SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 35
DESIGN OF NEW CATHODE
MATERIALS FOR SECONDARY
LITHIUM BATTERIES

E. Sivanagi Reddy
Index
 Introduction
 Battery – Timeline
 Applications of batteries
 Secondary Lithium ion battery
 Structure of battery
 Cathode materials
 Advances in cathode materials
 Promising cathode materials
 conclusion
Introduction
   Beginning with the ‘frog-leg experiment’ by
    Galvani (1786), followed by the
    demonstrations of Volta pile by Volta (1792)
    and lead-acid accumulator by Plante
    (1859), several battery chemistries have been
    developed and realized commercially
Battery
 A battery is a transducer that converts
  chemical energy into electrical energy and
  vice versa.
 It contains
   An anode - source
   A cathode - sink
   An electrolyte - the separation of ionic
  transport and electronic transport
Timeline for the major events in the history of batteries
Applications of batteries
Types of batteries
   Primary batteries are disposable because their
    electrochemical reaction cannot be reversed.

      ΔG negative (irreversible)

   Secondary batteries are rechargeable, because their
    electrochemical reaction can be reversed by
    applying a certain voltage to the battery in the
    opposite direction of the discharge.
         ΔG negative, discharge
         ΔG positive, charge
Comparison of the volumetric and
gravimetric energy density with other
batteries
Lithium ion batteries
 The name of “lithium ion battery” was
  given by T. Nagaura and K. Tozawa
 The concept of “lithium ion battery”
  was firstly introduced by Asahi Kasei
  Co. Ltd
 Lithium ion batteries were first proposed
  by M. S. Whittingham in the 1970’s.
  Whittingham used TiS2 as the cathode
  and Lithium metal as the anode.
Lithium ion secondary
Batteries
 The lithium ion battery (LIB) system has been
  most successful in recent development of battery.
 Li is lightest metal and has one of the highest
  standard reduction potentials (-3.0 V)
 Theoretical specific capacity of 3860 Ah/kg in
  comparison with 820 Ah/kg for Zn and 260 Ah/kg
  for Pb
Lithium ion secondary
    batteries
 The first commercial lithium-ion battery was
  released by Sony in 1991
 Battery performance is related not only capacity
  but also to how fast current can be drawn from it:
  specific energy (Wh/Kg), energy density (Wh/cm3)
  and power density (W/Kg)
Schematic representation of a Lithium-ion cell
Upon charging, lithium ions are released by the cathode and
intercalated at the anode.
When the cell is discharged, lithium ions are extracted by the
cathode and inserted into the anode.
Advantages of Lithium-ion batteries
 POWER – High energy density means greater power
 in a smaller package.
 ◦ 160% greater than NiMH
 ◦ 220% greater than NiCd
 HIGHER VOLTAGE – a strong current
   allows it to power complex mechanical
   devices.
 LONG SHELF-LIFE – only 5% discharge
  loss per month.
 10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd
Disadvantages of Lithium-ion batteries
   EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd
   DELICATE -- battery temperature must be monitored
    from within (which raises the price), and sealed
    particularly well
   REGULATIONS -- when shipping Lithium-ion
    batteries in bulk (which also raises the price)
      ◦ Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material
      ◦ UN Manual of Tests and Criteria
Electrolytes
     Role
    1) ion conductor between cathode and anode
    2) generally, Lithium salt dissolved in organic solvent
    3) solid electrolyte is also possible if the ion conductivity is high at
        operating temperature.

     Requirement
    1) Inert
    2) High ionic conductivity, low viscosity
    3) low melting point
    4) Appropriate concentration of Lithium salt
    5) Chemical/thermal stability
    6) Low cost
    7) Environmental -friendly, non-toxic

     Commercial electrolytes: LiPF6 in Carbonate solvent
Anode materials
   Requirements
1) Large capability of Lithium adsorption
2) High efficiency of charge/discharge
3) Excellent cyclability
4) Low reactivity against electrolyte
5) Fast reaction rate
6) Low cost
8) Environmental -friendly, non-toxic
  Commercial anode materials:
    Hard Carbon, Graphite
cathodematerials
 One facet of battery research in which there have
  been many interesting discoveries is the area of
  cathodes
 A cathode is the electrode of an electrochemical
  cell at which reduction occurs
 Common cathode materials of Lithium-ion
  batteries are the transition metal oxide based
  compounds such as
  LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2, LiFePO4
Desired characteristics of cathode
materials
   A high discharge voltage
                                          Li
   A high energy capacity                Co
                             c
                                          O
   A long cycle life
   A high power density
   Light weight
                                   a
   Low self-discharge           LiCoO2

