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COMM 265G Test Study Guide 2009


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This was a test guide I prepared for one of my classes (COMM 265G) Principles of Communication at NMSU-A. The instructor was Prof. Jim Gallagher Ph. D.

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COMM 265G Test Study Guide 2009

  1. 1. Final Test Study Guide<br />COMM 265G <br />Prof. Jim Gallagher Ph.D.<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 10 Part I<br />What is a group? <br />Three or more individuals, interacting for the achievement of some common purpose(s), which influence and are influenced by one another.<br />To qualify as a group, three or more people must succeed or fail as a unit in a quest to achieve a common purpose.<br />Groups are considered small as long as each individual in the group can recognize and interact with every other group member.<br />
  3. 3. Chapter 10 Part II<br />Identify and explain one of each:<br />Task Roles<br />Information giver: provides facts and opinions; offers relevant and significant information based on research, expertise, or personal experience.<br />Information seeker: asks for facts, opinions, suggestions, and ideas from group members<br />Initiator-contributor: provides ideas; suggest actions and solutions to problems; offers direction for the group<br />Clarifier: explains ideas; defines the group positions on issues; summarizes proceedings of group meetings; raises questions about the direction of group discussion.<br />Elaborator: expands the ideas of other group members; helps the group visualize how an idea or solution would work if the group implemented it<br />Coordinator-director: pulls together the ideas of others; promotes teamwork and cooperation; guides group discussion; breaks groups into subgroups to work effectively on tasks.<br />Energizer: tries to motivate group to be productive; a task cheerleader<br />Procedural Technician: performs routine tasks such as taking notes, photocopying, passing out relevant material for discussion; finding a room to meet in, an signaling when allotted time for discussion of an agenda item has expired.<br />Devil's Advocate: gently challenges prevailing viewpoints in group to test and evaluate the strength of ideas, solutions, and decisions<br />
  4. 4. Chapter 10 Part III<br />
  5. 5. Chapter 10 Part IV<br />Disruptive Roles<br />Stage hog: recognition seeker; monopolizes discussions and prevents others from expressing their points of view; wants the spotlight.<br />Isolate: withdraws from the group; acts indifferent, aloof, and uninvolved; resists inclusion in group discussion<br />Fighter-controller: tries to dominate groups; competes mindlessly with group members; abuses those who disagree; picks quarrels, interrupts, and generally attempts to control group proceedings.<br />Blocker: expresses negative attitude; looks to tear down other members' ideas without substituting constructive alternatives; incessantly reintroduces dead issues<br />Zealot: attempts to convert group members to a pet cause or viewpoint; delivers sermons on the state of the world; exhibits fanaticism; will not drop an idea that has been rejected or ignored by the group.<br />Clown: interjects inappropriate humor during discussions and meetings; engages in horseplay; diverts attention from the group task with comic routines.<br />
  6. 6. Chapter 11 Part I<br />What is Brainstorming?<br />What are the Seven Important Rules?<br />Encouragement of zany ideas, freedom from initial evaluations of potential solutions and energetic participation from all group members characterize creative problem solving method<br />All members should come prepared with initial ideas<br />Don’t criticize any ideas during the brainstorming process<br />Encourage freewheeling idea generation<br />Don’t clarify or discuss ideas during the idea generation phase<br />Piggyback on the ideas of others<br />Record all ideas for future reference<br />Encourage participation from all team members<br />
  7. 7. Chapter 11 Part II<br />What is Nominal Technique?<br />What is Groupthink?<br />It is a structured method of creative problem solving. Nominal group technique involves these steps<br />Team members work alone to generate ideas <br />The team convenes and ideas are shared in round-robin fashion. All ideas are written on a chalkboard, tablet, or easel. Clarification of ideas is permitted, but evaluation is prohibited. <br />Each team member selects five favorite ideas from the list generated and ranks them from most to least favorite <br />Team members' rankings are averaged, and the ideas with the highest averages are selected. <br />Groupthink is a process of group members stressing cohesiveness and agreement instead of skepticism and optimum decision making. The signs of groupthink are:<br />Illusion of invulnerability <br />Unquestioned belief in the inherent morality of the group <br />Collective rationalization of group's decisions <br />Shared stereotypes of out-group, particularly opponents <br />Self-censorship; members withhold criticisms <br />Illusion of unanimity <br />Direct pressure on dissenters to conform <br />Self-appointed "mind guards" protect the group from negative information <br />
