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Pru Gell
	
“How groups make decisions, & have discussions, shapes
the kind of culture that they have & if people don’t feel
heard, or safe to talk, they resist (decisions & more)” Myrna Lewis, From
Inside the No: Five Steps to Decisions That Last,, 2008.
main purpose of Deep Democracy tools
= safe(r) to say what needs to be said
can be uncomfortable but harder to deal with consequences of not
Checklist
Tools Teaching & Theory
Check-in Introduction to Deep Democracy
Understanding Resistance: Conscious &
Unconscious (including Resistance Line)
5 Steps (4 Steps + Step 5: Debate/Argument) 4 Steps
Soft Shoe Shuffle
Neutrality Dance
Role Theory (Group Dynamics)
Climate Report
Communication Vices (in notes)
Argument + Edges & Cycling
Check-out
Check-inQuestions
1.  Name & something surprising or otherwise about your morning
2. a) How did you hear about the program/what gossip had you heard &
2. b) Why you came to the program/what would make this workshop
valuable to you?
3. Knowing that you were going to attend the program this morning how
are you feeling &:
a) Do you want to be here?
b) If there’s even a little part of you that doesn’t what part of you is that?
c) What would it take that part of you to come along?
4. Bit about yourself
5. Anything else that I/we should know so that you can feel comfortable/
participate in the program?
Lewis Method of
Deep Democracy
society à rapid change à
complex challenges in broader
society mirrored in organisations
?
Cover:
1. Conscious & unconscious
(basic theoretical assumption of
Lewis Deep Democracy )
2. How decision-making shapes
what’s in the conscious/
unconscious of a group
3. Resistance Line
4. Majority democracy
Module: Understanding resistance
(Conscious & Unconscious)
CONSCIOUS
UNCONSCIOUS What some
people in the
group are
aware of but
others are not
What everyone in
the group are
aware of
Group’s
Wisdom &
Potential
(so lower the
water line)
Irrational/
emotional
Rational/
logical
Key
concept 1
Part 1. Conscious &
Unconscious
Lewis Deep Democracy Level 1 slidedeck
How Lewis Deep Democracy
differs from some other
facilitation approaches
Majority of issues come from
emotional/irrational place, not
resolved à consequences
Therefore rational/logical
approaches don’t work
Lewis Deep Democracy tools
factor this in
Wisdom & potential rests/
waits in unconscious.
Lower waterline to pull up
some of the group’s potential
& wisdom into their
conscious(ness) (at a pace
that’s ok with the group).
	
Lot happening in unconscious of any
group that affects conscious of group
Step 1. Discuss:
a. What are some things that are in
the group’s conscious?
b. What are some things that are in
the group’s unconscious?
Step 2. Plot these on an iceberg
Part 2. How
		
	
making shapes the
conscious/unconscious of
a group
CONSCIOUS
UNCONSCIOUS
Group’s
Wisdom &
Potential
Not
everyone
aware
Irrational/
emotional
Everyone
aware
Rational/
logical
Decision-
making style
shapes what’s
in a groups
conscious or
unconscious 	
Key
concept 2
CONSCIOUS
UNCONSCIOUS
Decision-making
(& discussion) style
shapes what’s in a
groups conscious
or unconscious 	
Key
concept
3
+ How likely people are
to go along with
decision or onto
Resistance Line.
Feel safe to talk & heard
in discussions &
decisions ê levels of
resistance.
+ Shapes if potential
growth & informed
decisions/outcomes
achieved.
Key
concept 2
Conscious
Unconscious
Water line = very high
A person’s or very few
people’s wisdom in
group’s conscious
Collective wisdom &
potential lies dormant in
unconscious
Autocrat/top down/
imposed (aka not
participative) decision
May ask for views but not actually
be safe to respond or maybe safe
for only some things to be said
Waterline goes down, just a bit
Lot remains in unconscious
	
	
	
Trying be participative without tools to
make it safe
Leader/autocrat leaves or meeting
finishes à true sentiments voiced
Feelings stay in unconscious à
build up, manifesting as resistance
activities
Resistance = actions that sabotage
status quo/go against a decision
Actions initially covert à eventually
become overt
Concept called Resistance Line
	
		
Consequences
Reflect on and discuss:
1. Who is autocratic in your life
and what happens to you when
you experience autocratic rule.
2. When you have been
autocratic and what people’s
responses have been to you?
Inefficient and Ineffective
Part 3. Resistance Line
Sarcastic jokes
Excuses
Gossip/
Lobbying
Poor
communication/
breakdown
Disruption
Go slow
Strike
War/
withdrawal
Covert Overt
The
Resistance
Line
	
	
	
	
Continuum,
not
necessarily
in order.
Resistance isn’t
‘bad’ = very
understandable
response not
feeling heard over
time.Being on it =
indicator not with
popular view nor
saying openly what
needs to be said è
to conflict. Longer views (that
need to be said) not
heard & issues/
tensions not resolved
they get bigger. Won’t
go away.
Key
concept 4
Excuses
Excuse is piggy backing off a deeper
issue.
Issues need not be what the excuse is
about, often more complex.
Coming up as unheard/excluded minority
has one excuse after another for not
supporting the majority decision.
Try to recognise that these excuses
suggest unresolved emotional issues.
Key
concept 5
Inefficient and Ineffective
Sarcastic jokes
Excuses
Gossip/
Lobbying
Poor
communication/
breakdown
Disruption
Go slow
Strike
War/
withdrawal
Covert Overt
	
Reflect on a time when you’ve been on the Resistance Line:
1.  What stage of the were you at and how did they get there?
2.  What had you tried to do before and what were you hoping
for?
3.  Next steps parallel with Resistance Line or not?
CEO
		
	
Reflect on
experiences of
losing the ‘vote’,
being in the
minority, what do
you tend to do?
Part 4: Majority
Democracy
Without using tools to make it safe(r) to say what needs to be
said (unconscious into conscious aka lower the waterline)
may feel resistance or lack of buy-in, but can’t label it or
identify how or why it’s happening.
Using tools to create participation, collaboration rather than
just saying it can be empowering & enables:
•  Buy-in & Resistance Line kept at bay through minority
being brought on board with the majority decision
•  Wisdom of the group tapped
Revisiting how decision-making
impacts on group dynamics
Irrational/Emotional
Step 5: The Argument (has its own 4 steps)
Way/etiquette
for holding,
meetings &
discussions
Rational/Logical
Step 1. Gain all of the views
Step 2. Make it safe to say ‘no’/alternative view
Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/alternative view
Step 4: Summarise views, take a vote and ask
‘what will it take you to come along’
		
Steps 1-3 are
for
discussions
Steps 4 &
5 are for
decisions
WWW War stories or personal experiences – give your own views.
TTT TEACH
Metaskills
Present&the&Video&or&PowerPoint,&or&add&to&Diagram&&
 There are five Steps to DD; the first four are above the water line.
What are the 5 Steps
For working above (Steps 1 - 4) & below (Step 5) the waterline
•  Gain greater participation & buy in (stay on
the bus)
•  Involve & empower people
•  Make sounder, wiser, better decisions
•  Helps facilitators be less autocratic
•  Minimise ineffective & inefficient decision-
making that results from people being on the
Resistance Line
	