   Absence of environmentally
    hazardous elements
Parameters effecting Cathode behavior


 Method of preparation
 Particle size
 Morphology
 Oxygen Deficiency
 Temperature
CATHODE MATERIALS
   Layered oxide cathodes
   Spinel oxide cathodes
   Zigzag layered LiMnO2 compound
   Olivine structure of LiMPO4
    Other compounds
CATHODE MATERIALS
Structures of cathode materials




Structures of different cathode materials for lithium ion batteries:
a) LiCoO 2 layered structure
b) LiMn2O4 spinel structure and
c)LiFePO4 olivine structure.
The green circles are lithium ions, Li+
LiFePO4                            Advantages

                        1.Good Structural Stability--Safety, long life
                        2 . Fe and Phosphates are abundant-Low
                        cost
                        3 . Environmentally friendly-non toxic
                           elements


                                  Disadvantages

 a. LiFePO4 Structure   1.Slow Lithium-ion diffusion
                        2.Low electronic conductivity
Symmetry :              3.Lower power capability
Orthorhombic
Capacity ranges with respect to
various cathode materials
Comparison of cathode materials
Ways to Improve Cathode Performance
•   Increasing Energy Density
    • Investigate high voltage cathodes that can deliver all the
      Lithium in the structure will improve energy density
•   Thin nano-plate materials seem to offer more energy at
                                    higher rate
    • 30 nm LiFePO4 nano-plates performed better than thick
       material
•   Meso porous LiMn2O4 is another material where there is
    reduced manganese dissolution
•   Surface Coating of cathodes with either ionically or
    electronically conductive material
    • AlF3 coating on oxide materials is shown to improve
      performance
Recent advances in lithium ion
    battery cathode materials
 Composite Cathode Material for Lithium-ion
  Batteries Based on LiFePO4 System
 Some transition metal (oxy)phosphates and
  vanadium oxides for lithium batteries
 Nanostructured cathode materials
Problems in the usage of Cathode materials
    Raw material cost and environmental impact of
    large-scale cells and mass production
    Production cost of solid-state synthesis using high
    and long heating process
   Oxygen release and heat generation from the
    cathode in a fully charged state
    Sensitivity of safety for charge cutoff voltages
    Sensitivity of cathode performance for
     stoichiometry
    Low practical capacity of the cathode being half
    that of a carbonaceous anode
Next generation cathodes


 Most abundant is iron, with stable trivalent state
 Second most abundant is titanium, with stable
  tetravalent state
 Vanadium, with wide valence change (V 2+ –V 5+ )
 Molybdenum, with wide valence change (Mo 4+ –
  Mo 6+ )
Potential Cathode Materials
1. Olivine based phosphates systems (LiMPO4 where M = Mn, Ni) that
   can deliver more Lithium as compared to the conventional material
   LiCoO2
2. Only very few groups have synthesized LiMnPO4 successfully
   and this system has a potential around 4.3 V
3. LiNiPO4 has a potential around 5.5V. It is believed that Li+ diffusion
   coefficient is quite high in nickel phosphate in the range 10-5 m2/s at
   around room temperature. It should have high thermal stability
   because the oxygen is covalently bound in the structure
4. Novel approaches for synthesis of nanostructured olivine's are required
   to enhance both ionic and electronic conductivity
5. LiMn2O4 may be another potential candidate material if the Mn
   dissolution can be suppressed
     ◦   Mesoporous oxide with coating may stabilize Mn oxide
Structures of some promising materials




Structures of LiFePO4 and FePO4, quartz-like
FePO4, Li3Fe2(PO4)3, Lipscombite
Fe1.33FePO4(OH), LiFePO4(OH), H2VOPO4 and H2MnOPO4, e-VOPO4 and
Li2VOPO4. PO4 tetrahedra are golden, FeO6 and VO6 octahedra are
blue, FeO4 tetrahedra are green and lithium atoms are green
Conclusions and what does the future
 hold
    In present day common Lithium transition compounds such as
    LiCoO2, LiNiO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4 are used as cathode
    material in battery cell production, and they have shown a good
    performance during charge and discharge cycling
   For the future there are still a number of actions of interest to
    further develop the performance of derived LiFePO4/C cathode
    material
   We expect upcoming researches on this new framework will lead to
    better cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries
Li ion batteries

