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Microbes and Disease Human pathogens
Part 1 INTRODUCTION
What are  micro-organisms? ,[object Object],Bacteria (orange) on the tip of a pin.  Magnification x1600 when the image is printed 10 cm high. The tip of the pin is approximately 20  µm  across and the bacteria are around 5  µm  long. ,[object Object]
[object Object],What are  micro-organisms? Algae Protozoa Bacteria Fungi Viruses Illustration of microbes
What are  micro-organisms? What does the word ‘microbe’ mean to you? To most people microbe only means……. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],INFECTION But….
Infection and disease ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],An infection does not always result in disease!
How do microbes reach us? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source /reservoir  of infection Mode of  transmission HUMAN HOST represents the various  barriers to infection  e.g. the skin represents the  target organ e . g .   lungs Portal of  entry Portal of  exit
Part 2 MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Mode of transmission Microbes can be transmitted by:  Vertical •  Placenta  • Breast milk Vehicle borne •  Air/dust • Food  • Water  • Fomites Vector borne •  Internal • External Direct contact – person to person Horizontal •  Kissing  • Sexual intercourse  • Sneezing less than 1 metre  • Touching Indirect contact
Mode of transmission Direct contact  – p erson to person Example: cold sore ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A couple kissing. Cold sores on lip and mouth.
Mode of transmission Direct contact  –  person to person Example: cold sore ,[object Object],[object Object],Herpes simplex virus budding from the surface of a cell.
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: syphilis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Interlocking gender symbols representing sexually transmitted diseases.
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: syphilis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The bacteria that cause syphilis. Secondary syphilis rash.
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: SARS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Jets of droplets erupt from a man’s nose as he sneezes.
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: SARS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Routes of infection for SARS virus (spiky balls).
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: gastroenteritis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Human hand contaminated with colonies of bacteria (blue/pink patches).
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: gastroenteritis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Norwalk virus particles.
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: German measles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Eight week old fetus attached to its placenta by the umbilical cord. Vertical across the placenta or via breast milk
Mode of transmission  Direct contact  –  person to person Example: German measles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vehicle borne Example: tuberculosis (TB) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vehicle borne Example: tuberculosis (TB) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A person with active TB will have the following symptoms that get more severe over time Mycobacterium tuberculosis   bacteria.
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –   vehicle borne Example: food poisoning ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Campylobacter jejuni   bacterium.
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vehicle borne Example: food poisoning ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vehicle borne Example:  c ryptosporidiosis ,[object Object],Via water ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vehicle borne Example:  c ryptosporidiosis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Intestinal surface (orange) infected with  C. parvum  (round).
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vehicle borne Example:  athlete’s foot ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Fomite -  a  non-living object that can carry disease-causing organisms. Close-up of athlete’s foot infection.
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vector borne Example:  malaria ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A. gambiae  feeding on human blood.
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vector borne Example:  malaria ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The passage of malaria through the human body.
Mode of transmission  Indirect contact  –  vector borne Example:  bacterial dysentery ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],External – mechanical Common house flies feeding.
Part 3 HOW DO MICROBES GET IN?
Portals of entry ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Portals of entry Respiratory tract Example:  influenza ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The respiratory tract.
Portals of entry Respiratory tract  Example:  influenza ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Influenza virus particles.
Portals of entry  Gastrointestinal tract Example:  cholera ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The gastrointestinal tract.
Portals of entry  Gastrointestinal tract Example:  cholera ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Vibrio cholerae   bacteria.
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Portals of entry  Urogenital tract Example:  cystitis Artwork of an  inflamed bladder (red) caused by cystitis.
Portals of entry  Urogenital tract Example:  cystitis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Bacterial infection of the bladder.  E. coli  bacteria (yellow) on swollen epithelial cells (blue) lining the bladder.
Portals of entry  Urogenital tract Example:  Chlamydial infection ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],C. trachomatis  bacteria (background) with the female reproductive tract superimposed.
Portals of entry  Urogenital tract   Example:  Chlamydial infection ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Portals of entry  Breaking the surface of the skin Example:  tetanus ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Splinter in the finger.
Portals of entry  Breaking the surface of the skin Example:  tetanus ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Clostridium tetani  bacteria.
Part 4 DEFENCE
Defending ourselves against microbes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],T he body is protected by a complex system of defences that prevent assault from pathogeni c  microbes.
Defending ourselves against microbes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Non specific physical barriers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cilia in the trachea rhythmically  beating.
Non specific physical barriers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],E. coli  bacteria (yellow) in the gut are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans.
Non specific chemical barriers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The honeycombed sebaceous gland (light brown) produces sebum.
Non specific immune system ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Phagocytosis, a phagocyte (blue) engulfing a yeast cell (yellow).
Specific immune system ,[object Object],[object Object],Two antibodies bound to an antigen.
Specific immune system ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Antigens on the surface of a microbe.
Specific immune system ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Antibody
Specific immune system ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The person is  protected   from  the disease  through this natural immunity
Vaccination ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Vaccination
Vaccination ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Vaccine production.
Part 5 TREATMENT
What are antibiotics?   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Antibiotic drugs (discs) prevent the growth of bacteria (white) demonstrated by clear zones around the discs.
How do antibiotics work? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Antibiotics acting on bacteria causing them to expand and burst.
Emergence of drug-resistant bacteria ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why has antibiotic resistance occurred? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],MRSA
Part 6 HOW MICROBES LEAVE
How do microbes leave our body? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Pus from an infected ear.
Conclusion ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Microbes and Disease

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Microbes And Disease

  • 1. Microbes and Disease Human pathogens
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  • 8. Part 2 MODE OF TRANSMISSION
  • 9. Mode of transmission Microbes can be transmitted by: Vertical • Placenta • Breast milk Vehicle borne • Air/dust • Food • Water • Fomites Vector borne • Internal • External Direct contact – person to person Horizontal • Kissing • Sexual intercourse • Sneezing less than 1 metre • Touching Indirect contact
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  • 30. Part 3 HOW DO MICROBES GET IN?
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  • 60. Part 6 HOW MICROBES LEAVE
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