Why we use the 5 Steps
•  Package, bits and pieces
•  Solo, 1-on-1, small è large group
•  Meetings needing:
-  Discussion
-  Brainstorming
-  Collaboration
-  Decision-making
•  General conversation
•  Simple à Difficult decisions/discussion
•  Want to surface all the views
•  Trying to involve & empower others
		
	
r personal experiences – give your own views.
s
e&Video&or&PowerPoint,&or&add&to&Diagram&&
ve Steps to DD; the first four are above the water line.
When to use the 5 Steps
All steps under
umbrella of
Metaskills
Metaskills = Attitude
applied to the tools
Ability be use Deep
Democracy toolkit
based on ability to
use Metaskills
Neutrality = main
Metaskill
Neutrality = suspend
viewpoint and
attachment to outcome
Metaskills
Why we do it
•  Feel valued &
heard
•  More information
•  Reduces/prevents
time on the
Resistance Line
		
	
Step 1. Gain all of the views
How	
•  With what you say
•  Don’t summarise
•  Model talking from ‘I’:
•  2nd/3rd person generalities slow &
no real decision made
•  Accountability through ‘I’
•  Metaskill of neutrality
•  Address Communication Vices
•  (Can do it via the Soft Shoe
Shuffle)
Step 1. Gain all of the views
Why we do it
•  Inevitably different opinions. Often look for
agreement/unity
o  Different views ignored, glossed over, dealt
with politely
à Feel unsafe. So striving allow space for ‘no’
•  Varied opinions = ‘rub’ of diversity, innovative
solutions arise
•  Being open to ‘no’ à reduces time on the
Resistance Line
Step 2. Make it safe to say ‘no’/
alternative view
How
•  Be aware of tone & ensure address all
sides equally
•  Actively search for & encourage the
various, minority and/alternative views
(not people) to be voiced ‘other views’,
‘any views we haven’t heard yet’, ‘new
views’
•  If need separate the issue in time &
space
•  Be aware of ‘the stare’
Step 2. Make it safe to
say ‘no’/alternative view
v	
	
	
	
	
	
Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/
alternative view
	
One brave soul will say ‘no’/alternative view
(for other people who are silent in the room)
We’ll know it’s a ‘no’, because it often
sounds/feels different, ‘la, la, li’
Why we do it
•  Recognise person with ‘no’ =
spokesperson
•  Avoid scapegoating (seeing people as
‘difficult’)	
	
Reflect and identify a
time when you’ve felt
and/or said a ‘no’/
alternative view in a
meeting.
How did it feel?
What did you do?
Key Concept
6
Be aware that there are other ‘no’s’ or differing views
Funny thing is, if different opinion has space to be heard
That opinion, no matter how unpopular it is, is alive & well in the
minds of others too
Perhaps the others find it hard to accept that deep down they see the
truth/reality of this opinion and/or don’t feel comfortable voicing it
So prevent scape goating by
Encouraging those who have a
similar opinion to speak out even
if it doesn’t sound exactly the
same
v	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
		
		
		
	
Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/
alternative view
	 Why we do it (continued)
•  Encourage participation, make
it feel safe(r) to
•  Creates climate for others to
disagree
•  More share naysayer role,
prevents role being
personalised (and
scapegoating)
•  Supports resistance line kept
at bay
v	
Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/
alternative view	
How
When you hear a ‘no’
Simply ask “does anyone else feel a bit like this?” or “does
anyone else have another point of view?”
Why we do it
•  After a vote minority view becomes part of unconscious.
Therefore can act as doorway to the deeper wisdom
Remember:
o  Doesn’t mean their view wiser … but note position of
minority … under waterline = closer to the wisdom. Not
tangled in majority
o  All ideas relevant
o  Minority view &/or what they needs to come with, has
wisdom to add (value) to the majority view
	
		
		
	
Step 4. Summarise views, take a vote &
ask ‘what will it take you to come along’
Why we do it
•  By not expecting minority to cede & go
along with majority & asking them ‘the
question’
o  They’ll add wisdom
o  Ensure buy-in
o  Reduce resistance
	
		
		
	
Step 4. Summarise views, take a vote &
ask ‘what will it take you to come along’
•  Summarise key options
•  Take a hands up vote (1 person, 1 vote)
•  Note if there’s a clear majority
•  Ask the minority (1 person at a time) what would they need to go along with the decision:
“I’m sorry that you lost the vote.
However the majority will tend to have its way. That’s gravity!
However, you might have some insight/wisdom to add, and to ensure that you will come
along, with more ease than being pressured or ignored, what will you need?”
-  Add wisdom back to original decision
-  Vote again on modified decision
How
Find the wisdom that the ‘no’ represents
Minority have insight that the majoring are not seeing
Insights from the minority will add value to the majority
decision
Neutrality Dance
How
•  Ensure transparency
•  When have strong
view move move
physically into new
position then return
to neutral position
•  Don’t use neutrality
as a manipulative
tool
Why we do it
•  Metaskill of neutrality can jar with expectations
•  Not suggesting need to give up your opinion/desire
for an outcome
•  Potentially reduce activating Resistance Line
•  Builds climate trust & safety to say difficult to say &
hard to hear
Covers:
•  When to use
•  How to do it
•  Things to watch
out for
•  When to stop
Module: Soft Shoe Shuffle
Conversation on our feet that
allows everyone to be involved
When to use it
With large groups
When you want to get rid of
rank in the room
Enables everyone to have a
‘voice’ even if they say nothing,
‘share’ views by moving in
agreement or disagreement
When you want to build a safe
& empowering environment
As an icebreaker
It is fun & enjoyable
For a Check-in or Check-out
Things to watch out for
1. Not Shuffling
People often forget to move.
Remind them & encourage
them as much as possible to
move.
Don’t insist on shuffling,
encourage & facilitate it.
2. Not speaking from the ‘I’
3. Questions
4. Long statements
Group seems on the point of making a
decision & there is a clear majority
Move into a decision & ask the people in
the minority what they need to go with?
You are now in Step 4.
When there is a change in energy and people are very engaged
When the conversation is flowing and people tend to stop shuffling & continue
the conversation sitting.
When there is a clear polarity
The ongoing cycling or edge suggests that there is a clear polarity which now
needs to be resolved through the argument.
	
When to stop
What
Way to connect at the
start of a meeting
(anytime two or more
people get together)
Check-in
How
•  Introduce it (call it what you like!)
& why it’s done
•  Set & respond to 1-3 questions
(model length & depth)
•  Go popcorn style
•  Be very present & be neutral
(respond to people the same)
•  Invite everyone but not force it
•  Let everyone be heard (no
interruptions or conversation)
•  To close summarise
(key objectives &/or themes) don’t
attribute to people
Check-in
Why
§  Humans not cogs
§  Insights
§  Dynamic relevant
agenda
§  Build Psychological
Safety
§  Normalises sharing
§  Otherwise pre-frontal
cortex not available
Check-in
Module: Edges & Cycling
Edge behaviours
	
Bored
Frustrated
Irritated
Low energy/sleepy
Physical
symptoms
Wanting to gossip
Mind wandered
Edge behaviour
•  Sudden
•  Occurs when group ‘at an edge’
•  Symptom something from below
waterline (in groups’
unconscious) trying to emerge
•  Linked to topic but no one
comfortable to talk about
•  Call this issue a fish as it’s
below waterline; sardine à
whale
Edges & Cycling go together
Meetings with edge behavior,
often things getting repeated
Issue/pattern/dynamic/behavior
continue to present itself 3 times
à suggests no longer rational/
logical
Repetition called cycling
Edges & Cycling go together
Cycling flags a critical/difficult
issue connected to emotional
from below waterline
Far deeper issue, surface topic
= easier
No resolution because not
addressing the real, deeper
issue
Edges & Cycling are diagnostic tools
	
