speculations and abstractions.
It is merely ideological, at times, revolutionary
and courting extraordinary actions.
Major concerns of Philosophy
The mystery of being
The problem of truth and meaning
The meaning of life and death
The meaning of good and evil
The dignity and rights of the human person
The scandals of apathy, injustice, oppression and
value
The nature and law of love
The issues of freedom and responsibility
Consequent questions
Why is there something rather than nothing? Who
am I? Why am I?
What is truth? What are the sources of knowledge?
Does meaning really have meaning? How do we
really know?
Why should one exist and later on perish? What
happens after death?Is death evil or good?
If nature is intrinsically good why are there evils in
the world? What constitutes right conduct?Should
there be a universal basis for goodness? When is
good really good?
What is the scope of the power of the state over
man? Why do we obey? Is an authority infallible?
Are all legal matters moral?what is an ideal state?
Why should man relate to another human being?
Is it not enough that man exists alone?
Why do we experience love?
Is man really free? Does man really know how it is
to be free? What does freedom give to a person?Is
freedom absolute?
Is membership in a religion purely of faith? Does
reason have any room in religion?
Does God really exist? How does the reality of evil
suite with the assertions of God’s existence and
power?
IMMANUEL KANT, a German philosopher
summarized the foregoing questions into three
central questions in philosophy namely:
1. What can I know?
2.What should I do?
3.What may i hope for?
What can I know?
Leads to the following activities:
1. Analysis(analytico)- understanding the issues at
hand without judgement(objectify)
2.Criticism(critico)- putting one’s perspective or
situating oneself to a given task.(subjectify)
3.Synthesis(Synthetico)- to give final judgement or
conclusion to a given activity by putting together
results of analysis and criticism.(ideogenesis)
What should I do?
Talks of rightfulness or wrongfulness of an activity.
Analyses the rectitude of human acts and investigates
the parallel accountability and consequences.
Assesses the relation of an act to given standards or
the absence of it.
What may I hope for?
Considers the directions opened by the two previous
questions.
What then is the ultimate purpose of life as a whole?
Posits the problems of afterlife, spirit, including god.
Friendly reminders to budding philosophy
enthusiasts
One must have proper disposition or focus. Proper
disposition means liking what one gets and not
getting what one likes.
Unlike reading other written materials, one must
read to understand ideas or thoughts within a text or
article. One must avoid understanding sentences or
paragraphs that focus only on events, places or
events. A philosophical reader focuses on issues at
hand.
Reading text is not done in one seating. One should
read and re-read until the littlelest implications are
understood. One should give ample time to
analyze, be able to criticize, and then synthesize to
measure genuine understanding.
Since primary sources may be difficult or heavy for
one to digest, a neophyte may consult secondary
sources with appropriate caution and discernment.
(library vs internet)
One needs to familiarize himself with philosophical
jargons and the historicities involved.
One must enjoy philosophy. Philosophy is doing
philosophyphilosophizing. Immediate material
rewards should not be expected as gaining wisdom
is just the beginning. Philosophizing is more of
systematizing information to reach the highest
level of human consciousness: certainty
Philosophy for priestly formation
Why should a seminarian study philosophy despite
its speculative, reason-oriented, and logic seasoned
discussions on things including god, religion, and
morality? Wouldn’t philosophy be dangerous to
direct the mind towards irreligious, immoral, and
irreverent inferences detrimental to the subsequent
theological studies?
Philosophy : the handmaid of Theology
The study of philosophy, with its varied scope, and
organized and exhaustive manner of discussions would
enable one to develop a habit of careful, indepth, and
scholarly approach to matters of faith and doctrine.
Being a handmaid does not necessarily imply inferiority
of philosophy as it plays an enabling role for would-be
theologians. Without the skills(analysis, criticism,
synthesis, reading,writing)) learned and polished in years
in philosophy, the following theological studies would be
taxing and doubly demanding.
