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Motivation
What is Motivation?
 Motivation refers to the process by
which a person’s efforts are
energized directed and sustained
towards attaining a goal.
 Three key elements
I. Energy
II. Direction
III. Persistence
Energy:
 The energy element is a measure
of intensity or drive. A motivated
person puts forth effort and works
hard however the quality of effort
must also be considered.
Direction:
 High levels of effort do not
necessarily need to favorable job
performance unless the effort is
channeled in a direction that
benefits the organization.
Persistence:
 Effort that is directed toward and
consistent with organization goals
is the kind of effort we want from
employees.
Finally motivation includes a
persistence dimension. We want
employees to persist in putting
forth effort to achieve those goals.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
 Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory
 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
 Herzberg’s Two-Fact Theory
 McClelland’s Three-Needs Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs
Theory
 Maslow Argues that each levels in needs hierarchy must be
substantially satisfied before the next need becomes dominant.
 An individual moves up the needs hierarchy from one level to
the next.
 He considered psychological and safety needs(lower order
needs)
 He considered social, esteem, self actualization needs (higher
order needs)
 Lower order needs are predominantly satisfied externally
 Higher order needs are satisfied internally
Motivation
McGregor’s Theory X and
Theory Y Douglas McGregor is best known about two
assumption of human nature. Theory X and
Theory Y
 Theory X is a negative view of people
 Theory Y is a positive view of people
 Theory Y assumption should guide
management practice and proposed that
participation and decision making
responsible and challenging jobs and good
group relations would maximize employee
motivation.
Herzberg’s Two-Fact Theory
 Also Called motivation hygiene
theory
 Have two factors
i. Intrinsic factors: job satisfaction
ii. Extrinsic factors: job dissatisfaction
Motivation
McClelland’s Three-Needs
Theory
 David McClelland and his associates
proposed the three needs theory which says
there are three acquired(not innate{not in
born}) needs that are major motivators in
work
 Three needs are:
i. Need for achievement
ii. Need for power
iii. Need for Affiliation
Motivation
Motivation

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Motivation

  • 2. What is Motivation?  Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are energized directed and sustained towards attaining a goal.  Three key elements I. Energy II. Direction III. Persistence
  • 3. Energy:  The energy element is a measure of intensity or drive. A motivated person puts forth effort and works hard however the quality of effort must also be considered.
  • 4. Direction:  High levels of effort do not necessarily need to favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.
  • 5. Persistence:  Effort that is directed toward and consistent with organization goals is the kind of effort we want from employees. Finally motivation includes a persistence dimension. We want employees to persist in putting forth effort to achieve those goals.
  • 6. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory  McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Herzberg’s Two-Fact Theory  McClelland’s Three-Needs Theory
  • 7. Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory  Maslow Argues that each levels in needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next need becomes dominant.  An individual moves up the needs hierarchy from one level to the next.  He considered psychological and safety needs(lower order needs)  He considered social, esteem, self actualization needs (higher order needs)  Lower order needs are predominantly satisfied externally  Higher order needs are satisfied internally
  • 9. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor is best known about two assumption of human nature. Theory X and Theory Y  Theory X is a negative view of people  Theory Y is a positive view of people  Theory Y assumption should guide management practice and proposed that participation and decision making responsible and challenging jobs and good group relations would maximize employee motivation.
  • 10. Herzberg’s Two-Fact Theory  Also Called motivation hygiene theory  Have two factors i. Intrinsic factors: job satisfaction ii. Extrinsic factors: job dissatisfaction
  • 12. McClelland’s Three-Needs Theory  David McClelland and his associates proposed the three needs theory which says there are three acquired(not innate{not in born}) needs that are major motivators in work  Three needs are: i. Need for achievement ii. Need for power iii. Need for Affiliation