	
Begin to recognise & count issue/pattern/
dynamic/behavior cycling
Each time cycling happens:
•  Issue gains weight and more energy.
•  Adds to tension & makes it more difficult
to resolve.
Therefore better deal with issue sooner than
later.
Can’t address underlying unconscious
issues (below waterline emotional/irrational)
with rational tools, they do not respond to
logic.
Different tools needed to uncover & resolve
the deeper issues à Step 5
1. Set the safety rules
Lewis Deep Democracy standard:
Nobody has monopoly on the truth
Step 5
2. Throw all the arrows
3. Own the grain of truth
4. Operationalise the insights/grains à Vote on them
Argument
Why use Step 5
	
There will always be different opinions.
Why use Step 5
Different opinions can
coexist until one person
(clearly-ish) says that are
right & implies that the
other person/view is
wrong.
Then conflict will emerge.
Why use Step 5
It’s difficult for people to sit on the fence.
Why use Step 5
A lot of conflict resolution encourages
people to empathise (try to see the
other side).
Deep Democracy is different.
1. Encourages you to initially hold your
own view strongly.
2. Sees conflict is an opportunity to
learn by becoming aware of the parts
we unknowingly project onto the other.
Why use Step 5
Help group find and resolve issue/s (fish/es) blocking progress.
Issue/fish:
•  Exists for the group & continue attach itself to anything group is
doing until it’s resolved.
•  Can’t be identified or labelled so Step 5 helps group ‘go fishing’ &
resolve most relevant issue at that time (does not resolve every fish
or issue).
•  Resides within the unsaid & the lack of clarity.
•  Already there. Longer left unresolved, bigger it grows.
•  Indicates an active Resistance Line.
Why use Step 5?
		
	
Therefore:
•  Step 5 aims get fish asap, so emphasis
helping people ‘say what needs to be
said’.
•  In effect, surfacing issue/fish, you’re
bringing in ‘conflict issue’ earlier than
later.
•  Therefore introduce issue at more
manageable stage than at end of the
Resistance Line.
By surfacing the issue
or fish you lower the
water line.
When to use Step 5
•  When a group is having
difficulty with an issue & is
unable to decide.
•  When there are two different
views.
•  When wanting creative &
innovative solutions.
Suggest that the conversation takes
place in a different manner.
Spatially separate the different views.
Argument is done in roles as opposed
to people.
How to do Step 5: The Argument (& the
4 Steps within)
1. Set the safety rules:
•  Nobody has monopoly on the truth
•  Intention = stay in relationship
•  Going to grow
2. Throw all the arrows (from sides)
3. Own the grain of truth/insight that hit home (and what it is
saying about you)
4. Operationalise the insights/grains à Vote on them
How to do Step 5: The
Argument (& the 4 Steps
within)
The Argument: Step 1. Safety rules
•  Overview the steps first so people know what they
are agreeing or disagreeing to
•  Slow the process down further
•  Share the Deep Democracy premise ‘
•  Vote on it (same process as you did for step 4)
•  Ask if there are any other safety rules
•  Vote on each
•  Summarise the list of agreed on safety rules
The Argument: Step 2. Say it all/
Throw all the arrows (from sides)
•  State what the sides are
•  Do it in roles
•  Speak all arrows on one side, then swap
•  Exhaust views, throw all of the arrows
•  Brief, to the point
•  Speak only what is true for you
•  Use ‘I’ statements
•  People encouraged to move side to side
•  Go to each side at least twice
The Argument: Step 3. Own the
grain of truth/insight that hit home
Invite people to:
•  Take a moment to identify an insight that hit home
•  Share via an ‘I’ statement
a)  what it was and
b)  what it is saying about you
Make it clear you’d like everyone to own an insight
Share the list of insights back to the group
The Argument: Step 4
Operationalise the insights/grains à Vote on
them
Facilitate taking the grains of truth back to the original issue
that led to the argument in the first place.
•  Ask the group if they’d like to make any decisions
based on the grains/insights that they just had
•  After people share a idea for a decision take a
vote
•  Summarise list of decisions
Module: Group Dynamics
(Role Theory)
Covers:
1.  Energy fields
2.  Fractal patterns
3.  How fractals relate to groups
4.  Role exists beyond/greater than the individual (&
projection)
5.  The individual is greater than the role
6.  Role fluidity
Group Dynamics: Role Theory
Introduction
	
•  Based on Arnold Mindell’s Process Orientated Psychology
& his version or evolution of Role Theory
•  Paradigm shift à Moved psychology away from focusing
on the individuals to:
-  Focusing on the collective
-  Field & energy theory – based on new physics
•  A change from Newtonian to Quantum Physics
1. Energy fields How do we feel
in different
energy fields?
All living things are energy & that we are energy.
Everything exists in the energy field, all of the time, but almost all of it at an
unconscious level, because we are unaware of it, or not focused on it.
We can access it if we develop the conscious awareness.
	
Everything exists in the unconscious
All connected & part of a bigger whole, live
in a field of energy
Our conscious creates the boundaries, but it is an illusion.
Example: If I identify with being anything a ie red circle, carer, victim,
difficult, excited, although it may look like it is with me only, it’s part of the
energetic field.
It is alive & well in the room.
•  	Independent variables
•  Billiard Ball theory, cause à
effect
•  Linear growth path/
progression
•  Predictable
NEWTON QUANTUM
•  We are part of an energy field
•  Don’t know what causes what
•  Chaos & transformation linked
•  Pure potential & possibilities
Part 2. Fractal patterns
		
	
Fractal is a
pattern within a
pattern.
Fractal isn’t an exact
copy but the pattern is
similar.
Like each cell in body:
•  Contains image (through the
DNA) of the whole body.
•  DNA is a “self-replicating
material which is present in
nearly all living organisms as
the main constituent of
chromosomes. It is the carrier
of genetic information”.
•  DNA in the cell does not look
like the rest of the body, but
within it the key/code for the
foundation for the rest of the
body.
•  Is a fractal pattern of the whole
of us.
•  Has the elements, the
‘themes’, of the whole of us.
It’s about the general themes & patterns
		
	
	
	
	
	
So too, you part of the world & at an unconscious level
have all the parts in you.
Like DNA in the cell you have major themes that are
common to humanity in you.
Martians trying to understand humanity, only you to
observe, would get a pretty good idea of the basic
themes, or make-up, of human kind on earth.
You are also a fractal pattern of this group. Friend asked
you what took place in this group, your description of what
took place won’t be exact as it is your own perception, but
your friend could gain some insight into the general
themes of the group.
Another way to look at fractal patterns is to look at
the following diagrams
		
	
	
	
	
	
If we take a holographic picture & cut off a
piece, because it is a hologram, the
picture will be a fractal pattern of the
whole.
This part will have the same texture of
the whole picture. It is dotted showing that
it is not exact, but the blueprint / texture/
theme of the person is being represented.
This is a fractal of the whole & an
Einsteinium view.
3. How do these concepts (energy fields & fractals patterns)
relate to groups? (have a very important influence on groups &
help us understand groups from a different perspective)
Can think of a fractal as a role
Roles happening now in the room ie
teacher & learners.
Tend describe people in relation to their
roles in sociological terms
Many learners in room, so say there is a
‘role of learner’ rather than an individual
or ‘X is a learner’
Role of learner = A fractal of learner
Learner is in an energy field, therefore so
too is the learner in me (teacher)
‘Role of teacher’
Like fractal pattern, not exactly same, but a
texture of the role
Talk about role as ‘existing in the group’
Say ‘there is a role of teacher’ as opposed
to saying ‘Pru is in the teacher role’
In groups = many different sociological
roles, also known as archetypal roles
Archetypes = pattern of behaviour that exist
across cultures.
Example: Teacher & learner
Mindell extends the definition of
a role in role theory to include …
An opinion/view/thought:
•  “We should have a break”
•  “These tools take too long”
•  “I want to talk about x”
•  “We need to set a deadline”
Feelings:
•  Frustrated
•  Happy
•  Unsure
Symptoms
•  Sore back
•  Headache
Refer to role as if it
was energy & a fractal
pattern in the room.
Therefore begin to see
that the role is not
linked to the individual.
	