Studies of the philosophical writings of the Fathers
of the Church as well as many other Christian
scholars provide logical and reasoned foundations to
matters of faith, the existence of God, church
doctrines, and all other theological matters.
Reason solidifies faith as faith moves reason
Philosophy is not a dead activity.
References to classical-eastern or western thoughts-
are proofs of the established logic, sensibility, and
influence of the traditions in philosophy. Reference
to philosophy both in the academics and in
everyday life shows that the living spirit of wisdom
sought for its own sake is always present then,
now, and til Thy kingdom come

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Introduction to philosophy

  • 1. AN INTRODUCTION RODOLFO V. BAGAY,JR. DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY DASMARINAS SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY
  • 2. Make a personal insight on the following statements: 1.”Freedom of speech is useless without freedom of thought.”Spiro Agnew 2. “Knowledge is knowing that we cannot know.”Ralph Waldo Emerson 3. “The only stable state is one which all men are equal before the law.”Aristotle 4. “You are what you repeatedly do. Excellence then is not an act but a habit”Aristotle 5.Thinking changes.
  • 3. Course Outline Philosophy:Definitions,nature, historical outline Why Philosophy Philosophizing on insights or philosophical insights Nature of Philosophical inquiry Philosophy and Crisis situation
  • 4. Philosophy as a field of study A Science 3 major fields-epistemology, metaphysics, axiology Perceptions and importance Branches Methods
  • 5. Issues and problems Problem of being Problem of knowledge Problem of ethics Problem of the human person Problem of religion Problem of society
  • 6. Philosophical writing:introduction to Philosophy Thesis Writing
  • 7. PHILOSOPHY:DEFINITIONS Greek Philein “love” and sophia “wisdom”.Coined based on Thales of Miletus’s response when asked on whether he was a wise man to which he said modestly that he was just a ‘lover of wisdom’ A Search for meaning. What then does ”searching” mean? What does “searching” do to a person? Does “searching” ever end?
  • 8. How is it to search? To search is to find, to seek something more seriously, more intensively, more of a quest. 1. The object of search is of real value to the subject. “Object” refers to a thing known or treated in discussion while ”subject” pertains to the person dealing with the object. 2. Searching consumes the subject. One observes, reads, reflects, and writes on what to him is the most important thing in his life 3. Searching is a continuous undertaking until the answer is found though such is coupled with the conviction that whatever is reached is for the moment at least the best possible though imperfect answer.
  • 9. The searcher, the philosopher, therefore seeks for the meaning of life– its importance, significance, value, and relevance.
  • 10. It is then the very nature of philosophy that man searches for the meaning of himself and his world. It can truly be said then that philosophy was born the very first time man started wondering at what he saw around him.
  • 11. PHILOSOPH Y is the science and art of the ultimate reasons, causes and principles
  • 12. PHILOSOPHY IS The clarification of meanings of words, phrases and sentences The rational, critical study using logic of abstract and ultimate questions, notably the nature of existence, knowledge and value An activity or a way of thinking about certain questions or the attempt to think rationally and critically about the most important questions Thinking about thinking-realizing Knowledge sought for its own sake and not for anything else Worldview-weltanschauung
  • 13. Common Perceptions about Philosophy An extremely complex intellectual activity, an undertaking for the wise ,intelligent, and well-off A boring and tedious task. It is a useless wrangling about things that cannot be decided. It is an endless disagreement among thinkers who wasted their lifetime speculating on things only to be talked about after they die.
  • 14. It is an obsolete course due to technological advancements. Classical discussions on God, religion, society, law, and freedom are untangibles and abstract that pale in value with the so called tangible and concrete aspects of today’s world. Today, competence and skillfullness are superior to speculations and abstractions. It is merely ideological, at times, revolutionary and courting extraordinary actions.
  • 15. Major concerns of Philosophy The mystery of being The problem of truth and meaning The meaning of life and death The meaning of good and evil The dignity and rights of the human person The scandals of apathy, injustice, oppression and value The nature and law of love The issues of freedom and responsibility
  • 16. Consequent questions Why is there something rather than nothing? Who am I? Why am I? What is truth? What are the sources of knowledge? Does meaning really have meaning? How do we really know? Why should one exist and later on perish? What happens after death?Is death evil or good?