  8. 8. Chapter 11 Part III<br />How can a group stop Groupthink from happening?<br />The team consults an impartial outsider with expertise on the problem discussed <br />Reduce pressure on team members to conform <br />Appoint a specific group member to play the Devil's Advocate role <br />The team can set up a "second chance" meeting can reconsider a preliminary decision<br />
  9. 9. Chapter 13 Part I<br />What is Debilitative Stage Fright?<br />Fallacies <br />Inhibiting effective self-expression.<br />Strong emotions keep you from thinking clearly<br />Intense fear leads to an urge to do something, anything, to make the problem go away.<br />Speaking quickly <br />Sources of Debilitative stage fright<br /> Previous negative experience<br />Self-fulfilling prophecies<br />Talk about previous experiences <br />Catastrophic Failure: Operate on the assumption that if something bad can happen, it probably will. (What is the worst thing that can happen?)<br />Perfection: Expect yourself to behave flawlessly (hurts/inspires)<br />Approval: Is based on the idea that it is vital-not just desirable-to gain approval of everyone in the audience (this is not possible!!!)<br />Overgeneralization: Also be labeled fallacy of exaggeration, because it occurs when a person blows one poor experience out of proportion (and labeling “always, “never”)<br />
  10. 10. Chapter 13 Part II<br />Strategies to overcome Stage Fright:<br />Be rational<br />Be receiver-oriented (worry about whether they understand or are interested e.g. topics)* <br />Topics you would/not like hear about<br />Be positive (yourself, topic, audience)<br />Positive statements <br />Visualizations <br />(How do you imagine yourself doing when you give your speech)<br />Be prepared<br />(What have you done so far for your presentation?)<br />Use the energy from nervousness to add enthusiasm to your speech<br />
  11. 11. Chapter 13 Part III<br />
  12. 12. Jim’s Lectures<br />
  13. 13. How is Public Speaking Like Conversation?<br />It organizes thoughts, you adapt your message to your audience, the speaker reacts to audience response, and speaker tells a story for maximum impact.<br />
  14. 14. Four Functions of an Introduction:<br />
  15. 15. Five Ways to Gain Attention in the Introduction of a Speech:<br />
  16. 16. Two Functions of a Conclusion:<br />Let the audience know the conversation is ending (using a clear marker, zinger, surprise ending, dramatic statement) and reinforces the central idea in a memorable way (summary).<br />
  17. 17. Four Ways to Reinforce Central Idea of a Conclusion:<br />
  18. 18. What is a Transition?<br />It lets the audience know that a new point is being made and how the new point relates to the speech in general. Words or phrases telling the audience where you have been and where you are going in the speech<br />
  19. 19. What is a Signpost?<br />Tells the audience where the speech is now (often gives important information on the topic)<br />
  20. 20. Difference between Rhetorical, Informational and Dialectical question? <br />
  21. 21. Which one does Jim think is Best?<br />Rhetorical<br />
  22. 22. Why Must a Speaker be Audience Centered?<br />They know the primary purpose of speech-making is to gain a desired response<br />The speaker’s aim is to adjust to the concerns of the audience, not to show how much she or he knows about a wide variety of issues.<br />
  23. 23. Why Should You Involve Your Audience and Use Their Experiences in Your Speech?<br />People are egocentric. They want to hear about things that are meaningful to them. “Why is this important to me?”<br />It’s up to the speaker to make the audience choose to pay attention<br />Every speech contains two messages – the one sent by the speaker and the one received by the listener<br />What a speaker says is filtered through a listener’s frame of reference – the sum of his or her needs, interests, expectations, knowledge and experience.<br />Result is listeners will hear and judge what you say on the basis of what they already know and believe. <br />Second, you must relate your message to your listeners<br />
  24. 24. Four Ways to Involve the Audience in Your Speech:<br />
  25. 25. How does being a rhetorical, expressive, or conventional tie into how you view public speaking and how effective you are as a speaker? <br />Rhetorical:<br />Expressive:<br />Conventional:<br />
  26. 26. If you had to describe the one thing you have learned in class this semester, that has made a difference in your life, what was it? How did it make a difference? <br /> The Gender Communication lecture was an eye opener for me; it influenced the way I look at problems now. Whenever I find myself in an aggravating situation with my husband or anyone else, I follow the steps learned in class, and I seem to be able to handle my frustrations in a calmer way and, in the case of situations with my husband, communication has improved.<br />