More Related Content

What's hot

Nickel cadmium battery
Nickel cadmium battery Nickel cadmium battery
Nickel cadmium battery
nibindaniel
 
NASA Presentation
NASA PresentationNASA Presentation
NASA Presentation
Gerry Flood
 

What's hot (20)

Battery materials
Battery materialsBattery materials
Battery materials
 
Electrochemistry of Lithium ion Battery
Electrochemistry of Lithium ion BatteryElectrochemistry of Lithium ion Battery
Electrochemistry of Lithium ion Battery
 
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGYMODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
MODULE - I : BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
 
zinc air batteries.pptx
zinc air batteries.pptxzinc air batteries.pptx
zinc air batteries.pptx
 
presentation on SUPERCAPACITOR
presentation on SUPERCAPACITORpresentation on SUPERCAPACITOR
presentation on SUPERCAPACITOR
 
Nickel cadmium battery
Nickel cadmium battery Nickel cadmium battery
Nickel cadmium battery
 
Manufacturing of Li-ion battery
Manufacturing of Li-ion batteryManufacturing of Li-ion battery
Manufacturing of Li-ion battery
 
lead acid battery
lead acid batterylead acid battery
lead acid battery
 
Battery ppt
Battery pptBattery ppt
Battery ppt
 
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive PolymerRechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
 
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovationLithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
 
Polymer Batteries Lithium Polymer BatteriesCells
 Polymer Batteries Lithium Polymer BatteriesCells Polymer Batteries Lithium Polymer BatteriesCells
Polymer Batteries Lithium Polymer BatteriesCells
 
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation ReportRechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
Rechargeable Batteries Presentation Report
 
Ni-Cd cell or Nicad battery
Ni-Cd cell or Nicad batteryNi-Cd cell or Nicad battery
Ni-Cd cell or Nicad battery
 
Recent advances in battery science and technology
Recent advances in battery science and technologyRecent advances in battery science and technology
Recent advances in battery science and technology
 
NASA Presentation
NASA PresentationNASA Presentation
NASA Presentation
 
Lithium ion battery and sodium ion battery
Lithium ion battery and sodium ion batteryLithium ion battery and sodium ion battery
Lithium ion battery and sodium ion battery
 
Introduction to supercapacitors
Introduction to supercapacitors  Introduction to supercapacitors
Introduction to supercapacitors
 
Lecture on Lead Acid Battery
Lecture on Lead Acid BatteryLecture on Lead Acid Battery
Lecture on Lead Acid Battery
 
electrolyte for next generation batteries
electrolyte for next generation batterieselectrolyte for next generation batteries
electrolyte for next generation batteries
 

Similar to Li ion batteries

Electrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobileElectrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobile
ayushkamalecell
 
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Arun Kumar
 
Battery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptx
Battery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptxBattery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptx
Battery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptx
parth510336
 
Battery white-paper-part-ii
Battery white-paper-part-iiBattery white-paper-part-ii
Battery white-paper-part-ii
Intertek CE
 

Similar to Li ion batteries (20)

High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battriesHigh energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
 
Batteries ppt
Batteries pptBatteries ppt
Batteries ppt
 
Electrical properties of solids
Electrical properties of solidsElectrical properties of solids
Electrical properties of solids
 
Electrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobileElectrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobile
 
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
 
Research plan 2
Research plan 2Research plan 2
Research plan 2
 
Battery technology
Battery technologyBattery technology
Battery technology
 
Battery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptx
Battery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptxBattery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptx
Battery semester 1 chemistry for study.pptx
 
Baterias LIB.ppt
Baterias LIB.pptBaterias LIB.ppt
Baterias LIB.ppt
 
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovationLithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
 
rechargable batteries and lead acid battery
rechargable batteries and lead acid batteryrechargable batteries and lead acid battery
rechargable batteries and lead acid battery
 
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
 
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdfInterpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
 
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineeringModule 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
Module 1 ppts Energy system.pdf engineering
 
