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PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
By
MIRZA FARAN BAIG
1
I. Public Administration: Concepts,
Approaches and Context
• Definitions- Role and Scope of Public Ad. in Society
• Issues in Public Administration Theory and Practice
– Democracy versus Bureaucracy
– Politics versus Administration
– Efficiency versus Equity
• Core Values of Public Administration – Rule of Law,
Efficiency, Equity and Fairness, Responsiveness;
• Traditional Public Administration;
• New Public Management; New Public Service;
• Governance Approach to Public Administration;
• Islamic Concept of Public Administration;
• Historical roots of Public administration in Pakistan.
DEFINITION OF PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION
3
Woodrow Wilson
“Public administration is the
detailed and systematic
application of law. Every
particular application of law is
an act of administration.”
4
DEFINITION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Dwight Waldo
“Public Administration is the art
and science of management as
applied to the affairs of the states.”
L.D. White
“Public administration
consists of all those
operations having for
their purpose the
fulfillment or
enforcement of public
policy.”
5
DEFINITION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
6
THE MEANING, ROLE & SCOPE
THE MEANING, ROLE & SCOPE
The word ‘administration’ has been derived
from Latin words ‘ad’ = to
‘ministiare’ = serve
‘Public’ = people or citizens
Thus the word administration means to execute
the policy of government to serve public.
Scope of PA: Managerial view and Subject
matter view
7
THE MEANING, ROLE & SCOPE
Management is also defined as Cooperative
human endeavour to achieve given goals.
Traditionally management is also defined as
Management = POSDCORB
Stands for
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing,
Coordination, Reporting, Budgeting.
8
Democracy
vs
Bureaucracy
9
10
Democracy Bureaucracy
i. Based on Values of:
Equality, Federalism, Republicanism,
Popular sovereignty
Based on Values of:
Hierarchy, Top to down flow,
Centralization, No popular
sovereignty
ii. Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression is generally
not allowed
iii. Representative
Direct – No concept of
representative form of action.
iv. Responsive Generally not responsive
11
Democracy Bureaucracy
v. Elected : through electoral process Selected
vi. Shorter legislative/constitutional
period i.e. 5 years
Long period of time: usually the age
of retirement
vii. Makes laws Implements laws
viii. Makes Policy Implements policies
ix. Consultative / takes input from
electorate
Directive: No input from specific
electorate (In NPA & NPS provision
of limited input is proposed)
x. Responsible to its electorate Responsive only to its hierarchy.
12
Democracy Bureaucracy
xi. Believe in getting things done
quickly; generally during in their
tenure
What is to be done should be within
the frame of work of rules; delay is
no consequence.
xii. Considers bureaucracy as a
hurdle to get tings done.
Considers politicians as hurdle in
implementation of rules.
xiii. Less accountability Strict Accountability
xiv. Need to provide service, efficient
or not
Implementation of law is superior
than service delivery
xv. Conscious about public opinion Public opinion does not matter
Politics
vs
Administration
13
14
Sr Politics Administration
1
Deals with the
“Expression of the will of the people “.
Deals with the
“Execution of the will of the
people”.
2 Deals with Politicians Deals with Civil Servants
3
One becomes Politician by his
popularity, either through positive or
negative popularity
Positive Popularity , e.g. Zulfiqar Bhuttu
Negative Popularity e.g. Phoolan Devi
One becomes Civil servants by
his intelligence
4 One becomes Politics through election
One becomes civil servant
through selection
5 Prior training is not given to politician
Civil servants are professionals
and keep undergoing training
6
Power is the Centre of study in politics
i.e. process of capturing and retaining
power
Running administration
successfully is the central focus
here
EFFICIENCY
15
EFFICIENCY
• Efficiency = Output/Input:
– Relates to maximization of goals Input
• Ability to do things well, successfully, and without waste.
• Henry L. Gantt (classical school) focused on efficiency and
maximization of output.
• Max Weber includes efficiency in his general characteristics of
bureaucracy.
• It is the contribution of the plan to the objectives e.g. If cost is
higher than the benefits, the plan is said to be inefficient.
• Efficiency is a measurable benchmark: indicating avoidance
of wastage in doing something or in producing a desired
result.
16
Direction in Efficiency
18
Equity
Equity
Public administration by its nature cannot be
neutral
 It must consider the values of society, including:
 Responsiveness
 Public participation in decision making
 Social equity
 Citizen choice
 Administrative responsibility
RESPONSIVENESS
21
RESPONSIVENESS
• Responsiveness means “quick to respond or react
appropriately or sympathetically, sensitive.”
(Webster’s 9th new Collegiate Dictionary 1986)
• Responsibility must begin with attention.
• Responsive bureaucrats is required who can "leap
tall buildings at a single bound?" Does not the
complexity and turbulence of current-day public
administration require bureaucrats who can
“satisfice”.
• Thus public officials can be good listeners (they can
be responsive) by encouraging citizens’ responsibility
to listen to one another and solve disputes.
22
RESPONSIVENESS
• In public administration, as elsewhere, responsiveness begins
with listening.
• If, as Bellah et al. argue, "democracy is paying attention"
(1991, p. 254), democratically minded public administrators
may want to pay attention to their own listening abilities in
order to be able better to pay attention - to respond - to the
public.
(The listening bureaucrat: responsiveness in public administration
by Camilla Stivers, Public Ad. Review July-Aug 1994 v54 n4 p364-369)
23
RULE OF LAW
24
RULE OF LAW
• Every body high or low, and official or private
is subject to the same law.
• The public administrator is not above the law,
while performing official duties.
• Ordinarily the aggrieved party to shall have all
those legal remedies against the offending
officials; which are known as prerogative
writs,
25
Public Ad. vs Private Ad.
Public Ad Private Ad
Considered to be welfare oriented.
Private administration is considered to
be profit oriented.
Public administration is referred to as
Commonweal Organization.
Private administration is being referred
to as Business organization.
Public administration operates under
the political direction.
Private ad. does not operate under the
same type of political consideration.
Consistency of the treatment- Public
administration is non-discriminatory
while dealing with the citizens.
Private administration can go for a
discriminatory based on its commercial
or business requirements.
Monopoly- The public sector can enjoy
monopoly in a particular sector.
The private sector cannot be allowed
to have monopoly.
26
Public Ad. vs Private Ad.
Public Ad Private Ad
Public Scrutiny will be higher in case
of the Public sector. It is subject to
multiple institutional mechanisms of
scrutiny.
The same type of scrutiny is not
applicable to the private sector.
Diversity of activity- Public sector is
more diverse in terms of presence and
operation in functional areas.
Private sector is not as diverse as the
Public Sector.
Legal Constraints- Public sector is
considered to be more rigid in its
operations. Public sector has to abide
by a number of rules, laws,
organizational manuals etc.
Private Sector is not subject to as
many legal constraints as there are in
the public sector. Private sector
enjoys an amount of flexibility which
is not present in the public sector.
27
Public Administration Approaches
TPA NPA NPM NPS
Gover
nance
Traditional Public
Administration
29
Traditional Public Administration
The study of public administration is divided in
following Schools:
 The Classical School
 Classical Scientific school
 Classical Administrative school
 Human Relations School
 Behavioral School
 System School
30
MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT SCHOOL
 Frederic W. Taylor (1856-1915)
 Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924)
 Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972)
 Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919)
31
Frederic W. Taylor (1856-1915)
 Because of significance of his contributions, Frederic
W.Taylor is commonly called the :
 “Father of scientific management”.
 His primary goal was to increase worker efficiency by
scientifically designing jobs.
 Soldiering
 Piece rate/wage
 Right man for the right job
 His basic premise was that there was one best way
32
Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924) &
Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972)
 Frank and Lillian Gilbreth are world renowned for their
pioneering work in the fields of time and motion study, fatigue
study, work simplification, scientific management, and
ergonomics.