	
Let’s think of
examples
from our time
together
(each cluster
at a time)
Discussion
		
				
	
	
		
	
	
In small groups of 4 -5 people have a discussion:
1.  On what roles you take on at work & in your families or
2.
a.  About the roles they have been having in the room with one another.
b.  Do you think that other people may be sharing your view, feeling or
opinion but may not be expressing it.
c.  Have you adopted a dominant role, & what is/are the dominant role/s
expressed by others?
4. Role exists beyond/greater than
the individual
Think of a person who is a disruptor, disagreeable.
Blue square represents the ‘difficult role’ (Fred) based on the fractal pattern.
We are in an energy sea. What is in Fred is also in us and what is in us is also in Fred.
Although we may not want to disagree as much as Fred, may be a little disagreeable, or we
may have had a disagreement in the past, or we do have other views that we have not
mentioned etc.
Colour below the surface of the water is projected onto the ‘blue square’ (in this
scenario ‘disturber’).
Part of us that we don’t become conscious of, we project onto Fred.
Fred then begins to hold, their bit of blue, & all our little bits of blue.
His blue becomes bigger.
Fred/disturber becomes larger than life & begins to get stuck in his viewpoint.
He is at this point carrying the energy/role for others.
We know what its like to be in the Fred/disturber role when you find
yourself arguing your point stronger and with more energy than you
originally felt.
If the ‘difficult’ leave, what happens?
Same pattern will emerge. Maybe not be in exactly the same way.
When disturber role Fred leaves, energy then projected onto the next person as the
energy needs to go somewhere and the ‘disturber or difficult role’ is in each one of us, and
won’t go away.
If ‘blue square’/Fred gets sick ‘his’ ‘view’/role does not suddenly go away because his
view is in all of us.
Rather someone in the group who is a little like Fred will take on the role or energy.
That person will now have the projected energy.
Example: Leaders & followers
Not owning our power we set the leader (or any
role) up to be more than they are by giving them
our power.
5. The individual is greater
than the role
	
Leader also: Partner, lover, parent, community
minded person, child, sibling, gardener, cook,
…. a follower at times
6. Role fluidity
People tend to get stuck in roles.
Greater roles become stuck =
é  projection takes place
é the group gets polarised & conflicted,
ê  health,
ê  group grows
True change does not take place.
Making safe to say what needs to be said à water
line drops, é role fluidity and can start dealing with
i.e. role of leader & follower (or any roles that are
stuck) through ‘owning’ our projections.
Spreading the ‘no’/alternative views à ‘resolve the roles’ (do
something to shift/transform/get new insights on) ie of leader
Soft Shoe Shuffle
Argument Step 3 ‘own your insights’
As a leader: Being neutral (via neutrality dance) encourages others to
take up power + Debate Step 2
With fluidity true transformation, real change, can then take place.
Goal of Deep Democracy.
How to create role fluidity?
When a role becomes
conscious
		
A role exists all the time in the unconscious but it becomes conscious when we give it airtime.
Air Time is when it is listened to and heard. Then the role is present in the room. (People may not have
liked what is said and/or may react negatively, but they have still listened.)
We have all been in situations when we have said something and the group or person we are speaking
to have not responded. It’s been as if they have not heard us at all. This is when the group is not giving
‘Air time’ i.e. it seems that people have not even heard it as if the comment is like water off a ducks
back. Why is that? The timing is out & the comment maybe something the gp isn’t ready for or not
relevant at that moment.
Often the statement/suggestion that you have just made is made a little while later or maybe by a
person who has more credibility in the group and then it is listened to or given airtime. You may feel
“What the hell!” as you have just said the same thing a little earlier. Know that this response is not due
to your not being important but that you are possibly too early with your view. The person with the ‘right
timing’ often has the knack of making the statement at the right time i.e. when the group is ready to
Purpose of Deep Democracy?
	
Make it safe to say what needs to
be said. Through this:
•  Hear all the views
•  Lower the waterline (what was
in unconscious moves into
conscious)
•  Transformation through role
Buy-in to decisions & reduce
(the need for) resistance
Module: Check-out
Covers:
•  Check-out
•  De-roleing
Check-out: What it is & how to do it
•  A check-out is useful to carry out at the end of a
gathering
•  Follows the same approach as the Check-in
•  Pop Corn Style: People speak when they feel ready
•  Each person has their say without comment or
questions
•  Each statement is deposited and left in the room.
Check Out & De-Roleing
•  People may hold onto roles on behalf of others or the group.
•  Checking-out by using De-Roleing helps them to understand
which part of the role they own and take with them and which
part they should leave behind.
•  Ask: How you are feeling right now?
1.  What do you need to own?
2.  What do you want/need to leave behind in the room?
3.  If you still feel caught in a role, please stay behind to chat.
Module: Communication Vices
Covers: The practice of watching for & correcting six
Communication Vices.
1. Not being Present
This is when your body is present but your mind has left the room.
Antidote: Try to get everyone to participate and stay in the room. One
of the ways to gain their presence is through the voting process.
2. Interruptions
Missing the point by cutting off the last part of a statement. Note, it
often carries the significant message.
Antidote:
1.  Make people conscious that they are interrupting.
2.  Ask the group to decide whether interrupting one another is
acceptable or not.
3.  Request people to keep their comments brief (if appropriate).
3. Radio Broadcasting
Sometimes people express their views without relating
to what anyone else, or the person before them is
saying.
Antidote:
1.  Try to encourage people to connect to what others
are saying and not just leave the various threads
hanging in space.
2.  Ask people outright for their views, specifically in
relation to the last comment.
4. Indirect Speaking
We use vague references instead of being direct.
There are 3 common ways of being indirect.
4.1 Not speaking from the ‘I’, speaking in the 3rd person
People tend to speak in the third person, and say: “One should”.
They are not saying: “I want to …”
Antidote: Encourage people to talk from the ‘I’.
4.2 Speaking generally or not addressing the person directly
This refers to people speaking in general terms, rather than expressing something
directly.
Antidote: Encourage people to address one another directly in the first person.
4.3 Angel-winging
This refers to a person speaking on behalf of someone else.
Antidote: Make sure people speak for themselves.
5. Sliding rather than Deciding
Often conversations slides into different topics or change without
people consciously agreeing on the direction.
Antidote:
Make the group conscious that they may be/are sliding off the
topic suggest they decide the direction i.e. “decide not slide”.
6. Questioning
We often use questions - especially in group settings - as a way
of making a statement in a soft or cushioned way.
Antidote: Gently challenge a question that doesn’t seem to
reflect a genuine request for information: “Are you making a
statement or do you genuinely not know?”
1.  é people feeling heard &
engagement ∴ ê resistant
behaviours (that when present
really slows down effective and
efficient operations)
2.  Make well informed decisions that
people buy-in to (& therefore less
likely to waste time revisiting
discussions & decisions made)
3.  Resolve/transform moment to
moment tension (rather than solely
deal when tensions have
progressed/become stuck) … until
the next one comes along J
Why?
Roadmap to
make it safe(r)
to say what
needs to be said
Benefits
Same, same, but different –
Lewis Deep Democracy & CoResolve
•  Lewis Deep Democracy began early 1990’s; CoResolve just a few years ago
•  Share the exact same underpinning theory – Lewis Deep Democracy
•  Tools used = almost identical but how you use them differs significantly
•  Lewis Deep Democracy designed for neutral facilitators
•  People and leaders wanted use the toolkit but couldn’t be neutral
•  Created new ways (branded as CoResolve) to use the Lewis Deep
Democracy tools as a leader (and in ‘business’ settings)
•  CoResolve focus = how to be a participative leader
•  In CoResolve leader = someone expected to have opinion, drive process
Lewis Deep Democracy Level 1 slidedeck

