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CHAPTER 12
MATERIALISM
In philosophy, doctrine that all existence is resolvable
into matter or into an attribute or effect of matter
According to this doctrine, matter is the ultimate reality,
and the phenomenon of consciousness is explained by
physiochemical changes in the nervous system
It is the antithesis of idealism
ANTI-RELIGIOUS MATERIALISM
• It is motivated by a spirit of hostility toward
the theological dogmas of organized religion,
particularly those of Christianity
• Notable among its exponents were the 18th-
century French philosophers:
▫ Denis Diderot
▫ Paul Henri d'Holbach
▫ Julien Offroy de La Mettrie
 French philosopher, physician, and proponent
of materialism, the doctrine that all beings and
phenomena are explicable in terms of matter or
the effects of matter
DENNIS DIDEROT
HISTORICAL MATERIALISM
• According this, as set forth in the writings of
Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Ilich
Lenin, in every historical epoch the prevailing
economic system by which the necessities of life
are produced determines the form of societal
organization and the political, religious, ethical,
intellectual, and artistic history of the epoch
German political philosopher and
revolutionary, the most important of
all socialist thinkers and the creator
of a system of thought called
Marxism
With political economist Friedrich
Engels, he founded scientific
socialism (now known as
communism); for this, Marx is
considered one of the most
influential thinkers of all time
FRIEDRICH ENGELS
A German revolutionary political economist,
worked with fellow German revolutionary, Karl
Marx, from 1842 to 1883
Together, the two defined communism
They completed their famous treatise on the
collapse of capitalism and rise of communism, The
Communist Manifesto, in 1848, and in
1870 helped found the:
FIRST INTERNATIONAL
▫ An international Socialist organization
He wrote many of his own treatises on socialism and is also
known for editing and publishing the second and third
volumes of Das Kapital following the death of Marx in
1883
• He gained political stature
through his writings and
then as head of the radical
socialist Bolshevik Party
• He led the 1917 Bolshevik
takeover of Russia's
Provisional Government,
which had governed the
country since the fall of
tsarist rule a few months
earlier
• After the revolution, He
became the leader of the
new Soviet state
• VLADIMIR LENIN
MODERN TIMES PHILOSOPHICAL MATERIALISM
CULTURAL MATERIALISM
CHRISTIAN MATERIALISM
• A Christian devotion to
material wealth and
possessions at the expense
of spiritual or intellectual
values
OPUS DEI
▫ It was established in 1928
by Spanish priest
Josémaría Escrivá de
Balaguer y Albas and was
approved by the papacy
in 1950
▫ In 1982 Pope John Paul
II agreed to the
organization’s request to
become a prelature
DETERMINISM
• The doctrine or belief that everything, including every
human act, is caused by something and that there is no
real free will
• A philosophical doctrine holding that every event,
mental as well as physical, has a cause, and that, the
cause being given, the event follows invariably
• This theory denies the element of chance or
contingency
• It is opposed to Indifferentism, or
Indeterminism, which maintains that, in
phenomena of the human will, preceding events do not
definitely determine subsequent ones
• Because determinism is generally assumed to be true of
all events except volition, the doctrine is of greatest
importance when applied to ethics
The belief that
variations in
doctrine and
practice within a
religion are
unimportant
The philosophical
theory that
human beings
have free will and
their actions are
not always and
completely
determined by
previous events
TECHNOLOGICAL
DETERMINISM
ENVIRONMENTAL
DETERMINISM
• An approach to
geographic study resulted
in claims for the
superiority of the peoples
of the Temperate Zone to
those of the Tropics and
intermediate zones
• Such work is today viewed
as ethnocentric and of
doubtful scientific validity
The parts of Earth that lie
between the tropics and the
polar circles and generally have
hot summers, cold winters, and
intermediate falls and springs
FREE WILL

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Philosophy of man 9

  • 2. MATERIALISM In philosophy, doctrine that all existence is resolvable into matter or into an attribute or effect of matter According to this doctrine, matter is the ultimate reality, and the phenomenon of consciousness is explained by physiochemical changes in the nervous system It is the antithesis of idealism
  • 3. ANTI-RELIGIOUS MATERIALISM • It is motivated by a spirit of hostility toward the theological dogmas of organized religion, particularly those of Christianity • Notable among its exponents were the 18th- century French philosophers: ▫ Denis Diderot ▫ Paul Henri d'Holbach ▫ Julien Offroy de La Mettrie  French philosopher, physician, and proponent of materialism, the doctrine that all beings and phenomena are explicable in terms of matter or the effects of matter
  • 5. HISTORICAL MATERIALISM • According this, as set forth in the writings of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Ilich Lenin, in every historical epoch the prevailing economic system by which the necessities of life are produced determines the form of societal organization and the political, religious, ethical, intellectual, and artistic history of the epoch German political philosopher and revolutionary, the most important of all socialist thinkers and the creator of a system of thought called Marxism With political economist Friedrich Engels, he founded scientific socialism (now known as communism); for this, Marx is considered one of the most influential thinkers of all time
  • 6. FRIEDRICH ENGELS A German revolutionary political economist, worked with fellow German revolutionary, Karl Marx, from 1842 to 1883 Together, the two defined communism They completed their famous treatise on the collapse of capitalism and rise of communism, The Communist Manifesto, in 1848, and in 1870 helped found the: FIRST INTERNATIONAL ▫ An international Socialist organization He wrote many of his own treatises on socialism and is also known for editing and publishing the second and third volumes of Das Kapital following the death of Marx in 1883
  • 7. • He gained political stature through his writings and then as head of the radical socialist Bolshevik Party • He led the 1917 Bolshevik takeover of Russia's Provisional Government, which had governed the country since the fall of tsarist rule a few months earlier • After the revolution, He became the leader of the new Soviet state • VLADIMIR LENIN
  • 10. CHRISTIAN MATERIALISM • A Christian devotion to material wealth and possessions at the expense of spiritual or intellectual values OPUS DEI ▫ It was established in 1928 by Spanish priest Josémaría Escrivá de Balaguer y Albas and was approved by the papacy in 1950 ▫ In 1982 Pope John Paul II agreed to the organization’s request to become a prelature
  • 11. DETERMINISM • The doctrine or belief that everything, including every human act, is caused by something and that there is no real free will • A philosophical doctrine holding that every event, mental as well as physical, has a cause, and that, the cause being given, the event follows invariably • This theory denies the element of chance or contingency • It is opposed to Indifferentism, or Indeterminism, which maintains that, in phenomena of the human will, preceding events do not definitely determine subsequent ones • Because determinism is generally assumed to be true of all events except volition, the doctrine is of greatest importance when applied to ethics The belief that variations in doctrine and practice within a religion are unimportant The philosophical theory that human beings have free will and their actions are not always and completely determined by previous events
  • 12. TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM • An approach to geographic study resulted in claims for the superiority of the peoples of the Temperate Zone to those of the Tropics and intermediate zones • Such work is today viewed as ethnocentric and of doubtful scientific validity The parts of Earth that lie between the tropics and the polar circles and generally have hot summers, cold winters, and intermediate falls and springs