 Frank Gilbreth was a contractor from Boston.
 The primary investigative tool in the Gilbreth’s research was
Motion study, which consists of reducing each job to the most
basic movements possible.
 Motion analysis is used today primarily to establish Job
performance standards.
33
Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919)
 An American mechanical engineer and management
consultant who is most famous for developing the
Gantt chart in the 1910s.
 Gantt attributed unsatisfactory or ineffective
tasks and piece rates.
 These tasks and rates were set according to what had been
done by workers in the past or on somebody’s opinion of what
workers could do.
 According to H. Gantt, exact scientific knowledge of what could
be done by a worker should be substituted for opinion.
 He considered the role of scientific management.
34
 Gantt’s management philosophy is encapsulated in this
statement that
“The essential differences between the best system of
today and those of the past are the manner in which
tasks are “scheduled” and the manner in which
their performance is rewarded”.
 Using this rationale, he sought to improve systems or
organizations through task-scheduling innovation and the
rewarding of innovation.
Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919)
35
 Fayol’s 14 principles of organization.
Henry Fayol (1841-1925)
37
Sr. Principle Acronym
1 Unity of command; U
2 Subordination of individual interests to the
general interests;
S
3 Initiative; I
4 Scalar chain; S
5 Order; O
6 Stability of tenure of personnel S
7 Equity; E
US ISO SECURE DAD
Henry Fayol (1841-1925)
38
Sr. Principle Acronym
8 Centralization; C
9 Unity of direction; U
10 Remuneration; R
11 Esprit de corps. (harmony and good feelings
among employees).
E
12 Division of work; D
13 Authority; A
14 Discipline; D
US ISO SECURE DAD
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933)
• Stressed the importance of an organization establishing
common goals for its employees.
• Discarding command-style hierarchical organizations where
employees were treated like robots.
• She began to talk about such things as ethics, power, and
leadership.
• Encouraged managers to allow employees to participate in
decision making.
• She stressed the importance of people rather than
techniques — a concept very much before her time.
• She was a pioneer and often not taken seriously by
management scholars of her time.
• Much of what managers do today is based on the
fundamentals that Follett established almost 100 years ago. 39
Luther Gulick (1892-1993)
• His seven-activities acronym, POSDCORB, is a familiar
word throughout management practice. POSDCORB
stands for Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-
ordinating, Reporting and Budgeting.
 Gulick added the concept of Span of control, which addressed the
factors limiting the number of people a manager could supervise.
 His homogeneity of work centred on the fact that an organization
should not combine dissimilar activities in single agencies.
 In a time where the prevalent theme was the separation of politics
and administration, Gulick advocated that it was impossible to
separate the two.
40
MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS
HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL
• Elton Mayo
• Chester I. Barnard
• Herbert Simon
41
George Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
• George Elton Mayo was an Australian psychologist, sociologist
and organization theorist.
• President of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company.
• Is known as the founder of the HRM
• Is famous for his Hawthorne Studies.
 Introduced the idea of informal organization
(exclusive groups of people) that naturally form within a company.
42
Importance of an Individual's behaviour
Other theorists had underestimated the variability of individual
behaviour and its impact of this on organizational effectiveness.
• Hawthorne Studies (1930s) showed importance of groups in
affecting the behaviour of individuals at work.
• He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of
improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions
in the workplace.
• work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal
social pattern of the workgroup.
43
George Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
• Concluded that work performance is dependent on both social issues
and job content.
• suggested a tension between workers 'logic of sentiment' and
managers 'logic of cost and efficiency' which could lead to conflict
within organizations.
• Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation, but must be seen as
members of a group.
• Monetary incentives and good working condition are less important to
the individual than the need to belong to a group.
• Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on
the behaviour of those workers in a group.
• Managers must be aware of these 'social needs' and cater for them to
ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather
than work against it.
44
George Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
Chester Barnard (1886 – 1961)
• An American business executive, and the author of pioneering work
in management theory and organizational studies. His landmark 1938
book, The Functions of the Executive, sets out a theory of
organization.
Compliance
 Concept of "zone of indifference" - orders must be perceived in
neutral terms to be carried out without conscious questioning of
authority.
Communication
 Central concept - decision-making processes depend on
communications, he described characteristics (Source, message,
receiver, feedback) and focused on importance of communication in
informal organization.
45
Chester Barnard (1886 – 1961)
 Organizations made up of individual humans with individual
motivations.
 Every large organization includes smaller, less formal groupings whose
goals need to be harnessed to those of the whole - this is
managements responsibility.
Management efficiency vs. effectiveness
Authority only exists in so far as the people are willing to accept it 3
basic principles for ensuring effectiveness of communications:
 everyone should know the channels of communication.
 everyone should have access to a formal channel of communications.
 lines of communication should be as short and direct as possible.
46
Herbert Simon (1916-2001)
• HR pertaining to motivation and increasing job satisfaction: The study
of human relations and motivation determines the performance in
organization.
• Decision-making studies emphasizing cognitive processes
• Rational components of administrative behaviour
an American political scientist, economist, sociologist,
and psychologist, and professor. He is one of the most
influential social scientists of the 20th century.
He has classified administrative behaviour as follows:-
 The study of bureaucracy: In order to understand decision
making, it is better to understand the structure of
organization, because the structure determines behaviour.
47
Herbert Simon (1916-2001)
Bounded Rationality:
• When individuals make decisions
• Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers
• As an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision-
making, as used in economics, political science and related
disciplines
• “Rationality as Optimization”
• Simon used the analogy of a pair of scissors, where one blade
represents "cognitive limitations" of actual humans and the other
the "structures of the environment“
• Perfectly rational decisions are often not feasible in practice
because of the intractability of natural decision problems and the
finite computational resources available for making them.
48
 Simon says organization is important because :-
 It provides the environment and structure that mold and
develop personal qualities and habits
 Provides those in responsible positions with the means for
exercising authority and influence over others
 Structures of communications, determines the environments
of information in which decisions are taken
 Understanding of decision making in organization
 Artificial intelligence.
 Simon got Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978.
Herbert Simon (1916-2001)
50
The approaches
Traditional
approach
NPM Political Legal
Value Efficiency;
effectiveness
Customer
response
Representation,
accountability
Procedural
validity
Org.
structure
Typical
bureaucracy
Competitive Pluralism Adversary
Individual Impersonal;
rational
Customer Group member Particularistic
individual
Decision
making
Rational Decentralized Muddling
through
Precedence
Function Executive Executive Legislative Judicial
Budget Rational (cost
benefit)
Performance
based
Incremental Rights based
Public Administration Approaches
TPA NPA NPM NPS
Gover
nance
TRADITIONAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION (Analysis)
53
P A = Bureaucratic Organization
Max Weber
–Bureaucratic characteristics (Principles):
• Clear division of labor
• Clear hierarchy of authority
• Formal rules and procedures
• Impersonality
• Careers based on merit
55
Bureaucracy- Max Weber
Problems with the Traditional Model
•Lack of neutrality and professionalism
(Politics!)
•Rigidity (red tape) stifles creativity
•Informal networks exist beside formal
•Risk aversion rather than risk taking
56
Bureaucracy- Max Weber
Problems with the Traditional Model
•Fixed procedures no longer suitable changing
environment
•Input dominating structure
• Ignored outputs and results
•Inefficiency and Ineffectiveness (corruption!)
NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
57
New Public Administration
• The New Public Administration concept came first
time in 1968 in first Minnow brook. Conference
held under the patronage of Dwight Waldo.