  • 17. If nature is intrinsically good why are there evils in the world? What constitutes right conduct?Should there be a universal basis for goodness? When is good really good? What is the scope of the power of the state over man? Why do we obey? Is an authority infallible? Are all legal matters moral?what is an ideal state? Why should man relate to another human being? Is it not enough that man exists alone?
  • 18. Why do we experience love? Is man really free? Does man really know how it is to be free? What does freedom give to a person?Is freedom absolute? Is membership in a religion purely of faith? Does reason have any room in religion? Does God really exist? How does the reality of evil suite with the assertions of God’s existence and power?
  • 19. IMMANUEL KANT, a German philosopher summarized the foregoing questions into three central questions in philosophy namely: 1. What can I know? 2.What should I do? 3.What may i hope for?
  • 20. What can I know? Leads to the following activities: 1. Analysis(analytico)- understanding the issues at hand without judgement(objectify) 2.Criticism(critico)- putting one’s perspective or situating oneself to a given task.(subjectify) 3.Synthesis(Synthetico)- to give final judgement or conclusion to a given activity by putting together results of analysis and criticism.(ideogenesis)
  • 21. What should I do? Talks of rightfulness or wrongfulness of an activity. Analyses the rectitude of human acts and investigates the parallel accountability and consequences. Assesses the relation of an act to given standards or the absence of it.
  • 22. What may I hope for? Considers the directions opened by the two previous questions. What then is the ultimate purpose of life as a whole? Posits the problems of afterlife, spirit, including god.
  • 23. Friendly reminders to budding philosophy enthusiasts One must have proper disposition or focus. Proper disposition means liking what one gets and not getting what one likes. Unlike reading other written materials, one must read to understand ideas or thoughts within a text or article. One must avoid understanding sentences or paragraphs that focus only on events, places or events. A philosophical reader focuses on issues at hand.
  • 24. Reading text is not done in one seating. One should read and re-read until the littlelest implications are understood. One should give ample time to analyze, be able to criticize, and then synthesize to measure genuine understanding. Since primary sources may be difficult or heavy for one to digest, a neophyte may consult secondary sources with appropriate caution and discernment. (library vs internet)
  • 25. One needs to familiarize himself with philosophical jargons and the historicities involved. One must enjoy philosophy. Philosophy is doing philosophyphilosophizing. Immediate material rewards should not be expected as gaining wisdom is just the beginning. Philosophizing is more of systematizing information to reach the highest level of human consciousness: certainty
  • 26. Philosophy for priestly formation Why should a seminarian study philosophy despite its speculative, reason-oriented, and logic seasoned discussions on things including god, religion, and morality? Wouldn’t philosophy be dangerous to direct the mind towards irreligious, immoral, and irreverent inferences detrimental to the subsequent theological studies?
  • 27. Philosophy : the handmaid of Theology The study of philosophy, with its varied scope, and organized and exhaustive manner of discussions would enable one to develop a habit of careful, indepth, and scholarly approach to matters of faith and doctrine. Being a handmaid does not necessarily imply inferiority of philosophy as it plays an enabling role for would-be theologians. Without the skills(analysis, criticism, synthesis, reading,writing)) learned and polished in years in philosophy, the following theological studies would be taxing and doubly demanding.
  • 28. Studies of the philosophical writings of the Fathers of the Church as well as many other Christian scholars provide logical and reasoned foundations to matters of faith, the existence of God, church doctrines, and all other theological matters. Reason solidifies faith as faith moves reason
  • 29. Philosophy is not a dead activity. References to classical-eastern or western thoughts- are proofs of the established logic, sensibility, and influence of the traditions in philosophy. Reference to philosophy both in the academics and in everyday life shows that the living spirit of wisdom sought for its own sake is always present then, now, and til Thy kingdom come