Nano-materials for Anodes in Lithium ion Battery - An introduction part 1
Nano-materials for Anodes in  Lithium ion Battery   - An introduction part 1Nano-materials for Anodes in  Lithium ion Battery   - An introduction part 1
Nano-materials for Anodes in Lithium ion Battery - An introduction part 1
 
detailed study on Nanobatterys
detailed study on Nanobatterys detailed study on Nanobatterys
detailed study on Nanobatterys
 
BATTERY.pptx presentation Introduction to Electric vehicles
BATTERY.pptx presentation Introduction to Electric vehiclesBATTERY.pptx presentation Introduction to Electric vehicles
BATTERY.pptx presentation Introduction to Electric vehicles
 
Presentation Batteries.pptx
Presentation Batteries.pptxPresentation Batteries.pptx
Presentation Batteries.pptx
 
Lithium Iron Phosphate: Olivine Material for High Power Li-Ion Batteries - Cr...
Lithium Iron Phosphate: Olivine Material for High Power Li-Ion Batteries - Cr...Lithium Iron Phosphate: Olivine Material for High Power Li-Ion Batteries - Cr...
Lithium Iron Phosphate: Olivine Material for High Power Li-Ion Batteries - Cr...
 
Battery white-paper-part-ii
Battery white-paper-part-iiBattery white-paper-part-ii
Battery white-paper-part-ii
 

Recently uploaded

Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...
Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...
Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...
FIDO Alliance
 
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptxTales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
FIDO Alliance
 

Recently uploaded (20)

AI+A11Y 11MAY2024 HYDERBAD GAAD 2024 - HelloA11Y (11 May 2024)
AI+A11Y 11MAY2024 HYDERBAD GAAD 2024 - HelloA11Y (11 May 2024)AI+A11Y 11MAY2024 HYDERBAD GAAD 2024 - HelloA11Y (11 May 2024)
AI+A11Y 11MAY2024 HYDERBAD GAAD 2024 - HelloA11Y (11 May 2024)
 
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptxDesign Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
 
Modernizing Legacy Systems Using Ballerina
Modernizing Legacy Systems Using BallerinaModernizing Legacy Systems Using Ballerina
Modernizing Legacy Systems Using Ballerina
 
How to Check CNIC Information Online with Pakdata cf
How to Check CNIC Information Online with Pakdata cfHow to Check CNIC Information Online with Pakdata cf
How to Check CNIC Information Online with Pakdata cf
 
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDMIntroduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
 
Portal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russe
Portal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russePortal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russe
Portal Kombat : extension du réseau de propagande russe
 
Overview of Hyperledger Foundation
Overview of Hyperledger FoundationOverview of Hyperledger Foundation
Overview of Hyperledger Foundation
 
Working together SRE & Platform Engineering
Working together SRE & Platform EngineeringWorking together SRE & Platform Engineering
Working together SRE & Platform Engineering
 
Stronger Together: Developing an Organizational Strategy for Accessible Desig...
Stronger Together: Developing an Organizational Strategy for Accessible Desig...Stronger Together: Developing an Organizational Strategy for Accessible Desig...
Stronger Together: Developing an Organizational Strategy for Accessible Desig...
 
CNIC Information System with Pakdata Cf In Pakistan
CNIC Information System with Pakdata Cf In PakistanCNIC Information System with Pakdata Cf In Pakistan
CNIC Information System with Pakdata Cf In Pakistan
 
JohnPollard-hybrid-app-RailsConf2024.pptx
JohnPollard-hybrid-app-RailsConf2024.pptxJohnPollard-hybrid-app-RailsConf2024.pptx
JohnPollard-hybrid-app-RailsConf2024.pptx
 
API Governance and Monetization - The evolution of API governance
API Governance and Monetization -  The evolution of API governanceAPI Governance and Monetization -  The evolution of API governance
API Governance and Monetization - The evolution of API governance
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream ProcessingEvent-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
 
Design and Development of a Provenance Capture Platform for Data Science
Design and Development of a Provenance Capture Platform for Data ScienceDesign and Development of a Provenance Capture Platform for Data Science
Design and Development of a Provenance Capture Platform for Data Science
 
Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal OntologySix Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
 
Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...
Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...
Hyatt driving innovation and exceptional customer experiences with FIDO passw...
 
Web Form Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutions Apri...
Web Form Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutions Apri...Web Form Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutions Apri...
Web Form Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutions Apri...
 