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Lewis Deep Democracy Level 1 slidedeck

  • 1. Pru Gell “How groups make decisions, & have discussions, shapes the kind of culture that they have & if people don’t feel heard, or safe to talk, they resist (decisions & more)” Myrna Lewis, From Inside the No: Five Steps to Decisions That Last,, 2008.
  • 2. main purpose of Deep Democracy tools = safe(r) to say what needs to be said can be uncomfortable but harder to deal with consequences of not
  • 3. Checklist Tools Teaching & Theory Check-in Introduction to Deep Democracy Understanding Resistance: Conscious & Unconscious (including Resistance Line) 5 Steps (4 Steps + Step 5: Debate/Argument) 4 Steps Soft Shoe Shuffle Neutrality Dance Role Theory (Group Dynamics) Climate Report Communication Vices (in notes) Argument + Edges & Cycling Check-out
  • 4. Check-inQuestions 1.  Name & something surprising or otherwise about your morning 2. a) How did you hear about the program/what gossip had you heard & 2. b) Why you came to the program/what would make this workshop valuable to you? 3. Knowing that you were going to attend the program this morning how are you feeling &: a) Do you want to be here? b) If there’s even a little part of you that doesn’t what part of you is that? c) What would it take that part of you to come along? 4. Bit about yourself 5. Anything else that I/we should know so that you can feel comfortable/ participate in the program?
  • 5. Lewis Method of Deep Democracy society à rapid change à complex challenges in broader society mirrored in organisations ?
  • 6. Cover: 1. Conscious & unconscious (basic theoretical assumption of Lewis Deep Democracy ) 2. How decision-making shapes what’s in the conscious/ unconscious of a group 3. Resistance Line 4. Majority democracy Module: Understanding resistance (Conscious & Unconscious)
  • 7. CONSCIOUS UNCONSCIOUS What some people in the group are aware of but others are not What everyone in the group are aware of Group’s Wisdom & Potential (so lower the water line) Irrational/ emotional Rational/ logical Key concept 1 Part 1. Conscious & Unconscious
  • 9. How Lewis Deep Democracy differs from some other facilitation approaches Majority of issues come from emotional/irrational place, not resolved à consequences Therefore rational/logical approaches don’t work Lewis Deep Democracy tools factor this in
  • 10. Wisdom & potential rests/ waits in unconscious. Lower waterline to pull up some of the group’s potential & wisdom into their conscious(ness) (at a pace that’s ok with the group). Lot happening in unconscious of any group that affects conscious of group
  • 11. Step 1. Discuss: a. What are some things that are in the group’s conscious? b. What are some things that are in the group’s unconscious? Step 2. Plot these on an iceberg
  • 12. Part 2. How making shapes the conscious/unconscious of a group
  • 14. CONSCIOUS UNCONSCIOUS Decision-making (& discussion) style shapes what’s in a groups conscious or unconscious Key concept 3 + How likely people are to go along with decision or onto Resistance Line. Feel safe to talk & heard in discussions & decisions ê levels of resistance. + Shapes if potential growth & informed decisions/outcomes achieved. Key concept 2
  • 15. Conscious Unconscious Water line = very high A person’s or very few people’s wisdom in group’s conscious Collective wisdom & potential lies dormant in unconscious Autocrat/top down/ imposed (aka not participative) decision
  • 16. May ask for views but not actually be safe to respond or maybe safe for only some things to be said Waterline goes down, just a bit Lot remains in unconscious Trying be participative without tools to make it safe
  • 17. Leader/autocrat leaves or meeting finishes à true sentiments voiced Feelings stay in unconscious à build up, manifesting as resistance activities Resistance = actions that sabotage status quo/go against a decision Actions initially covert à eventually become overt Concept called Resistance Line Consequences
  • 18. Reflect on and discuss: 1. Who is autocratic in your life and what happens to you when you experience autocratic rule. 2. When you have been autocratic and what people’s responses have been to you?
  • 19. Inefficient and Ineffective Part 3. Resistance Line Sarcastic jokes Excuses Gossip/ Lobbying Poor communication/ breakdown Disruption Go slow Strike War/ withdrawal Covert Overt
  • 20. The Resistance Line Continuum, not necessarily in order. Resistance isn’t ‘bad’ = very understandable response not feeling heard over time.Being on it = indicator not with popular view nor saying openly what needs to be said è to conflict. Longer views (that need to be said) not heard & issues/ tensions not resolved they get bigger. Won’t go away. Key concept 4
  • 21. Excuses Excuse is piggy backing off a deeper issue. Issues need not be what the excuse is about, often more complex. Coming up as unheard/excluded minority has one excuse after another for not supporting the majority decision. Try to recognise that these excuses suggest unresolved emotional issues. Key concept 5
  • 22. Inefficient and Ineffective Sarcastic jokes Excuses Gossip/ Lobbying Poor communication/ breakdown Disruption Go slow Strike War/ withdrawal Covert Overt Reflect on a time when you’ve been on the Resistance Line: 1.  What stage of the were you at and how did they get there? 2.  What had you tried to do before and what were you hoping for? 3.  Next steps parallel with Resistance Line or not?
  • 23. CEO Reflect on experiences of losing the ‘vote’, being in the minority, what do you tend to do? Part 4: Majority Democracy
  • 24. Without using tools to make it safe(r) to say what needs to be said (unconscious into conscious aka lower the waterline) may feel resistance or lack of buy-in, but can’t label it or identify how or why it’s happening. Using tools to create participation, collaboration rather than just saying it can be empowering & enables: •  Buy-in & Resistance Line kept at bay through minority being brought on board with the majority decision •  Wisdom of the group tapped Revisiting how decision-making impacts on group dynamics
  • 25. Irrational/Emotional Step 5: The Argument (has its own 4 steps) Way/etiquette for holding, meetings & discussions Rational/Logical Step 1. Gain all of the views Step 2. Make it safe to say ‘no’/alternative view Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/alternative view Step 4: Summarise views, take a vote and ask ‘what will it take you to come along’ Steps 1-3 are for discussions Steps 4 & 5 are for decisions WWW War stories or personal experiences – give your own views. TTT TEACH Metaskills Present&the&Video&or&PowerPoint,&or&add&to&Diagram&&  There are five Steps to DD; the first four are above the water line. What are the 5 Steps For working above (Steps 1 - 4) & below (Step 5) the waterline
  • 26. •  Gain greater participation & buy in (stay on the bus) •  Involve & empower people •  Make sounder, wiser, better decisions •  Helps facilitators be less autocratic •  Minimise ineffective & inefficient decision- making that results from people being on the Resistance Line Why we use the 5 Steps
  • 27. •  Package, bits and pieces •  Solo, 1-on-1, small è large group •  Meetings needing: -  Discussion -  Brainstorming -  Collaboration -  Decision-making •  General conversation •  Simple à Difficult decisions/discussion •  Want to surface all the views •  Trying to involve & empower others r personal experiences – give your own views. s e&Video&or&PowerPoint,&or&add&to&Diagram&& ve Steps to DD; the first four are above the water line. When to use the 5 Steps
  • 28. All steps under umbrella of Metaskills Metaskills = Attitude applied to the tools Ability be use Deep Democracy toolkit based on ability to use Metaskills Neutrality = main Metaskill Neutrality = suspend viewpoint and attachment to outcome Metaskills
  • 29. Why we do it •  Feel valued & heard •  More information •  Reduces/prevents time on the Resistance Line Step 1. Gain all of the views
  • 30. How •  With what you say •  Don’t summarise •  Model talking from ‘I’: •  2nd/3rd person generalities slow & no real decision made •  Accountability through ‘I’ •  Metaskill of neutrality •  Address Communication Vices •  (Can do it via the Soft Shoe Shuffle) Step 1. Gain all of the views
  • 31. Why we do it •  Inevitably different opinions. Often look for agreement/unity o  Different views ignored, glossed over, dealt with politely à Feel unsafe. So striving allow space for ‘no’ •  Varied opinions = ‘rub’ of diversity, innovative solutions arise •  Being open to ‘no’ à reduces time on the Resistance Line Step 2. Make it safe to say ‘no’/ alternative view
  • 32. How •  Be aware of tone & ensure address all sides equally •  Actively search for & encourage the various, minority and/alternative views (not people) to be voiced ‘other views’, ‘any views we haven’t heard yet’, ‘new views’ •  If need separate the issue in time & space •  Be aware of ‘the stare’ Step 2. Make it safe to say ‘no’/alternative view
  • 33. v Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/ alternative view One brave soul will say ‘no’/alternative view (for other people who are silent in the room) We’ll know it’s a ‘no’, because it often sounds/feels different, ‘la, la, li’ Why we do it •  Recognise person with ‘no’ = spokesperson •  Avoid scapegoating (seeing people as ‘difficult’) Reflect and identify a time when you’ve felt and/or said a ‘no’/ alternative view in a meeting. How did it feel? What did you do? Key Concept 6
  • 34. Be aware that there are other ‘no’s’ or differing views Funny thing is, if different opinion has space to be heard That opinion, no matter how unpopular it is, is alive & well in the minds of others too Perhaps the others find it hard to accept that deep down they see the truth/reality of this opinion and/or don’t feel comfortable voicing it
  • 35. So prevent scape goating by Encouraging those who have a similar opinion to speak out even if it doesn’t sound exactly the same
  • 36. v Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/ alternative view Why we do it (continued) •  Encourage participation, make it feel safe(r) to •  Creates climate for others to disagree •  More share naysayer role, prevents role being personalised (and scapegoating) •  Supports resistance line kept at bay
  • 37. v Step 3. Spread the say ‘no’/ alternative view How When you hear a ‘no’ Simply ask “does anyone else feel a bit like this?” or “does anyone else have another point of view?”
  • 38. Why we do it •  After a vote minority view becomes part of unconscious. Therefore can act as doorway to the deeper wisdom Remember: o  Doesn’t mean their view wiser … but note position of minority … under waterline = closer to the wisdom. Not tangled in majority o  All ideas relevant o  Minority view &/or what they needs to come with, has wisdom to add (value) to the majority view Step 4. Summarise views, take a vote & ask ‘what will it take you to come along’
  • 39. Why we do it •  By not expecting minority to cede & go along with majority & asking them ‘the question’ o  They’ll add wisdom o  Ensure buy-in o  Reduce resistance Step 4. Summarise views, take a vote & ask ‘what will it take you to come along’
  • 40. •  Summarise key options •  Take a hands up vote (1 person, 1 vote) •  Note if there’s a clear majority •  Ask the minority (1 person at a time) what would they need to go along with the decision: “I’m sorry that you lost the vote. However the majority will tend to have its way. That’s gravity! However, you might have some insight/wisdom to add, and to ensure that you will come along, with more ease than being pressured or ignored, what will you need?” -  Add wisdom back to original decision -  Vote again on modified decision How
  • 41. Find the wisdom that the ‘no’ represents Minority have insight that the majoring are not seeing Insights from the minority will add value to the majority decision
  • 43. How •  Ensure transparency •  When have strong view move move physically into new position then return to neutral position •  Don’t use neutrality as a manipulative tool
  • 44. Why we do it •  Metaskill of neutrality can jar with expectations •  Not suggesting need to give up your opinion/desire for an outcome •  Potentially reduce activating Resistance Line •  Builds climate trust & safety to say difficult to say & hard to hear
  • 45. Covers: •  When to use •  How to do it •  Things to watch out for •  When to stop Module: Soft Shoe Shuffle Conversation on our feet that allows everyone to be involved
  • 46. When to use it With large groups When you want to get rid of rank in the room Enables everyone to have a ‘voice’ even if they say nothing, ‘share’ views by moving in agreement or disagreement When you want to build a safe & empowering environment As an icebreaker It is fun & enjoyable For a Check-in or Check-out
  • 47. Things to watch out for 1. Not Shuffling People often forget to move. Remind them & encourage them as much as possible to move. Don’t insist on shuffling, encourage & facilitate it. 2. Not speaking from the ‘I’ 3. Questions 4. Long statements
  • 48. Group seems on the point of making a decision & there is a clear majority Move into a decision & ask the people in the minority what they need to go with? You are now in Step 4. When there is a change in energy and people are very engaged When the conversation is flowing and people tend to stop shuffling & continue the conversation sitting. When there is a clear polarity The ongoing cycling or edge suggests that there is a clear polarity which now needs to be resolved through the argument. When to stop
  • 49. What Way to connect at the start of a meeting (anytime two or more people get together) Check-in
  • 50. How •  Introduce it (call it what you like!) & why it’s done •  Set & respond to 1-3 questions (model length & depth) •  Go popcorn style •  Be very present & be neutral (respond to people the same) •  Invite everyone but not force it •  Let everyone be heard (no interruptions or conversation) •  To close summarise (key objectives &/or themes) don’t attribute to people Check-in
  • 51. Why §  Humans not cogs §  Insights §  Dynamic relevant agenda §  Build Psychological Safety §  Normalises sharing §  Otherwise pre-frontal cortex not available Check-in
  • 52. Module: Edges & Cycling Edge behaviours Bored Frustrated Irritated Low energy/sleepy Physical symptoms Wanting to gossip Mind wandered
  • 53. Edge behaviour •  Sudden •  Occurs when group ‘at an edge’ •  Symptom something from below waterline (in groups’ unconscious) trying to emerge •  Linked to topic but no one comfortable to talk about •  Call this issue a fish as it’s below waterline; sardine à whale
  • 54. Edges & Cycling go together Meetings with edge behavior, often things getting repeated Issue/pattern/dynamic/behavior continue to present itself 3 times à suggests no longer rational/ logical Repetition called cycling
  • 55. Edges & Cycling go together Cycling flags a critical/difficult issue connected to emotional from below waterline Far deeper issue, surface topic = easier No resolution because not addressing the real, deeper issue
  • 56. Edges & Cycling are diagnostic tools Begin to recognise & count issue/pattern/ dynamic/behavior cycling Each time cycling happens: •  Issue gains weight and more energy. •  Adds to tension & makes it more difficult to resolve. Therefore better deal with issue sooner than later. Can’t address underlying unconscious issues (below waterline emotional/irrational) with rational tools, they do not respond to logic. Different tools needed to uncover & resolve the deeper issues à Step 5
  • 57. 1. Set the safety rules Lewis Deep Democracy standard: Nobody has monopoly on the truth Step 5 2. Throw all the arrows 3. Own the grain of truth 4. Operationalise the insights/grains à Vote on them Argument
  • 58. Why use Step 5 There will always be different opinions.
  • 59. Why use Step 5 Different opinions can coexist until one person (clearly-ish) says that are right & implies that the other person/view is wrong. Then conflict will emerge.
  • 60. Why use Step 5 It’s difficult for people to sit on the fence.
  • 61. Why use Step 5 A lot of conflict resolution encourages people to empathise (try to see the other side). Deep Democracy is different. 1. Encourages you to initially hold your own view strongly. 2. Sees conflict is an opportunity to learn by becoming aware of the parts we unknowingly project onto the other.
  • 62. Why use Step 5 Help group find and resolve issue/s (fish/es) blocking progress. Issue/fish: •  Exists for the group & continue attach itself to anything group is doing until it’s resolved. •  Can’t be identified or labelled so Step 5 helps group ‘go fishing’ & resolve most relevant issue at that time (does not resolve every fish or issue). •  Resides within the unsaid & the lack of clarity. •  Already there. Longer left unresolved, bigger it grows. •  Indicates an active Resistance Line.
  • 63. Why use Step 5? Therefore: •  Step 5 aims get fish asap, so emphasis helping people ‘say what needs to be said’. •  In effect, surfacing issue/fish, you’re bringing in ‘conflict issue’ earlier than later. •  Therefore introduce issue at more manageable stage than at end of the Resistance Line. By surfacing the issue or fish you lower the water line.
  • 64. When to use Step 5 •  When a group is having difficulty with an issue & is unable to decide. •  When there are two different views. •  When wanting creative & innovative solutions.
  • 65. Suggest that the conversation takes place in a different manner. Spatially separate the different views. Argument is done in roles as opposed to people. How to do Step 5: The Argument (& the 4 Steps within)
  • 66. 1. Set the safety rules: •  Nobody has monopoly on the truth •  Intention = stay in relationship •  Going to grow 2. Throw all the arrows (from sides) 3. Own the grain of truth/insight that hit home (and what it is saying about you) 4. Operationalise the insights/grains à Vote on them How to do Step 5: The Argument (& the 4 Steps within)
  • 67. The Argument: Step 1. Safety rules •  Overview the steps first so people know what they are agreeing or disagreeing to •  Slow the process down further •  Share the Deep Democracy premise ‘ •  Vote on it (same process as you did for step 4) •  Ask if there are any other safety rules •  Vote on each •  Summarise the list of agreed on safety rules
  • 68. The Argument: Step 2. Say it all/ Throw all the arrows (from sides) •  State what the sides are •  Do it in roles •  Speak all arrows on one side, then swap •  Exhaust views, throw all of the arrows •  Brief, to the point •  Speak only what is true for you •  Use ‘I’ statements •  People encouraged to move side to side •  Go to each side at least twice
  • 69. The Argument: Step 3. Own the grain of truth/insight that hit home Invite people to: •  Take a moment to identify an insight that hit home •  Share via an ‘I’ statement a)  what it was and b)  what it is saying about you Make it clear you’d like everyone to own an insight Share the list of insights back to the group
  • 70. The Argument: Step 4 Operationalise the insights/grains à Vote on them Facilitate taking the grains of truth back to the original issue that led to the argument in the first place. •  Ask the group if they’d like to make any decisions based on the grains/insights that they just had •  After people share a idea for a decision take a vote •  Summarise list of decisions
  • 72. Covers: 1.  Energy fields 2.  Fractal patterns 3.  How fractals relate to groups 4.  Role exists beyond/greater than the individual (& projection) 5.  The individual is greater than the role 6.  Role fluidity Group Dynamics: Role Theory
  • 73. Introduction •  Based on Arnold Mindell’s Process Orientated Psychology & his version or evolution of Role Theory •  Paradigm shift à Moved psychology away from focusing on the individuals to: -  Focusing on the collective -  Field & energy theory – based on new physics •  A change from Newtonian to Quantum Physics
  • 74. 1. Energy fields How do we feel in different energy fields?
  • 75. All living things are energy & that we are energy. Everything exists in the energy field, all of the time, but almost all of it at an unconscious level, because we are unaware of it, or not focused on it. We can access it if we develop the conscious awareness. Everything exists in the unconscious
  • 76. All connected & part of a bigger whole, live in a field of energy Our conscious creates the boundaries, but it is an illusion. Example: If I identify with being anything a ie red circle, carer, victim, difficult, excited, although it may look like it is with me only, it’s part of the energetic field. It is alive & well in the room.
  • 77. •  Independent variables •  Billiard Ball theory, cause à effect •  Linear growth path/ progression •  Predictable NEWTON QUANTUM •  We are part of an energy field •  Don’t know what causes what •  Chaos & transformation linked •  Pure potential & possibilities
  • 78. Part 2. Fractal patterns Fractal is a pattern within a pattern. Fractal isn’t an exact copy but the pattern is similar.
  • 79. Like each cell in body: •  Contains image (through the DNA) of the whole body. •  DNA is a “self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information”. •  DNA in the cell does not look like the rest of the body, but within it the key/code for the foundation for the rest of the body. •  Is a fractal pattern of the whole of us. •  Has the elements, the ‘themes’, of the whole of us.
  • 80. It’s about the general themes & patterns So too, you part of the world & at an unconscious level have all the parts in you. Like DNA in the cell you have major themes that are common to humanity in you. Martians trying to understand humanity, only you to observe, would get a pretty good idea of the basic themes, or make-up, of human kind on earth. You are also a fractal pattern of this group. Friend asked you what took place in this group, your description of what took place won’t be exact as it is your own perception, but your friend could gain some insight into the general themes of the group.
  • 81. Another way to look at fractal patterns is to look at the following diagrams If we take a holographic picture & cut off a piece, because it is a hologram, the picture will be a fractal pattern of the whole. This part will have the same texture of the whole picture. It is dotted showing that it is not exact, but the blueprint / texture/ theme of the person is being represented. This is a fractal of the whole & an Einsteinium view.
  • 82. 3. How do these concepts (energy fields & fractals patterns) relate to groups? (have a very important influence on groups & help us understand groups from a different perspective) Can think of a fractal as a role Roles happening now in the room ie teacher & learners. Tend describe people in relation to their roles in sociological terms Many learners in room, so say there is a ‘role of learner’ rather than an individual or ‘X is a learner’ Role of learner = A fractal of learner Learner is in an energy field, therefore so too is the learner in me (teacher) ‘Role of teacher’ Like fractal pattern, not exactly same, but a texture of the role Talk about role as ‘existing in the group’ Say ‘there is a role of teacher’ as opposed to saying ‘Pru is in the teacher role’ In groups = many different sociological roles, also known as archetypal roles Archetypes = pattern of behaviour that exist across cultures.
  • 84. Mindell extends the definition of a role in role theory to include … An opinion/view/thought: •  “We should have a break” •  “These tools take too long” •  “I want to talk about x” •  “We need to set a deadline” Feelings: •  Frustrated •  Happy •  Unsure Symptoms •  Sore back •  Headache Refer to role as if it was energy & a fractal pattern in the room. Therefore begin to see that the role is not linked to the individual. Let’s think of examples from our time together (each cluster at a time)
  • 85. Discussion In small groups of 4 -5 people have a discussion: 1.  On what roles you take on at work & in your families or 2. a.  About the roles they have been having in the room with one another. b.  Do you think that other people may be sharing your view, feeling or opinion but may not be expressing it. c.  Have you adopted a dominant role, & what is/are the dominant role/s expressed by others?
  • 86. 4. Role exists beyond/greater than the individual Think of a person who is a disruptor, disagreeable. Blue square represents the ‘difficult role’ (Fred) based on the fractal pattern. We are in an energy sea. What is in Fred is also in us and what is in us is also in Fred. Although we may not want to disagree as much as Fred, may be a little disagreeable, or we may have had a disagreement in the past, or we do have other views that we have not mentioned etc.
  • 87. Colour below the surface of the water is projected onto the ‘blue square’ (in this scenario ‘disturber’). Part of us that we don’t become conscious of, we project onto Fred. Fred then begins to hold, their bit of blue, & all our little bits of blue. His blue becomes bigger. Fred/disturber becomes larger than life & begins to get stuck in his viewpoint. He is at this point carrying the energy/role for others.
  • 88. We know what its like to be in the Fred/disturber role when you find yourself arguing your point stronger and with more energy than you originally felt.
  • 89. If the ‘difficult’ leave, what happens? Same pattern will emerge. Maybe not be in exactly the same way. When disturber role Fred leaves, energy then projected onto the next person as the energy needs to go somewhere and the ‘disturber or difficult role’ is in each one of us, and won’t go away. If ‘blue square’/Fred gets sick ‘his’ ‘view’/role does not suddenly go away because his view is in all of us. Rather someone in the group who is a little like Fred will take on the role or energy. That person will now have the projected energy.
  • 90. Example: Leaders & followers Not owning our power we set the leader (or any role) up to be more than they are by giving them our power.
  • 91. 5. The individual is greater than the role Leader also: Partner, lover, parent, community minded person, child, sibling, gardener, cook, …. a follower at times
  • 92. 6. Role fluidity People tend to get stuck in roles. Greater roles become stuck = é  projection takes place é the group gets polarised & conflicted, ê  health, ê  group grows True change does not take place.
  • 93. Making safe to say what needs to be said à water line drops, é role fluidity and can start dealing with i.e. role of leader & follower (or any roles that are stuck) through ‘owning’ our projections.
  • 94. Spreading the ‘no’/alternative views à ‘resolve the roles’ (do something to shift/transform/get new insights on) ie of leader Soft Shoe Shuffle Argument Step 3 ‘own your insights’ As a leader: Being neutral (via neutrality dance) encourages others to take up power + Debate Step 2 With fluidity true transformation, real change, can then take place. Goal of Deep Democracy. How to create role fluidity?
  • 95. When a role becomes conscious A role exists all the time in the unconscious but it becomes conscious when we give it airtime. Air Time is when it is listened to and heard. Then the role is present in the room. (People may not have liked what is said and/or may react negatively, but they have still listened.) We have all been in situations when we have said something and the group or person we are speaking to have not responded. It’s been as if they have not heard us at all. This is when the group is not giving ‘Air time’ i.e. it seems that people have not even heard it as if the comment is like water off a ducks back. Why is that? The timing is out & the comment maybe something the gp isn’t ready for or not relevant at that moment. Often the statement/suggestion that you have just made is made a little while later or maybe by a person who has more credibility in the group and then it is listened to or given airtime. You may feel “What the hell!” as you have just said the same thing a little earlier. Know that this response is not due to your not being important but that you are possibly too early with your view. The person with the ‘right timing’ often has the knack of making the statement at the right time i.e. when the group is ready to
  • 96. Purpose of Deep Democracy? Make it safe to say what needs to be said. Through this: •  Hear all the views •  Lower the waterline (what was in unconscious moves into conscious) •  Transformation through role Buy-in to decisions & reduce (the need for) resistance
  • 98. Check-out: What it is & how to do it •  A check-out is useful to carry out at the end of a gathering •  Follows the same approach as the Check-in •  Pop Corn Style: People speak when they feel ready •  Each person has their say without comment or questions •  Each statement is deposited and left in the room.
  • 99. Check Out & De-Roleing •  People may hold onto roles on behalf of others or the group. •  Checking-out by using De-Roleing helps them to understand which part of the role they own and take with them and which part they should leave behind. •  Ask: How you are feeling right now? 1.  What do you need to own? 2.  What do you want/need to leave behind in the room? 3.  If you still feel caught in a role, please stay behind to chat.
  • 100. Module: Communication Vices Covers: The practice of watching for & correcting six Communication Vices.
  • 101. 1. Not being Present This is when your body is present but your mind has left the room. Antidote: Try to get everyone to participate and stay in the room. One of the ways to gain their presence is through the voting process. 2. Interruptions Missing the point by cutting off the last part of a statement. Note, it often carries the significant message. Antidote: 1.  Make people conscious that they are interrupting. 2.  Ask the group to decide whether interrupting one another is acceptable or not. 3.  Request people to keep their comments brief (if appropriate).
  • 102. 3. Radio Broadcasting Sometimes people express their views without relating to what anyone else, or the person before them is saying. Antidote: 1.  Try to encourage people to connect to what others are saying and not just leave the various threads hanging in space. 2.  Ask people outright for their views, specifically in relation to the last comment.
  • 103. 4. Indirect Speaking We use vague references instead of being direct. There are 3 common ways of being indirect. 4.1 Not speaking from the ‘I’, speaking in the 3rd person People tend to speak in the third person, and say: “One should”. They are not saying: “I want to …” Antidote: Encourage people to talk from the ‘I’. 4.2 Speaking generally or not addressing the person directly This refers to people speaking in general terms, rather than expressing something directly. Antidote: Encourage people to address one another directly in the first person. 4.3 Angel-winging This refers to a person speaking on behalf of someone else. Antidote: Make sure people speak for themselves.
  • 104. 5. Sliding rather than Deciding Often conversations slides into different topics or change without people consciously agreeing on the direction. Antidote: Make the group conscious that they may be/are sliding off the topic suggest they decide the direction i.e. “decide not slide”. 6. Questioning We often use questions - especially in group settings - as a way of making a statement in a soft or cushioned way. Antidote: Gently challenge a question that doesn’t seem to reflect a genuine request for information: “Are you making a statement or do you genuinely not know?”
  • 105. 1.  é people feeling heard & engagement ∴ ê resistant behaviours (that when present really slows down effective and efficient operations) 2.  Make well informed decisions that people buy-in to (& therefore less likely to waste time revisiting discussions & decisions made) 3.  Resolve/transform moment to moment tension (rather than solely deal when tensions have progressed/become stuck) … until the next one comes along J Why? Roadmap to make it safe(r) to say what needs to be said Benefits
  • 106. Same, same, but different – Lewis Deep Democracy & CoResolve •  Lewis Deep Democracy began early 1990’s; CoResolve just a few years ago •  Share the exact same underpinning theory – Lewis Deep Democracy •  Tools used = almost identical but how you use them differs significantly •  Lewis Deep Democracy designed for neutral facilitators •  People and leaders wanted use the toolkit but couldn’t be neutral •  Created new ways (branded as CoResolve) to use the Lewis Deep Democracy tools as a leader (and in ‘business’ settings) •  CoResolve focus = how to be a participative leader •  In CoResolve leader = someone expected to have opinion, drive process