• The 1960s in the USA was a time of social and
political turbulence due to Vietnam war, Civil Rights
movements, campus unrest, etc
New Public Administration
• In word of Dwight Waldo neither the study
nor the practice of public administration was
responding suitably to escalating turmoil and
complications.
• The Minnowbrook conference challenged the
traditional public administration.
59
New Public Administration
• It was anti-positivist
• Anti-technical
• Anti-hierarchical.
60
N.P.A. has 3 important attacks to TPA:
• Relevance:
 It says that traditional Public Administration has little to
say about contemporary problems
• Values:
 Value-neutrality in TPA is an impossibility.
 It is less neutral and more normative.
N.P.A. has 3 important attacks to
TPA
• Social Equity:
Public Administration fails to work for changes
Unable to address deprivation of minorities
Will likely be eventually used to repress those
minorities.
62
 Change:
 It attacks on the status quo
 Deep rooted power in permanent institutions.
 It requires positive, proactive and responsive administrators
 Not authoritarian and ivory tower bureaucrats.
N.P.A - Significance
N.P.A - Significance
 Equity: It focus more on democratic norms
than operating in top down structure.
 Involvement: Involving organisation’s
members and its clients in decision making
process.
64
NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
65
New Public Management
(Mid 1980s and 1990s)
• NPM is a management philosophy
• Used by govts. since 1980s
• To modernize public sector.
New Public Management
• NPM, compared to other public management
theories is:
– More oriented towards:
 outcomes
Efficiency
Through better management of public budget
To be achieved by applying competition
67
New Public Management
• NPM-reform emphasizes :
Market orientation in the public sector
Greater cost-efficiency for governments
Without negative side effects on objectives and
considerations.
• Market principles in public sector
• Emphasizing economic/ leadership principles
• Beneficiaries of public services like customers
68
69
New Public Management
• Major shift from traditional model
• Focus on achievement of results
• Results more important than process
• Move away from classic bureaucracy
• Centralization to Decentralization
• Market Driven Decision Making
New Public Management
• Flexible forms of organization
• Clear identification of objectives
• Measurable Performance indicators
• Trend towards reducing scope of government
• Privatization/Decentralization/Deregulation
• Facilitation
70
71
Criticisms of NPM
• 1- Focus on Efficiency:
Belief that government could and should be
 Run like a business
• 2- Focus on Customer rather than Citizen:
A customer oriented model
 puts citizen in a reactive role
N.P.M. Criticism
• Treating public as "customers" rather than
"citizens"
• An inappropriate borrowing from private sector
• Businesses see customers are a means to an end
(profit)
• Rather than as the proprietors of government
(the custodians of Public Interest).
• People viewed as economic units not democratic
participants.
Conclusion N.P.M.
• Nevertheless, the model is still widely
accepted at all levels of government and in
many OECD nations.
New Public Service – N.P.S
New Public Service – N.P.S
• This model's chief contribution is a focus on
public as "citizens" rather than "customers"
• Strong interest in the adoption of private sector
practices and values (e.g., efficiency).
• Citizen is expected to participate in government
• Take an active role throughout the policy
process.
76
New Public Service (NPS) Principles /
(Denhardt: 2003)
• Help citizens articulate their mutual interest rather than to
steer society in new directions
• Create collective and shared notion of public interest
• Dialogue rather than aggregation individual interests
• Effective and responsive policies and programs
achieved through a collective effort and collaborative process.
77
New Public Service (NPS) Principles /
(Denhardt: 2003)
• NPS is attentive to people more than market .
• Shared leadership for successful public organizations /
programs.
• Public interest served better by NPS
• NPS committed to citizens
• Not managers acting as if public money were their own
78
New Public Service
Public servants do NOT deliver
customer service..
They deliver Democracy!
79
Challenges for the Future of New Public
Service
• Economic Changes and Redefining
Government
• Restricted expenditure -New issues
• PPP- Privatization - Decentralization
Challenges for the Future of New
Public Service
• Globalization (growing international
dimension of public administration)
• Technology and Work Environment (new
people and new values
• E-Government
80
81
Challenges for the Future of Public Service
• The Role of Citizens in the
Governance Process
• NPS and interactive decision
making
• Ethical and Moral Dimensions
• NPS are Guardians of Public Trust
NPM /NPS - Criticism
• NPM/NPS has peaked and is now in decline.
• Digital era of governance
• Focusing on reintegrating concerns into
government control
• Holistic government and digitalization
• Exploiting the Web and digital storage
• Communication within government
GOVERNANCE IN PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION
83
Definition: Governance
Governance was defined by World bank as:
“The manner in which power is exercised in the
management of a country’s economic and
social resources for development”.
(World Bank, 1992:1)
84
8 Good Governance Principles
1. Accountable
2. Transparent
3. Responsive
4. Effective and Efficient
5. Equitable and Inclusive
6. Follows the Rule of Law
7. Participatory
8. Consensus-oriented
85
86
Islamic Concept of Public
Administration
87
88
Historical Roots of Public
Administration in Pakistan
(Civil Services Reforms)
Mirza Faran Baig
89
Civil Service:
• Civil service has been defined in the Civil
Servant Act 1973.
• Civil servants are a group of people who serve
public.
• Words like Public, Civil, and Government are
used interchangeably.
Civil Service:
• Officers and officials working in government
organization are all public servants.
• They draw their salaries from public
exchequer.
91
Historical Background of Civil Service
• Pakistan inherited the civil service structure
from East India Company (British Raj).
• The structure of the services existing in Pre-
partition sub-continent was adopted in
Pakistan with little modifications.
• The following two categories of the services
were maintained.
– All Pakistan Services
– Central Services
All Pakistan Services
• The all Pakistan Service was descendent of All-India
Services.
• The All Pakistan Service was created in Pakistan.
• It comprised Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) and the
Police Service of Pakistan (PSP).
All Pakistan Services
• Officers of these services served under central
as well as the provincial governments.
• Officers when served under the Provincial
Government were controlled by Provincial
Government concerned
• The basic control remained with center.
94
1. All Pakistan Services
Civil Services of Pakistan (CSP):
• The CSP in Pakistan was the
descendent of the Indian Civil
Service (ICS) in India.
• At the time of independence It
consisted of:
• Former ICS officers, Officers who
served in World War 2.
• Finance service officers
• Officers selected by Competitive
Examination held in 1949 &
1950
Police Service of Pakistan (PSP):
 The PSP in Pakistan was the same
as Indian Police Service (IPS) in
sub-continent.
 At the time of partition it
consisted of those officers who
opted for Pakistan.
 The posts held by PSP officers
included Inspectors-Generals,
Superintendents, Deputy
Superintendents, Assistant
Superintendents etc.
 Most of the PSP officers served
under Provincial Government.
2. Central Services:
• Like the Central Services before partition the Central Services in
Pakistan were controlled by Central government.
• Before the Administrative Reforms (1973), the Central Services
are given below:-
 Pakistan Foreign Services (PFS)
 Accounts Services
 Pakistan Customs and Excise
Services (PCES)
 Pakistan Taxation Service
 Pakistan Military & Land
Cantonment Service
 Pakistan Postal Service
 Trade Service of Pakistan
 Information Service of Pakistan
(ISP):
 Economic Pool
 Central Secretariat Services.
 General Administrative Service.
Structure of Civil Service
• The structure of civil servants consists:
– Public Service Commissions (Federal & Provincial) are
constitutionally Grade 16 and above.
– The autonomous organization recruit people directly
(test & interview by the organization)
Federal Government Provincial Government
Ministries
Division/s
Attached Departments
Autonomous Bodies
Public Enterprises
Department
Directorate
Autonomous Bodies
Example: Development Authorities
District/Tehsil Office
History of Civil Service Reform
• Upon independence government decided to
review the system of administration.