JavaScript Usage Statistics 2024 - The Ultimate Guide
JavaScript Usage Statistics 2024 - The Ultimate GuideJavaScript Usage Statistics 2024 - The Ultimate Guide
JavaScript Usage Statistics 2024 - The Ultimate Guide
 
2024 May Patch Tuesday
2024 May Patch Tuesday2024 May Patch Tuesday
2024 May Patch Tuesday
 
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptxTales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
 

Li ion batteries

  • 1. DESIGN OF NEW CATHODE MATERIALS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES E. Sivanagi Reddy
  • 2. Index  Introduction  Battery – Timeline  Applications of batteries  Secondary Lithium ion battery  Structure of battery  Cathode materials  Advances in cathode materials  Promising cathode materials  conclusion
  • 3. Introduction  Beginning with the ‘frog-leg experiment’ by Galvani (1786), followed by the demonstrations of Volta pile by Volta (1792) and lead-acid accumulator by Plante (1859), several battery chemistries have been developed and realized commercially
  • 4. Battery  A battery is a transducer that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa.  It contains An anode - source A cathode - sink An electrolyte - the separation of ionic transport and electronic transport
  • 5. Timeline for the major events in the history of batteries
  • 7. Types of batteries  Primary batteries are disposable because their electrochemical reaction cannot be reversed. ΔG negative (irreversible)  Secondary batteries are rechargeable, because their electrochemical reaction can be reversed by applying a certain voltage to the battery in the opposite direction of the discharge. ΔG negative, discharge ΔG positive, charge
  • 8. Comparison of the volumetric and gravimetric energy density with other batteries
  • 9.
  • 10. Lithium ion batteries  The name of “lithium ion battery” was given by T. Nagaura and K. Tozawa  The concept of “lithium ion battery” was firstly introduced by Asahi Kasei Co. Ltd  Lithium ion batteries were first proposed by M. S. Whittingham in the 1970’s. Whittingham used TiS2 as the cathode and Lithium metal as the anode.
  • 11. Lithium ion secondary Batteries  The lithium ion battery (LIB) system has been most successful in recent development of battery.  Li is lightest metal and has one of the highest standard reduction potentials (-3.0 V)  Theoretical specific capacity of 3860 Ah/kg in comparison with 820 Ah/kg for Zn and 260 Ah/kg for Pb
  • 12. Lithium ion secondary batteries  The first commercial lithium-ion battery was released by Sony in 1991  Battery performance is related not only capacity but also to how fast current can be drawn from it: specific energy (Wh/Kg), energy density (Wh/cm3) and power density (W/Kg)
  • 13. Schematic representation of a Lithium-ion cell
  • 14. Upon charging, lithium ions are released by the cathode and intercalated at the anode. When the cell is discharged, lithium ions are extracted by the cathode and inserted into the anode.
  • 15. Advantages of Lithium-ion batteries POWER – High energy density means greater power in a smaller package. ◦ 160% greater than NiMH ◦ 220% greater than NiCd HIGHER VOLTAGE – a strong current allows it to power complex mechanical devices. LONG SHELF-LIFE – only 5% discharge loss per month. 10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd
  • 16. Disadvantages of Lithium-ion batteries  EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd  DELICATE -- battery temperature must be monitored from within (which raises the price), and sealed particularly well  REGULATIONS -- when shipping Lithium-ion batteries in bulk (which also raises the price) ◦ Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material ◦ UN Manual of Tests and Criteria
  • 17. Electrolytes  Role 1) ion conductor between cathode and anode 2) generally, Lithium salt dissolved in organic solvent 3) solid electrolyte is also possible if the ion conductivity is high at operating temperature.  Requirement 1) Inert 2) High ionic conductivity, low viscosity 3) low melting point 4) Appropriate concentration of Lithium salt 5) Chemical/thermal stability 6) Low cost 7) Environmental -friendly, non-toxic  Commercial electrolytes: LiPF6 in Carbonate solvent
  • 18. Anode materials  Requirements 1) Large capability of Lithium adsorption 2) High efficiency of charge/discharge 3) Excellent cyclability 4) Low reactivity against electrolyte 5) Fast reaction rate 6) Low cost 8) Environmental -friendly, non-toxic  Commercial anode materials: Hard Carbon, Graphite
