SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 14
ALLPPT.com _ Free PowerPoint Templates, Diagrams and Charts
MEMBRANE
TRANSPORT
BY
D.SHEEBA
1ST M.SC
BIOCHEMISTRY
Introduction:
 It is the transport system by which various molecules
enter into & out of the cell across cell membrane.
Cells have various transport mechanism.
The molecules pass directly through lipid layer or via
membrane channel ,or not the molecules is altered it passes
through membrane.
 The process require energy or not the process require
energy.
 Membrane transport is categorized by 2 major groups.
 Passive transport.
 Active transport.
TRANSPORT
Passive transport
 Simple diffusion
 Osmosis
 Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
 Primary active transport
 Secondary active transport
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
 It does not require energy to transport
molecules across cell membrane.
Molecules are transported from its
higher conc. to lower conc. gradient .
 It does not work against concentration gradient.
i. Simple diffusion:
 Simple diffusion is the transport or movement of
molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration
without expenditure of energy.
 In this process, molecules simply diffuses through the pore of
Cell membrane.
 Simple diffusion do not require transporter protein.
 When the concentration of molecules is different inside and
outside of the cell membrane, concentration gradient is established
 Then the molecules moves from higher concentration to lower
concentration until equilibrium is maintained.
When the concentration of molecules becomes equal on both
side of the membrane, transport process stops.
The molecules after entering the cell transform metabolically,
preventing to build up concentration of transported molecules,
hence the concentration gradient remain established.
The rate of diffusion is determined by concentration gradient
and permeability of cytoplasmic membrane
Greater the concentration gradient and permeability of the cell
membrane, greater will be the rate of passive diffusion.
Examples: water or gases enter the bacterial cell by simple
diffusion.
ii. Osmosis:
The movement of solvent (water) across membrane in response
to the concentration gradient of solute is known as Osmosis.
Bacterial cytoplasm have generally higher solute concentration
than its surrounding.
There are 3 types of solution based on comparison to the
bacterial cytoplasmic concentration.
In isotonic solution: water move equally in both direction
inside and outside of cell.
In hypertonic solution: water moves out of the cell so that cell
shrinks. The process is known as plasmolysis.
In hypotonic solution: water moves inside the cell so that cell
swells up. The process is known as plasmotysis.
iii. Facilitated diffusion:
 The process of facilitated diffusion is similar to simple
diffusion as the molecules flows from higher concentration to
lower concentration but it is different from simple diffusion
because it requires transporter protein for the process.
The transporter protein is known as Permease or Porter or
carrier protein.
The transporter protein are specific , some can transport
multiple compounds.
At first solute molecule binds with the transporter protein and
changes the 3D structure of the transporter protein and this
change in shape allows the solute to carried across the
membrane.
2. Active transport:
It requires transporter protein and continuous supply of cellular
energy for the transport of molecules across concentration gradien
t of the membrane.
It is very important to transport the molecules which are present
in very low concentration in the medium.
In active transport permease or transporter protein
carries the molecules across the membrane and the
energy required to transport is obtained by ATP or Ion gradient.
 Example: The uptake of glucose in the intestine of the human
body and also the uptake of minerals or ions into the root hair
cells of the plants
Types of Active transport
There are two types of active transport
 Primary active transport
secondary active transport.
Active transport
I. Primary active transport
In this process of transportation, the energy is utilized by the
breakdown of the ATP to transport molecules across the
membrane against a concentration gradient.
All the groups of ATP powered pumps contain one or more
binding sites for the ATP molecules, which are present on the
cytosolic face of the membrane.
Basically, the primary active transport uses external chemical
energy such as the ATP.
 Example: Sodium-potassium pump, the most important pump in
the animal cell.
 In this process of transportation, the sodium ions are moved to
the outside of the cell and potassium ions are moved to the inside
of the cell.
Secondary active transport
It is a kind of active transport that uses electrochemical energy.
 It takes place across a biological membrane where a transporter
protein couples the movement of an electrochemical ion (typically
Na+ or H+) down its electrochemical gradient to the upward
movement of another molecule or an ion against a concentration or
electrochemical gradient.
Electrochemical Gradient
 It exists whenever there is a net difference in charges.
 The positive and negative charges of a cell are separated
by a membrane, where the inside of the cell has extra
negative charges than outside.
The membrane potential of a cell is -40 to -80 millivolts.
Active Transport in Plants
 Like humans and animals, plants also require transport
systems which are mainly involved in the transport of materials,
such as water, minerals, and necessary nutrients to all parts of
the plant for its survival.
Active transport is a mode of transportation in plants, which
uses stored energy to move the particles against the
concentration gradient. In a plant cell, it takes place in the root
cells by absorbing water and minerals.
Active transport always leads to accumulation of molecules
are ions towards one side of the membrane. This mode of
transportation in plants is carried out by membrane proteins and
transports the substance from the lower concentration to higher
concentration

More Related Content

What's hot

Cell Membranes
Cell MembranesCell Membranes
Cell Membranes
shabeel pn
 

What's hot (20)

OSMOSIS
OSMOSISOSMOSIS
OSMOSIS
 
Lysosome
LysosomeLysosome
Lysosome
 
Active and passive transport
Active and passive transportActive and passive transport
Active and passive transport
 
Cell Membranes
Cell MembranesCell Membranes
Cell Membranes
 
TRANSPORT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
TRANSPORT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANETRANSPORT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
TRANSPORT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
 
Epithelium, cells,tissues & histology
Epithelium, cells,tissues & histologyEpithelium, cells,tissues & histology
Epithelium, cells,tissues & histology
 
Chemical and molecular basis of muscle contraction
Chemical and molecular basis of muscle contractionChemical and molecular basis of muscle contraction
Chemical and molecular basis of muscle contraction
 
The Cytoskeleton- An overview
The Cytoskeleton- An overviewThe Cytoskeleton- An overview
The Cytoskeleton- An overview
 
Cell junction
Cell junctionCell junction
Cell junction
 
Membrane Proteins & its types
Membrane Proteins & its typesMembrane Proteins & its types
Membrane Proteins & its types
 
THE CYTOSKELETON
THE CYTOSKELETONTHE CYTOSKELETON
THE CYTOSKELETON
 
Models of plasma membrane
Models of plasma membraneModels of plasma membrane
Models of plasma membrane
 
BHARAT GANDER
BHARAT GANDERBHARAT GANDER
BHARAT GANDER
 
Osmosis
OsmosisOsmosis
Osmosis
 
Golgi bodies
Golgi bodiesGolgi bodies
Golgi bodies
 
Cell membrane
Cell membraneCell membrane
Cell membrane
 
Biochemistry lecture notes nucleic acids
Biochemistry lecture notes nucleic acidsBiochemistry lecture notes nucleic acids
Biochemistry lecture notes nucleic acids
 
Cell - Basic Structure, Organelles and Overview
Cell - Basic Structure, Organelles and Overview Cell - Basic Structure, Organelles and Overview
Cell - Basic Structure, Organelles and Overview
 
Cell
CellCell
Cell
 
Cytoskeleton
CytoskeletonCytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton
 

Similar to Membrane transport

4. membrane transport 1
4. membrane transport 14. membrane transport 1
4. membrane transport 1
Azhen Qadir
 
Cell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes New
Cell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes NewCell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes New
Cell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes New
Fred Phillips
 
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptxChapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
ssuser31c469
 
Discuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdf
Discuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdfDiscuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdf
Discuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdf
sanuoptical
 

Similar to Membrane transport (20)

Membrane Transport System
Membrane Transport SystemMembrane Transport System
Membrane Transport System
 
4. membrane transport 1
4. membrane transport 14. membrane transport 1
4. membrane transport 1
 
Transport system
Transport systemTransport system
Transport system
 
Transport across cell membrane, CELL MEMBRANE
Transport across cell membrane, CELL MEMBRANETransport across cell membrane, CELL MEMBRANE
Transport across cell membrane, CELL MEMBRANE
 
FARINAS-TRANSPORT-ACROSS-MEMBRANES.pptx-
FARINAS-TRANSPORT-ACROSS-MEMBRANES.pptx-FARINAS-TRANSPORT-ACROSS-MEMBRANES.pptx-
FARINAS-TRANSPORT-ACROSS-MEMBRANES.pptx-
 
619154133-2-5-Transport-Mechanism.pptx
619154133-2-5-Transport-Mechanism.pptx619154133-2-5-Transport-Mechanism.pptx
619154133-2-5-Transport-Mechanism.pptx
 
Transport across membranes
Transport across membranesTransport across membranes
Transport across membranes
 
Biochemistry of Cell Membrane.pptx
Biochemistry of Cell Membrane.pptxBiochemistry of Cell Membrane.pptx
Biochemistry of Cell Membrane.pptx
 
gen-bio
gen-biogen-bio
gen-bio
 
Cell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes New
Cell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes NewCell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes New
Cell Membrane And Cell Transport Notes New
 
Transport across the cell membrane
Transport across the cell membraneTransport across the cell membrane
Transport across the cell membrane
 
Cellular Transport
Cellular TransportCellular Transport
Cellular Transport
 
Transport through cell membrane
Transport through cell membraneTransport through cell membrane
Transport through cell membrane
 
Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1Membrane pt.1
Membrane pt.1
 
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptxChapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
 
Membrane transport lec3.pdf …….. x
Membrane transport lec3.pdf ……..         xMembrane transport lec3.pdf ……..         x
Membrane transport lec3.pdf …….. x
 
Trasport across membrane cls
Trasport across membrane clsTrasport across membrane cls
Trasport across membrane cls
 
Discuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdf
Discuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdfDiscuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdf
Discuss passive and active transport. Describe the main differences b.pdf
 
Unit 5
Unit 5Unit 5
Unit 5
 
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT OF IONS.pptx
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT OF IONS.pptxACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT OF IONS.pptx
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT OF IONS.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!
Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!
Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!
University of Hertfordshire
 
Tuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notes
Tuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notesTuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notes
Tuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notes
jyothisaisri
 
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Aerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynyppt
Aerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynypptAerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynyppt
Aerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynyppt
sreddyrahul
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
Sérgio Sacani
 
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Sérgio Sacani
 
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
 
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdfFilm Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
 
Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!
Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!
Quantifying Artificial Intelligence and What Comes Next!
 
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdfMODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
 
Tuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notes
Tuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notesTuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notes
Tuberculosis (TB)-Notes.pdf microbiology notes
 
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana LahariERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
 
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
 
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptxRACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
 
Aerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynyppt
Aerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynypptAerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynyppt
Aerodynamics. flippatterncn5tm5ttnj6nmnynyppt
 
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
 
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 RpWASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
 
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
 
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
 
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptxIn-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
 
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent UniversityNuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
 
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdfTEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
 
GBSN - Microbiology Lab (Compound Microscope)
GBSN - Microbiology Lab (Compound Microscope)GBSN - Microbiology Lab (Compound Microscope)
GBSN - Microbiology Lab (Compound Microscope)
 

Membrane transport

  • 1. ALLPPT.com _ Free PowerPoint Templates, Diagrams and Charts MEMBRANE TRANSPORT BY D.SHEEBA 1ST M.SC BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 2. Introduction:  It is the transport system by which various molecules enter into & out of the cell across cell membrane. Cells have various transport mechanism. The molecules pass directly through lipid layer or via membrane channel ,or not the molecules is altered it passes through membrane.  The process require energy or not the process require energy.  Membrane transport is categorized by 2 major groups.  Passive transport.  Active transport.
  • 3. TRANSPORT Passive transport  Simple diffusion  Osmosis  Facilitated diffusion Active transport  Primary active transport  Secondary active transport
  • 4. PASSIVE TRANSPORT  It does not require energy to transport molecules across cell membrane. Molecules are transported from its higher conc. to lower conc. gradient .  It does not work against concentration gradient.
  • 5.
  • 6. i. Simple diffusion:  Simple diffusion is the transport or movement of molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration without expenditure of energy.  In this process, molecules simply diffuses through the pore of Cell membrane.  Simple diffusion do not require transporter protein.  When the concentration of molecules is different inside and outside of the cell membrane, concentration gradient is established  Then the molecules moves from higher concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium is maintained.
  • 7. When the concentration of molecules becomes equal on both side of the membrane, transport process stops. The molecules after entering the cell transform metabolically, preventing to build up concentration of transported molecules, hence the concentration gradient remain established. The rate of diffusion is determined by concentration gradient and permeability of cytoplasmic membrane Greater the concentration gradient and permeability of the cell membrane, greater will be the rate of passive diffusion. Examples: water or gases enter the bacterial cell by simple diffusion.
  • 8. ii. Osmosis: The movement of solvent (water) across membrane in response to the concentration gradient of solute is known as Osmosis. Bacterial cytoplasm have generally higher solute concentration than its surrounding. There are 3 types of solution based on comparison to the bacterial cytoplasmic concentration. In isotonic solution: water move equally in both direction inside and outside of cell. In hypertonic solution: water moves out of the cell so that cell shrinks. The process is known as plasmolysis. In hypotonic solution: water moves inside the cell so that cell swells up. The process is known as plasmotysis.
  • 9. iii. Facilitated diffusion:  The process of facilitated diffusion is similar to simple diffusion as the molecules flows from higher concentration to lower concentration but it is different from simple diffusion because it requires transporter protein for the process. The transporter protein is known as Permease or Porter or carrier protein. The transporter protein are specific , some can transport multiple compounds. At first solute molecule binds with the transporter protein and changes the 3D structure of the transporter protein and this change in shape allows the solute to carried across the membrane.
  • 10. 2. Active transport: It requires transporter protein and continuous supply of cellular energy for the transport of molecules across concentration gradien t of the membrane. It is very important to transport the molecules which are present in very low concentration in the medium. In active transport permease or transporter protein carries the molecules across the membrane and the energy required to transport is obtained by ATP or Ion gradient.  Example: The uptake of glucose in the intestine of the human body and also the uptake of minerals or ions into the root hair cells of the plants
  • 11. Types of Active transport There are two types of active transport  Primary active transport secondary active transport. Active transport
  • 12. I. Primary active transport In this process of transportation, the energy is utilized by the breakdown of the ATP to transport molecules across the membrane against a concentration gradient. All the groups of ATP powered pumps contain one or more binding sites for the ATP molecules, which are present on the cytosolic face of the membrane. Basically, the primary active transport uses external chemical energy such as the ATP.  Example: Sodium-potassium pump, the most important pump in the animal cell.  In this process of transportation, the sodium ions are moved to the outside of the cell and potassium ions are moved to the inside of the cell.
  • 13. Secondary active transport It is a kind of active transport that uses electrochemical energy.  It takes place across a biological membrane where a transporter protein couples the movement of an electrochemical ion (typically Na+ or H+) down its electrochemical gradient to the upward movement of another molecule or an ion against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. Electrochemical Gradient  It exists whenever there is a net difference in charges.  The positive and negative charges of a cell are separated by a membrane, where the inside of the cell has extra negative charges than outside. The membrane potential of a cell is -40 to -80 millivolts.
  • 14. Active Transport in Plants  Like humans and animals, plants also require transport systems which are mainly involved in the transport of materials, such as water, minerals, and necessary nutrients to all parts of the plant for its survival. Active transport is a mode of transportation in plants, which uses stored energy to move the particles against the concentration gradient. In a plant cell, it takes place in the root cells by absorbing water and minerals. Active transport always leads to accumulation of molecules are ions towards one side of the membrane. This mode of transportation in plants is carried out by membrane proteins and transports the substance from the lower concentration to higher concentration