• Foreign experts were invited to study and make
recommendations.
• The famous among those expert reports were:
 Egger Report 1953
 Gladieux Report
Egger Report 1953 (Observations)
• It is oriented towards academic notion of
intelligence and ability.
• It is obsessed with interests of those
already in service.
• Recruitment standards are out-dated
• Recruitment techniques far removed from
currently accepted good practices.
Egger Report 1953 (Observations)
• The selection system is self-perpetuating
• Tends to repeat its own type
 As though civil service drew most of its
inspiration from looking in the mirror
• Members of civil service are supposed to be
like a box of interchangeable part in assembly
line
100
Egger Report 1953 (Recommendations)
• Unification of the entire group into Civil Service
of Pakistan
• With internal grouping for administrative
purpose e.g. Administration, Foreign Service,
Accounts etc.
Egger Report 1953
(Recommendations)
• Standardized pay scales based on
comprehensive job analysis
• Generalists should not dominate other
services
• Need to have specialization in the civil service
102
Gladieux Report
• In 1955 Mr. Bernard Gladieux, USA was engaged
 As Public Administration consultant.
• Technical & professional civil servants also possessed
administrative skills
• The above should be encouraged to hold higher positions.
• In 1955 the First Five Year Plan of the Government of Pakistan
also took note of dominance of the generalists cadre of civil
service over other cadres.
Gladieux Report
• It was recommended that non-technical
Central Superior Services should be converted
into branches of this combined civil services
all having identical pay scales, prospects of
promotion and leave.
• These should be treated as if they were the
branches of a single central service.
104
Pay and Service Commission (1962)
Report recommended that public service be build on seven tiers
of groups:
• Group F 4 Grades Unskilled workers
• Group E 4 Grades Semi-skilled workers
• Group D 5 Grades Skilled workers and rank and file staff
• Group C 5 Grades Lower inspectional middle/supervisory
• Group B 4 Grades Basic officer class
• Group A 4 Grades Managerial class, District level
• APS 4 Grades Higher administrative post
Working Group (1969)
 Working Group gave following
recommendations:
• All branches of civil service should have same
status
• They should retain their individuality
• For ex-cadre positions, same criteria should be
used as for the cadre services
• No difference of pay scales of the provincial/
central civil servants.
Administrative Reforms
Committee (1972)
 Appointed to study all aspects of civil service
 It made the following recommendations:
• All services and cadres should be merged
• Into a unified graded structure
• Equality of opportunity for all who enter
service at any stage
• Based on the required professional and
specialized competence necessary for job.
107
Administrative Reforms
Committee (1972)
• All “classes” among government servants be
abolished
• Replaced by a unified graded structure:
 A peon at the bottom and Secretary at the top.
• Grading of each post determined by job
evaluation.
• Provision for entry into government service :
 of talented individuals from private sector
 From such fields as banking, insurance etc.
108
Implementation of the Reforms
In order to emphasis professionalism in field of administration the
following “Occupational Groups” were formed:
1. District Management Group
2. Police Group
3. Income Tax Group
4. Customs and Excise Group
5. Accounts Group
6. Information Group
7. Postal Group
8. Commerce Group
9. Foreign Affairs Group
10. Office Management Group
11. Military Land and Cantonment
Group
12. Railways Group
13. Secretariat Group
14. Tribal Areas Group
15. Economists and Planners
Group
The Civil Service Today:
Constitution of 1973 gives that :
• “Executive Authority of federation is exercised by
Government in the name of President.
• The PM is the Chief Executive of the Federation
• Federal Cabinet exercises its authority through CE
• According to 4th schedule
There is Federal and concurrent list of
areas/responsibility of Federal Government.
Abolished by 18th Amendment
Categories of the Civil Service:
 The services and posts under Federal / Provincial
classified in the following 3 categories:
• Generalist Services:
 Recruitment is based on the basis of general education of
candidate
• Semi-Technical Specialized Services:
 Recruitment is based on advanced academic attainment in
University without formal education or tracing in professional
institution.
• Purely Technical Services:
 Recruitment on technical qualification like doctor, engineers.
Civil Service Recruitment in Pakistan:
The criteria of recruitment to civil service are:
• Based on pure merit.
• All posts must be advertised before selection.
• Assessment is based on selection boards, committees etc.
• Due representation to every province is given.
Appointing Authority
The appointing authority for various grades is :
• Grade 20 and Above President
• Grade 17 to 19 Establishment
• Grade 3 to 16 Ministry
• Grade 1 and 2 Head Office
113
Main Recruiting Agencies:
The main recruiting agencies are:
• Federal Public Service Commission at the federal level
• Provincial Public Service Commission at provincial level
• Departmental Selection/Promotion Committees
Training:
Training of civil servants is divided into the following.
• Pre-Service Training: given before entry to service.
• In-Service Training: given during the service.
The Major Training Institutions are:-
• • National Institute of Public Administration
• • Pakistan Academy for Rural Development
• • Pakistan Administrative Staff College
Functions of Civil Service
• Maintains Law & Order
• Provides Defence
• Collects Revenues and
• Maintains currency
• Provides Utilities (electricity, telephone, gas)
• Maintain Government Accounts
• Maintains Foreign Relations
• Maintains Cantonments
• It regulates, distributes and allocates goods and
services in the society
Role of Civil Service in Good Governance
• Good governance involves promoting the rule of law,
tolerance and a transparent socio-economic and political
processes and an independent judiciary.
• There is a need to change the role of government from
regulator to facilitator.
• The other facet of civil service is the strong correlation
between the extent of government involvement in the
economy, and the amount of corruption.
• Civil servants need effective training and career development,
which would result in better organizational and individual
performance.
Civil Service & Good Governance
• Performance appraisals should be around core
competencies
 Rule of law; Efficiency; Equity; Economy; Responsiveness
• Specific goals to increase core competencies
• Civil servants be retained on basis of performance
• Inadequate performance should be corrected
Civil Service & Good Governance
• Civil Servants be protected against arbitrary
action
• Personal favoritism/ coercion partisanship be
prohibited
• Respect for human rights
118
faranbaig@gmail.com
muzzafarahmad@yahoo.com
03328474455
119

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lecture_1__Public_Administration_Concepts,_Approaches_and____Context_-_2017.ppt

  • 2. I. Public Administration: Concepts, Approaches and Context • Definitions- Role and Scope of Public Ad. in Society • Issues in Public Administration Theory and Practice – Democracy versus Bureaucracy – Politics versus Administration – Efficiency versus Equity • Core Values of Public Administration – Rule of Law, Efficiency, Equity and Fairness, Responsiveness; • Traditional Public Administration; • New Public Management; New Public Service; • Governance Approach to Public Administration; • Islamic Concept of Public Administration; • Historical roots of Public administration in Pakistan.
  • 4. Woodrow Wilson “Public administration is the detailed and systematic application of law. Every particular application of law is an act of administration.” 4 DEFINITION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Dwight Waldo “Public Administration is the art and science of management as applied to the affairs of the states.”
  • 5. L.D. White “Public administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy.” 5 DEFINITION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
  • 7. THE MEANING, ROLE & SCOPE The word ‘administration’ has been derived from Latin words ‘ad’ = to ‘ministiare’ = serve ‘Public’ = people or citizens Thus the word administration means to execute the policy of government to serve public. Scope of PA: Managerial view and Subject matter view 7
  • 8. THE MEANING, ROLE & SCOPE Management is also defined as Cooperative human endeavour to achieve given goals. Traditionally management is also defined as Management = POSDCORB Stands for Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordination, Reporting, Budgeting. 8
  • 10. 10 Democracy Bureaucracy i. Based on Values of: Equality, Federalism, Republicanism, Popular sovereignty Based on Values of: Hierarchy, Top to down flow, Centralization, No popular sovereignty ii. Freedom of expression Freedom of expression is generally not allowed iii. Representative Direct – No concept of representative form of action. iv. Responsive Generally not responsive
  • 11. 11 Democracy Bureaucracy v. Elected : through electoral process Selected vi. Shorter legislative/constitutional period i.e. 5 years Long period of time: usually the age of retirement vii. Makes laws Implements laws viii. Makes Policy Implements policies ix. Consultative / takes input from electorate Directive: No input from specific electorate (In NPA & NPS provision of limited input is proposed) x. Responsible to its electorate Responsive only to its hierarchy.
  • 12. 12 Democracy Bureaucracy xi. Believe in getting things done quickly; generally during in their tenure What is to be done should be within the frame of work of rules; delay is no consequence. xii. Considers bureaucracy as a hurdle to get tings done. Considers politicians as hurdle in implementation of rules. xiii. Less accountability Strict Accountability xiv. Need to provide service, efficient or not Implementation of law is superior than service delivery xv. Conscious about public opinion Public opinion does not matter
  • 14. 14 Sr Politics Administration 1 Deals with the “Expression of the will of the people “. Deals with the “Execution of the will of the people”. 2 Deals with Politicians Deals with Civil Servants 3 One becomes Politician by his popularity, either through positive or negative popularity Positive Popularity , e.g. Zulfiqar Bhuttu Negative Popularity e.g. Phoolan Devi One becomes Civil servants by his intelligence 4 One becomes Politics through election One becomes civil servant through selection 5 Prior training is not given to politician Civil servants are professionals and keep undergoing training 6 Power is the Centre of study in politics i.e. process of capturing and retaining power Running administration successfully is the central focus here
  • 16. EFFICIENCY • Efficiency = Output/Input: – Relates to maximization of goals Input • Ability to do things well, successfully, and without waste. • Henry L. Gantt (classical school) focused on efficiency and maximization of output. • Max Weber includes efficiency in his general characteristics of bureaucracy. • It is the contribution of the plan to the objectives e.g. If cost is higher than the benefits, the plan is said to be inefficient. • Efficiency is a measurable benchmark: indicating avoidance of wastage in doing something or in producing a desired result. 16
  • 18. 18
  • 20. Equity Public administration by its nature cannot be neutral  It must consider the values of society, including:  Responsiveness  Public participation in decision making  Social equity  Citizen choice  Administrative responsibility
  • 22. RESPONSIVENESS • Responsiveness means “quick to respond or react appropriately or sympathetically, sensitive.” (Webster’s 9th new Collegiate Dictionary 1986) • Responsibility must begin with attention. • Responsive bureaucrats is required who can "leap tall buildings at a single bound?" Does not the complexity and turbulence of current-day public administration require bureaucrats who can “satisfice”. • Thus public officials can be good listeners (they can be responsive) by encouraging citizens’ responsibility to listen to one another and solve disputes. 22
  • 23. RESPONSIVENESS • In public administration, as elsewhere, responsiveness begins with listening. • If, as Bellah et al. argue, "democracy is paying attention" (1991, p. 254), democratically minded public administrators may want to pay attention to their own listening abilities in order to be able better to pay attention - to respond - to the public. (The listening bureaucrat: responsiveness in public administration by Camilla Stivers, Public Ad. Review July-Aug 1994 v54 n4 p364-369) 23
  • 25. RULE OF LAW • Every body high or low, and official or private is subject to the same law. • The public administrator is not above the law, while performing official duties. • Ordinarily the aggrieved party to shall have all those legal remedies against the offending officials; which are known as prerogative writs, 25
  • 26. Public Ad. vs Private Ad. Public Ad Private Ad Considered to be welfare oriented. Private administration is considered to be profit oriented. Public administration is referred to as Commonweal Organization. Private administration is being referred to as Business organization. Public administration operates under the political direction. Private ad. does not operate under the same type of political consideration. Consistency of the treatment- Public administration is non-discriminatory while dealing with the citizens. Private administration can go for a discriminatory based on its commercial or business requirements. Monopoly- The public sector can enjoy monopoly in a particular sector. The private sector cannot be allowed to have monopoly. 26
  • 27. Public Ad. vs Private Ad. Public Ad Private Ad Public Scrutiny will be higher in case of the Public sector. It is subject to multiple institutional mechanisms of scrutiny. The same type of scrutiny is not applicable to the private sector. Diversity of activity- Public sector is more diverse in terms of presence and operation in functional areas. Private sector is not as diverse as the Public Sector. Legal Constraints- Public sector is considered to be more rigid in its operations. Public sector has to abide by a number of rules, laws, organizational manuals etc. Private Sector is not subject to as many legal constraints as there are in the public sector. Private sector enjoys an amount of flexibility which is not present in the public sector. 27
  • 28. Public Administration Approaches TPA NPA NPM NPS Gover nance
  • 30. Traditional Public Administration The study of public administration is divided in following Schools:  The Classical School  Classical Scientific school  Classical Administrative school  Human Relations School  Behavioral School  System School 30
  • 31. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT SCHOOL  Frederic W. Taylor (1856-1915)  Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924)  Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972)  Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919) 31
  • 32. Frederic W. Taylor (1856-1915)  Because of significance of his contributions, Frederic W.Taylor is commonly called the :  “Father of scientific management”.  His primary goal was to increase worker efficiency by scientifically designing jobs.  Soldiering  Piece rate/wage  Right man for the right job  His basic premise was that there was one best way 32
  • 33. Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924) & Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972)  Frank and Lillian Gilbreth are world renowned for their pioneering work in the fields of time and motion study, fatigue study, work simplification, scientific management, and ergonomics.  Frank Gilbreth was a contractor from Boston.  The primary investigative tool in the Gilbreth’s research was Motion study, which consists of reducing each job to the most basic movements possible.  Motion analysis is used today primarily to establish Job performance standards. 33
  • 34. Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919)  An American mechanical engineer and management consultant who is most famous for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s.  Gantt attributed unsatisfactory or ineffective tasks and piece rates.  These tasks and rates were set according to what had been done by workers in the past or on somebody’s opinion of what workers could do.  According to H. Gantt, exact scientific knowledge of what could be done by a worker should be substituted for opinion.  He considered the role of scientific management. 34
  • 35.  Gantt’s management philosophy is encapsulated in this statement that “The essential differences between the best system of today and those of the past are the manner in which tasks are “scheduled” and the manner in which their performance is rewarded”.  Using this rationale, he sought to improve systems or organizations through task-scheduling innovation and the rewarding of innovation. Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919) 35
  • 36.
  • 37.  Fayol’s 14 principles of organization. Henry Fayol (1841-1925) 37 Sr. Principle Acronym 1 Unity of command; U 2 Subordination of individual interests to the general interests; S 3 Initiative; I 4 Scalar chain; S 5 Order; O 6 Stability of tenure of personnel S 7 Equity; E US ISO SECURE DAD
  • 38. Henry Fayol (1841-1925) 38 Sr. Principle Acronym 8 Centralization; C 9 Unity of direction; U 10 Remuneration; R 11 Esprit de corps. (harmony and good feelings among employees). E 12 Division of work; D 13 Authority; A 14 Discipline; D US ISO SECURE DAD
  • 39. Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) • Stressed the importance of an organization establishing common goals for its employees. • Discarding command-style hierarchical organizations where employees were treated like robots. • She began to talk about such things as ethics, power, and leadership. • Encouraged managers to allow employees to participate in decision making. • She stressed the importance of people rather than techniques — a concept very much before her time. • She was a pioneer and often not taken seriously by management scholars of her time. • Much of what managers do today is based on the fundamentals that Follett established almost 100 years ago. 39
  • 40. Luther Gulick (1892-1993) • His seven-activities acronym, POSDCORB, is a familiar word throughout management practice. POSDCORB stands for Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co- ordinating, Reporting and Budgeting.  Gulick added the concept of Span of control, which addressed the factors limiting the number of people a manager could supervise.  His homogeneity of work centred on the fact that an organization should not combine dissimilar activities in single agencies.  In a time where the prevalent theme was the separation of politics and administration, Gulick advocated that it was impossible to separate the two. 40
  • 41. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL • Elton Mayo • Chester I. Barnard • Herbert Simon 41
  • 42. George Elton Mayo (1880-1949) • George Elton Mayo was an Australian psychologist, sociologist and organization theorist. • President of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. • Is known as the founder of the HRM • Is famous for his Hawthorne Studies.  Introduced the idea of informal organization (exclusive groups of people) that naturally form within a company. 42
  • 43. Importance of an Individual's behaviour Other theorists had underestimated the variability of individual behaviour and its impact of this on organizational effectiveness. • Hawthorne Studies (1930s) showed importance of groups in affecting the behaviour of individuals at work. • He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace. • work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the workgroup. 43 George Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
  • 44. • Concluded that work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content. • suggested a tension between workers 'logic of sentiment' and managers 'logic of cost and efficiency' which could lead to conflict within organizations. • Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation, but must be seen as members of a group. • Monetary incentives and good working condition are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group. • Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behaviour of those workers in a group. • Managers must be aware of these 'social needs' and cater for them to ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather than work against it. 44 George Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
  • 45. Chester Barnard (1886 – 1961) • An American business executive, and the author of pioneering work in management theory and organizational studies. His landmark 1938 book, The Functions of the Executive, sets out a theory of organization. Compliance  Concept of "zone of indifference" - orders must be perceived in neutral terms to be carried out without conscious questioning of authority. Communication  Central concept - decision-making processes depend on communications, he described characteristics (Source, message, receiver, feedback) and focused on importance of communication in informal organization. 45
  • 46. Chester Barnard (1886 – 1961)  Organizations made up of individual humans with individual motivations.  Every large organization includes smaller, less formal groupings whose goals need to be harnessed to those of the whole - this is managements responsibility. Management efficiency vs. effectiveness Authority only exists in so far as the people are willing to accept it 3 basic principles for ensuring effectiveness of communications:  everyone should know the channels of communication.  everyone should have access to a formal channel of communications.  lines of communication should be as short and direct as possible. 46
  • 47. Herbert Simon (1916-2001) • HR pertaining to motivation and increasing job satisfaction: The study of human relations and motivation determines the performance in organization. • Decision-making studies emphasizing cognitive processes • Rational components of administrative behaviour an American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist, and professor. He is one of the most influential social scientists of the 20th century. He has classified administrative behaviour as follows:-  The study of bureaucracy: In order to understand decision making, it is better to understand the structure of organization, because the structure determines behaviour. 47
  • 48. Herbert Simon (1916-2001) Bounded Rationality: • When individuals make decisions • Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers • As an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision- making, as used in economics, political science and related disciplines • “Rationality as Optimization” • Simon used the analogy of a pair of scissors, where one blade represents "cognitive limitations" of actual humans and the other the "structures of the environment“ • Perfectly rational decisions are often not feasible in practice because of the intractability of natural decision problems and the finite computational resources available for making them. 48
  • 49.  Simon says organization is important because :-  It provides the environment and structure that mold and develop personal qualities and habits  Provides those in responsible positions with the means for exercising authority and influence over others  Structures of communications, determines the environments of information in which decisions are taken  Understanding of decision making in organization  Artificial intelligence.  Simon got Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978. Herbert Simon (1916-2001) 50
  • 50. The approaches Traditional approach NPM Political Legal Value Efficiency; effectiveness Customer response Representation, accountability Procedural validity Org. structure Typical bureaucracy Competitive Pluralism Adversary Individual Impersonal; rational Customer Group member Particularistic individual Decision making Rational Decentralized Muddling through Precedence Function Executive Executive Legislative Judicial Budget Rational (cost benefit) Performance based Incremental Rights based
  • 51. Public Administration Approaches TPA NPA NPM NPS Gover nance
  • 53. P A = Bureaucratic Organization Max Weber –Bureaucratic characteristics (Principles): • Clear division of labor • Clear hierarchy of authority • Formal rules and procedures • Impersonality • Careers based on merit
  • 54. 55 Bureaucracy- Max Weber Problems with the Traditional Model •Lack of neutrality and professionalism (Politics!) •Rigidity (red tape) stifles creativity •Informal networks exist beside formal •Risk aversion rather than risk taking
  • 55. 56 Bureaucracy- Max Weber Problems with the Traditional Model •Fixed procedures no longer suitable changing environment •Input dominating structure • Ignored outputs and results •Inefficiency and Ineffectiveness (corruption!)
  • 57. New Public Administration • The New Public Administration concept came first time in 1968 in first Minnow brook. Conference held under the patronage of Dwight Waldo. • The 1960s in the USA was a time of social and political turbulence due to Vietnam war, Civil Rights movements, campus unrest, etc
  • 58. New Public Administration • In word of Dwight Waldo neither the study nor the practice of public administration was responding suitably to escalating turmoil and complications. • The Minnowbrook conference challenged the traditional public administration. 59
  • 59. New Public Administration • It was anti-positivist • Anti-technical • Anti-hierarchical. 60
  • 60. N.P.A. has 3 important attacks to TPA: • Relevance:  It says that traditional Public Administration has little to say about contemporary problems • Values:  Value-neutrality in TPA is an impossibility.  It is less neutral and more normative.
  • 61. N.P.A. has 3 important attacks to TPA • Social Equity: Public Administration fails to work for changes Unable to address deprivation of minorities Will likely be eventually used to repress those minorities. 62
  • 62.  Change:  It attacks on the status quo  Deep rooted power in permanent institutions.  It requires positive, proactive and responsive administrators  Not authoritarian and ivory tower bureaucrats. N.P.A - Significance
  • 63. N.P.A - Significance  Equity: It focus more on democratic norms than operating in top down structure.  Involvement: Involving organisation’s members and its clients in decision making process. 64
  • 65. New Public Management (Mid 1980s and 1990s) • NPM is a management philosophy • Used by govts. since 1980s • To modernize public sector.
  • 66. New Public Management • NPM, compared to other public management theories is: – More oriented towards:  outcomes Efficiency Through better management of public budget To be achieved by applying competition 67
  • 67. New Public Management • NPM-reform emphasizes : Market orientation in the public sector Greater cost-efficiency for governments Without negative side effects on objectives and considerations. • Market principles in public sector • Emphasizing economic/ leadership principles • Beneficiaries of public services like customers 68
  • 68. 69 New Public Management • Major shift from traditional model • Focus on achievement of results • Results more important than process • Move away from classic bureaucracy • Centralization to Decentralization • Market Driven Decision Making
  • 69. New Public Management • Flexible forms of organization • Clear identification of objectives • Measurable Performance indicators • Trend towards reducing scope of government • Privatization/Decentralization/Deregulation • Facilitation 70
  • 70. 71 Criticisms of NPM • 1- Focus on Efficiency: Belief that government could and should be  Run like a business • 2- Focus on Customer rather than Citizen: A customer oriented model  puts citizen in a reactive role
  • 71. N.P.M. Criticism • Treating public as "customers" rather than "citizens" • An inappropriate borrowing from private sector • Businesses see customers are a means to an end (profit) • Rather than as the proprietors of government (the custodians of Public Interest). • People viewed as economic units not democratic participants.
  • 72. Conclusion N.P.M. • Nevertheless, the model is still widely accepted at all levels of government and in many OECD nations.
  • 73. New Public Service – N.P.S
  • 74. New Public Service – N.P.S • This model's chief contribution is a focus on public as "citizens" rather than "customers" • Strong interest in the adoption of private sector practices and values (e.g., efficiency). • Citizen is expected to participate in government • Take an active role throughout the policy process.
  • 75. 76 New Public Service (NPS) Principles / (Denhardt: 2003) • Help citizens articulate their mutual interest rather than to steer society in new directions • Create collective and shared notion of public interest • Dialogue rather than aggregation individual interests • Effective and responsive policies and programs achieved through a collective effort and collaborative process.
  • 76. 77 New Public Service (NPS) Principles / (Denhardt: 2003) • NPS is attentive to people more than market . • Shared leadership for successful public organizations / programs. • Public interest served better by NPS • NPS committed to citizens • Not managers acting as if public money were their own
  • 77. 78 New Public Service Public servants do NOT deliver customer service.. They deliver Democracy!
  • 78. 79 Challenges for the Future of New Public Service • Economic Changes and Redefining Government • Restricted expenditure -New issues • PPP- Privatization - Decentralization
  • 79. Challenges for the Future of New Public Service • Globalization (growing international dimension of public administration) • Technology and Work Environment (new people and new values • E-Government 80
  • 80. 81 Challenges for the Future of Public Service • The Role of Citizens in the Governance Process • NPS and interactive decision making • Ethical and Moral Dimensions • NPS are Guardians of Public Trust
  • 81. NPM /NPS - Criticism • NPM/NPS has peaked and is now in decline. • Digital era of governance • Focusing on reintegrating concerns into government control • Holistic government and digitalization • Exploiting the Web and digital storage • Communication within government
  • 83. Definition: Governance Governance was defined by World bank as: “The manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development”. (World Bank, 1992:1) 84
  • 84. 8 Good Governance Principles 1. Accountable 2. Transparent 3. Responsive 4. Effective and Efficient 5. Equitable and Inclusive 6. Follows the Rule of Law 7. Participatory 8. Consensus-oriented 85
  • 85. 86
  • 86. Islamic Concept of Public Administration 87
  • 87. 88
  • 88. Historical Roots of Public Administration in Pakistan (Civil Services Reforms) Mirza Faran Baig 89
  • 89. Civil Service: • Civil service has been defined in the Civil Servant Act 1973. • Civil servants are a group of people who serve public. • Words like Public, Civil, and Government are used interchangeably.
  • 90. Civil Service: • Officers and officials working in government organization are all public servants. • They draw their salaries from public exchequer. 91
  • 91. Historical Background of Civil Service • Pakistan inherited the civil service structure from East India Company (British Raj). • The structure of the services existing in Pre- partition sub-continent was adopted in Pakistan with little modifications. • The following two categories of the services were maintained. – All Pakistan Services – Central Services
  • 92. All Pakistan Services • The all Pakistan Service was descendent of All-India Services. • The All Pakistan Service was created in Pakistan. • It comprised Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) and the Police Service of Pakistan (PSP).
  • 93. All Pakistan Services • Officers of these services served under central as well as the provincial governments. • Officers when served under the Provincial Government were controlled by Provincial Government concerned • The basic control remained with center. 94
  • 94. 1. All Pakistan Services Civil Services of Pakistan (CSP): • The CSP in Pakistan was the descendent of the Indian Civil Service (ICS) in India. • At the time of independence It consisted of: • Former ICS officers, Officers who served in World War 2. • Finance service officers • Officers selected by Competitive Examination held in 1949 & 1950 Police Service of Pakistan (PSP):  The PSP in Pakistan was the same as Indian Police Service (IPS) in sub-continent.  At the time of partition it consisted of those officers who opted for Pakistan.  The posts held by PSP officers included Inspectors-Generals, Superintendents, Deputy Superintendents, Assistant Superintendents etc.  Most of the PSP officers served under Provincial Government.
  • 95. 2. Central Services: • Like the Central Services before partition the Central Services in Pakistan were controlled by Central government. • Before the Administrative Reforms (1973), the Central Services are given below:-  Pakistan Foreign Services (PFS)  Accounts Services  Pakistan Customs and Excise Services (PCES)  Pakistan Taxation Service  Pakistan Military & Land Cantonment Service  Pakistan Postal Service  Trade Service of Pakistan  Information Service of Pakistan (ISP):  Economic Pool  Central Secretariat Services.  General Administrative Service.
  • 96. Structure of Civil Service • The structure of civil servants consists: – Public Service Commissions (Federal & Provincial) are constitutionally Grade 16 and above. – The autonomous organization recruit people directly (test & interview by the organization) Federal Government Provincial Government Ministries Division/s Attached Departments Autonomous Bodies Public Enterprises Department Directorate Autonomous Bodies Example: Development Authorities District/Tehsil Office
  • 97. History of Civil Service Reform • Upon independence government decided to review the system of administration. • Foreign experts were invited to study and make recommendations. • The famous among those expert reports were:  Egger Report 1953  Gladieux Report
  • 98. Egger Report 1953 (Observations) • It is oriented towards academic notion of intelligence and ability. • It is obsessed with interests of those already in service. • Recruitment standards are out-dated • Recruitment techniques far removed from currently accepted good practices.
  • 99. Egger Report 1953 (Observations) • The selection system is self-perpetuating • Tends to repeat its own type  As though civil service drew most of its inspiration from looking in the mirror • Members of civil service are supposed to be like a box of interchangeable part in assembly line 100
  • 100. Egger Report 1953 (Recommendations) • Unification of the entire group into Civil Service of Pakistan • With internal grouping for administrative purpose e.g. Administration, Foreign Service, Accounts etc.
  • 101. Egger Report 1953 (Recommendations) • Standardized pay scales based on comprehensive job analysis • Generalists should not dominate other services • Need to have specialization in the civil service 102
  • 102. Gladieux Report • In 1955 Mr. Bernard Gladieux, USA was engaged  As Public Administration consultant. • Technical & professional civil servants also possessed administrative skills • The above should be encouraged to hold higher positions. • In 1955 the First Five Year Plan of the Government of Pakistan also took note of dominance of the generalists cadre of civil service over other cadres.
  • 103. Gladieux Report • It was recommended that non-technical Central Superior Services should be converted into branches of this combined civil services all having identical pay scales, prospects of promotion and leave. • These should be treated as if they were the branches of a single central service. 104
  • 104. Pay and Service Commission (1962) Report recommended that public service be build on seven tiers of groups: • Group F 4 Grades Unskilled workers • Group E 4 Grades Semi-skilled workers • Group D 5 Grades Skilled workers and rank and file staff • Group C 5 Grades Lower inspectional middle/supervisory • Group B 4 Grades Basic officer class • Group A 4 Grades Managerial class, District level • APS 4 Grades Higher administrative post
  • 105. Working Group (1969)  Working Group gave following recommendations: • All branches of civil service should have same status • They should retain their individuality • For ex-cadre positions, same criteria should be used as for the cadre services • No difference of pay scales of the provincial/ central civil servants.
  • 106. Administrative Reforms Committee (1972)  Appointed to study all aspects of civil service  It made the following recommendations: • All services and cadres should be merged • Into a unified graded structure • Equality of opportunity for all who enter service at any stage • Based on the required professional and specialized competence necessary for job. 107
  • 107. Administrative Reforms Committee (1972) • All “classes” among government servants be abolished • Replaced by a unified graded structure:  A peon at the bottom and Secretary at the top. • Grading of each post determined by job evaluation. • Provision for entry into government service :  of talented individuals from private sector  From such fields as banking, insurance etc. 108
  • 108. Implementation of the Reforms In order to emphasis professionalism in field of administration the following “Occupational Groups” were formed: 1. District Management Group 2. Police Group 3. Income Tax Group 4. Customs and Excise Group 5. Accounts Group 6. Information Group 7. Postal Group 8. Commerce Group 9. Foreign Affairs Group 10. Office Management Group 11. Military Land and Cantonment Group 12. Railways Group 13. Secretariat Group 14. Tribal Areas Group 15. Economists and Planners Group
  • 109. The Civil Service Today: Constitution of 1973 gives that : • “Executive Authority of federation is exercised by Government in the name of President. • The PM is the Chief Executive of the Federation • Federal Cabinet exercises its authority through CE • According to 4th schedule There is Federal and concurrent list of areas/responsibility of Federal Government. Abolished by 18th Amendment
  • 110. Categories of the Civil Service:  The services and posts under Federal / Provincial classified in the following 3 categories: • Generalist Services:  Recruitment is based on the basis of general education of candidate • Semi-Technical Specialized Services:  Recruitment is based on advanced academic attainment in University without formal education or tracing in professional institution. • Purely Technical Services:  Recruitment on technical qualification like doctor, engineers.
  • 111. Civil Service Recruitment in Pakistan: The criteria of recruitment to civil service are: • Based on pure merit. • All posts must be advertised before selection. • Assessment is based on selection boards, committees etc. • Due representation to every province is given.
  • 112. Appointing Authority The appointing authority for various grades is : • Grade 20 and Above President • Grade 17 to 19 Establishment • Grade 3 to 16 Ministry • Grade 1 and 2 Head Office 113
  • 113. Main Recruiting Agencies: The main recruiting agencies are: • Federal Public Service Commission at the federal level • Provincial Public Service Commission at provincial level • Departmental Selection/Promotion Committees Training: Training of civil servants is divided into the following. • Pre-Service Training: given before entry to service. • In-Service Training: given during the service. The Major Training Institutions are:- • • National Institute of Public Administration • • Pakistan Academy for Rural Development • • Pakistan Administrative Staff College
  • 114. Functions of Civil Service • Maintains Law & Order • Provides Defence • Collects Revenues and • Maintains currency • Provides Utilities (electricity, telephone, gas) • Maintain Government Accounts • Maintains Foreign Relations • Maintains Cantonments • It regulates, distributes and allocates goods and services in the society
  • 115. Role of Civil Service in Good Governance • Good governance involves promoting the rule of law, tolerance and a transparent socio-economic and political processes and an independent judiciary. • There is a need to change the role of government from regulator to facilitator. • The other facet of civil service is the strong correlation between the extent of government involvement in the economy, and the amount of corruption. • Civil servants need effective training and career development, which would result in better organizational and individual performance.
  • 116. Civil Service & Good Governance • Performance appraisals should be around core competencies  Rule of law; Efficiency; Equity; Economy; Responsiveness • Specific goals to increase core competencies • Civil servants be retained on basis of performance • Inadequate performance should be corrected
  • 117. Civil Service & Good Governance • Civil Servants be protected against arbitrary action • Personal favoritism/ coercion partisanship be prohibited • Respect for human rights 118

Editor's Notes

  1. Important Characteristics of Communication: 1.)It is a 2-way process. 2.)Communication process happens between or among two or more parties. (Sender and Receiver) 3.)Communication involves exchange of ideas, feelings, information, thoughts, and knowledge. 4.)Communication involves mutuality of understanding between Sender and Receiver. 5.)There are two types of Communication i.e., Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication. Verbal Communication: 1.) Oral Communication, 2.) Written Communication. Nonverbal Communication: 1.) Body Language, 2.) Para Language, 3.) Space and Time Language, 4.) Sign Language.
  2. In science, cognition refers to mental processes. These processes include attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems, and making decisions. Cognition is studied in various disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, linguistics, science and computer science. Usage of the term varies in different disciplines; for example in psychology and cognitive science, it usually refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions. It is also used in a branch of social psychology called social cognition to explain attitudes, attribution and groups dynamics. The term cognition (Latin: cognoscere, "to know", "to conceptualize" or "to recognize") refers to a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious.  “Rational behavior, in economics, means that individuals maximizes his utility function under the constraints they face (e.g., their budget constraint, limited choices, ...) in pursuit of their self-interest.
  3. In science, cognition refers to mental processes. These processes include attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems, and making decisions. Cognition is studied in various disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, linguistics, science and computer science. Usage of the term varies in different disciplines; for example in psychology and cognitive science, it usually refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions. It is also used in a branch of social psychology called social cognition to explain attitudes, attribution and groups dynamics. The term cognition (Latin: cognoscere, "to know", "to conceptualize" or "to recognize") refers to a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious.  “Rational behavior, in economics, means that individuals maximizes his utility function under the constraints they face (e.g., their budget constraint, limited choices, ...) in pursuit of their self-interest.
  4. professionalization has two major objectives. Occupational domains try to establish professional control (cf. Freidson, 2001), as well as occupational closure (Abbott, 1988), so that professional workers can govern themselves and outside interference is mitigated.
  5. professionalization has two major objectives. Occupational domains try to establish professional control (cf. Freidson, 2001), as well as occupational closure (Abbott, 1988), so that professional workers can govern themselves and outside interference is mitigated.
  6. Dwight B. Waldo, first president of Western Michigan University, see Dwight B. Waldo. Dwight Waldo (1913 – October 27, 2000) was an American political scientist and is perhaps the defining figure in modern public administration. Waldo's career was often directed against a scientific/technical portrayal of bureaucracy and government that now suggests the term public management as opposed to public administration.
  7. Aristotle said: “People in government exercise a teaching function” i.e; every action of every public official – wether in the formulation or implementation of public policy- carries value implications.
  8. PPP= Public Private Partnership فكرة المشاركة العامة -الخاصة تعني أن الشركة الخاصة تقدم خدمات القطاع العام والتابع إلى المؤسسة العامة، بناء على اتفاقٍ معها. وغالباً يتم هذه العاون وفقا لصيغة بناء ، تنفيذ، انتقال (BOT build, operate, transfer) مما يعني مثلا أن الشركة أولاً تبني شبكة أنابيب الغاز، ولاحقا تكسب من تزويد الغاز عبر هذه الشبكة لمدة بضعة سنوات، وأخيرا تنتقل ملكيتها إلى الادارة المحلية. وبالنسبة إلى الشركات الخاصة هذه العملية تعطي فرصةً للحصول على اتفاقيات ضخمة وكذلك بالنسبة إلى المؤسسات العامة فإن أمامها فرصة لتنفيذ الاستثمارات الكبيرة التي لا تستطيع أن تمولها في الحال.
  9. PPP= Public Private Partnership فكرة المشاركة العامة -الخاصة تعني أن الشركة الخاصة تقدم خدمات القطاع العام والتابع إلى المؤسسة العامة، بناء على اتفاقٍ معها. وغالباً يتم هذه العاون وفقا لصيغة بناء ، تنفيذ، انتقال (BOT build, operate, transfer) مما يعني مثلا أن الشركة أولاً تبني شبكة أنابيب الغاز، ولاحقا تكسب من تزويد الغاز عبر هذه الشبكة لمدة بضعة سنوات، وأخيرا تنتقل ملكيتها إلى الادارة المحلية. وبالنسبة إلى الشركات الخاصة هذه العملية تعطي فرصةً للحصول على اتفاقيات ضخمة وكذلك بالنسبة إلى المؤسسات العامة فإن أمامها فرصة لتنفيذ الاستثمارات الكبيرة التي لا تستطيع أن تمولها في الحال.