  • 19. cathodematerials  One facet of battery research in which there have been many interesting discoveries is the area of cathodes  A cathode is the electrode of an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs  Common cathode materials of Lithium-ion batteries are the transition metal oxide based compounds such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2, LiFePO4
  • 20. Desired characteristics of cathode materials  A high discharge voltage Li  A high energy capacity Co c O  A long cycle life  A high power density  Light weight a  Low self-discharge LiCoO2  Absence of environmentally hazardous elements
  • 21. Parameters effecting Cathode behavior  Method of preparation  Particle size  Morphology  Oxygen Deficiency  Temperature
  • 22. CATHODE MATERIALS  Layered oxide cathodes  Spinel oxide cathodes  Zigzag layered LiMnO2 compound  Olivine structure of LiMPO4  Other compounds
  • 24. Structures of cathode materials Structures of different cathode materials for lithium ion batteries: a) LiCoO 2 layered structure b) LiMn2O4 spinel structure and c)LiFePO4 olivine structure. The green circles are lithium ions, Li+
  • 25. LiFePO4 Advantages 1.Good Structural Stability--Safety, long life 2 . Fe and Phosphates are abundant-Low cost 3 . Environmentally friendly-non toxic elements Disadvantages a. LiFePO4 Structure 1.Slow Lithium-ion diffusion 2.Low electronic conductivity Symmetry : 3.Lower power capability Orthorhombic
  • 26. Capacity ranges with respect to various cathode materials
  • 28. Ways to Improve Cathode Performance • Increasing Energy Density • Investigate high voltage cathodes that can deliver all the Lithium in the structure will improve energy density • Thin nano-plate materials seem to offer more energy at higher rate • 30 nm LiFePO4 nano-plates performed better than thick material • Meso porous LiMn2O4 is another material where there is reduced manganese dissolution • Surface Coating of cathodes with either ionically or electronically conductive material • AlF3 coating on oxide materials is shown to improve performance
  • 29. Recent advances in lithium ion battery cathode materials  Composite Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries Based on LiFePO4 System  Some transition metal (oxy)phosphates and vanadium oxides for lithium batteries  Nanostructured cathode materials
  • 30. Problems in the usage of Cathode materials  Raw material cost and environmental impact of large-scale cells and mass production  Production cost of solid-state synthesis using high and long heating process  Oxygen release and heat generation from the cathode in a fully charged state  Sensitivity of safety for charge cutoff voltages  Sensitivity of cathode performance for stoichiometry  Low practical capacity of the cathode being half that of a carbonaceous anode
  • 31. Next generation cathodes  Most abundant is iron, with stable trivalent state  Second most abundant is titanium, with stable tetravalent state  Vanadium, with wide valence change (V 2+ –V 5+ )  Molybdenum, with wide valence change (Mo 4+ – Mo 6+ )
  • 32. Potential Cathode Materials 1. Olivine based phosphates systems (LiMPO4 where M = Mn, Ni) that can deliver more Lithium as compared to the conventional material LiCoO2 2. Only very few groups have synthesized LiMnPO4 successfully and this system has a potential around 4.3 V 3. LiNiPO4 has a potential around 5.5V. It is believed that Li+ diffusion coefficient is quite high in nickel phosphate in the range 10-5 m2/s at around room temperature. It should have high thermal stability because the oxygen is covalently bound in the structure 4. Novel approaches for synthesis of nanostructured olivine's are required to enhance both ionic and electronic conductivity 5. LiMn2O4 may be another potential candidate material if the Mn dissolution can be suppressed ◦ Mesoporous oxide with coating may stabilize Mn oxide
  • 33. Structures of some promising materials Structures of LiFePO4 and FePO4, quartz-like FePO4, Li3Fe2(PO4)3, Lipscombite Fe1.33FePO4(OH), LiFePO4(OH), H2VOPO4 and H2MnOPO4, e-VOPO4 and Li2VOPO4. PO4 tetrahedra are golden, FeO6 and VO6 octahedra are blue, FeO4 tetrahedra are green and lithium atoms are green
  • 34. Conclusions and what does the future hold  In present day common Lithium transition compounds such as LiCoO2, LiNiO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4 are used as cathode material in battery cell production, and they have shown a good performance during charge and discharge cycling  For the future there are still a number of actions of interest to further develop the performance of derived LiFePO4/C cathode material  We expect upcoming researches on this new framework will lead to better cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries