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Public Administration and
Development
Mirza Faran Baig
XII. Public Administration and Development
• Role of Public Administration in Development;
• Concept of Development Administration;
• Difference Between Development
Administration and Development Management;
• Changing Role of Public Administration in
Development,
• Issues and Challenges in Public Administration-
The Pakistan Situation.
Role of Administration in Development
• Aftermath of WWII
• Newly independent countries in the world
• 3rd world problems of poverty, illiteracy,
health, social & political instability
• Govt. led efforts to intervene in socio-
economic transformation
Two aspects of Public Ad
• Administration of development
• Development of Administration
Emergence for Development Administration
• De-Colonization
• Undermining of goals of administration with
means of administration
• CAG (Comparative Administrative Group
1960)
• Need for indigenous administrative model
• UN sponsored development schemes
• Socio-economic development – Nation
Building
Concept & Objective of Development
Administration
• Economic Growth
• Societal change in the direction of modernity
• Social justice
• Attitudinal change
• Political Development (Equality of Law,
Increased capacity of political system to
deliver, sense of nationhood)
Concept & Objective of Development
Administration
• Modernization of Administration
• Sustainable Development
• National Building
• New Goals (Environment, Universal
Education, Preservation of wild life,
elimination of Poverty)
Functions of Development Public Ad
J.N. Khosla
• Formulation of Development goals & polices
• Program formulation/project management
• Re-organization of administrative structure & procedures
• Evaluation of results
• People’s participation in development efforts
• Promoting growth of social & political infrastructure
The above functions requires following on the part of public
administrative personnel:
– Competence
– Dynamic leadership
– Incorruptible work force
– Action orientation
– Goal orientation
– Change orientation
Problems of Development Administration
• Colonial past (Centralized/ authoritarian
administrative system
• The elitism
• Rules, regulations & forms takes precedence
over substance
• Non- indigenous
• Undue concentration of authority
Problems of Development Administration
• Limited delegation of authority
• Lengthy administrative procedures
• Lack of administrative leaders
• Shortage of technocrats
• Lack of commitment to development plans
• Lack of core competencies / skills
• Old Customs
Problems of Development Administration
• Insensitivity to people needs & oppressed sections of the
society
• Systemic & endemic corruption (institutionalized)
• Lack of political will to support needed development
plans/projects
• Primodial attitudes
• Lack of Attitudinal change
• Lack of participatory spirit
Problems of Development Administration
• Alienation at grass root level
• Poor direction / coordination & relationship between generalist
& specialist
• Poor organization of Public enterprises
• Govt. departments, boards, regulatory agencies & financial
institutions
• Insufficient finances & material resources
Solutions to the Problems of Development
Administration
• De-emphasis of hierarchy in the conventional
pyramidal organization
• Redesigned to enable cooperative decision making
& promoting collaborative problem solving
• Decentralization of authority
– Enabling field units to make decisions on the spot
– Free flow of reliable information in the organization for
speedy & effective decision making
– Recruitment , promotion, evaluation of public servants
based on merit.
– Traditional administration converted into modern
administration through training/capacity building
– Continuous man power planning
– Emphasizing professional & technical personnel
Solutions to the Problems of Development
Administration
– Flexibility & adaptability to quickly meet changes
– Modern management techniques such as cost benefit
analysis
– Supremacy of the politician must be accepted &
bureaucracy must work alongside as a co-partner of
development
– Administrative power should be under the direction
& control of political authority
– Bureaucracy must secure the cooperation an d
participation of citizen in development
Solutions to the Problems of Development
Administration
– Self help programs be encouraged
– Popular participation in development is a resource
– Work ethic
– Vigorous & impartial collection of revenues
– Avoiding wasteful expenditures
F. W. Riggs / Widener views on Development
Administration
• Concept of development Administration by Riggs
– Prismatic-sala model
– Heterogeneity
– Formulism
– Overlapping
• Widener’s idea on development administration
– Nation Building
– Socio-economic change
– Modernization
– System change & development
– Development administration & result specific
– Environmental factors
– Political factors
– Developmental & administration & bureaucracy
Widener’s Development Administration
Models
• Ideal Model (Planned directional growth with system
change)
• Short-run payoff (planned directional growth with no
system change)
• Long run payoff (planned system change with no
directional growth)
• Failure Model (Planning with no growth & no system
change)
• Environmental stimuleous model (unplanned directional
growth with system change)
• Pragmatism Model (unplanned directional growth with no
system change)
• Crises Model (unplanned system change with no
directional change)
• Static Model (No plans – No Change)
Approaches of Development Administration
• Elitist (Ethnocentric approach)
• Economic approach
• Diffusion approach
• Psychological approach
• Dependency approach (theory)
• Pluralistic approach
• Less-western approach (indigenous
approach)
Conventional Public Administration Vs
Developmental Administration.
No Conventional Administration Developmental Administration
1 Administration Oriented Structure/action oriented.
2 Status quo oriented resists
organizational changes
Change Orientation & carrier of
innovation
3 Oriented towards efficiency &
economy
Inclined towards program
achievements & effectiveness
4 Regulatory Client centered –
5 Rigid Flexible & Dynamic
6 Centralized decision making Encourages participative decision
making
7 People have no right in
administration except the right of
appeal & petition
Gives position to representative of
people in administrative process of
making & implementing decisions
No Conventional Administration Developmental Administration
8 No temporal dimensions Time oriented
9 It relies on status leadership It requires functional leadership
10 Problem solving Concerned with problem finding
11 Emphasizes centralized
administration & unresponsive to
the needs of the people
Decentralized system & responsive to
the people needs
12 It deals with routine operation,
which are predictable
It is concerned with new tasks &
problems which at times are
unpredictable
Conventional Public Administration Vs
Developmental Administration.
THANK YOU
Nature of Development Administration
• By product of comparative study of Public Ad.
• More relevant to the developing countries
• Rooted in the field rather than headquarters
• Emphasized decentralization of authority
• Enables field units to take decision on the
spot
• Participative, responsive & accountable
management
• Ecological in nature
• Closely linked with politics
Scope of Development Public Ad
• Extension & Community services
• Program Planning
• Project Management
• Area Development
• Urban Development
• Personnel development & Administration
Characteristics of Development
Administration
• Goal orientation
• Change Orientation
• Result Orientation
• Time Orientation
• Client Orientation
• Commitment
• Innovation
• People’s participation

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lecture_15_Public_Administration_and_Development_2017.pptx

  • 2. XII. Public Administration and Development • Role of Public Administration in Development; • Concept of Development Administration; • Difference Between Development Administration and Development Management; • Changing Role of Public Administration in Development, • Issues and Challenges in Public Administration- The Pakistan Situation.
  • 3. Role of Administration in Development • Aftermath of WWII • Newly independent countries in the world • 3rd world problems of poverty, illiteracy, health, social & political instability • Govt. led efforts to intervene in socio- economic transformation Two aspects of Public Ad • Administration of development • Development of Administration
  • 4. Emergence for Development Administration • De-Colonization • Undermining of goals of administration with means of administration • CAG (Comparative Administrative Group 1960) • Need for indigenous administrative model • UN sponsored development schemes • Socio-economic development – Nation Building
  • 5. Concept & Objective of Development Administration • Economic Growth • Societal change in the direction of modernity • Social justice • Attitudinal change • Political Development (Equality of Law, Increased capacity of political system to deliver, sense of nationhood)
  • 6. Concept & Objective of Development Administration • Modernization of Administration • Sustainable Development • National Building • New Goals (Environment, Universal Education, Preservation of wild life, elimination of Poverty)
  • 7. Functions of Development Public Ad J.N. Khosla • Formulation of Development goals & polices • Program formulation/project management • Re-organization of administrative structure & procedures • Evaluation of results • People’s participation in development efforts • Promoting growth of social & political infrastructure The above functions requires following on the part of public administrative personnel: – Competence – Dynamic leadership – Incorruptible work force – Action orientation – Goal orientation – Change orientation
  • 8. Problems of Development Administration • Colonial past (Centralized/ authoritarian administrative system • The elitism • Rules, regulations & forms takes precedence over substance • Non- indigenous • Undue concentration of authority
  • 9. Problems of Development Administration • Limited delegation of authority • Lengthy administrative procedures • Lack of administrative leaders • Shortage of technocrats • Lack of commitment to development plans • Lack of core competencies / skills • Old Customs
  • 10. Problems of Development Administration • Insensitivity to people needs & oppressed sections of the society • Systemic & endemic corruption (institutionalized) • Lack of political will to support needed development plans/projects • Primodial attitudes • Lack of Attitudinal change • Lack of participatory spirit
  • 11. Problems of Development Administration • Alienation at grass root level • Poor direction / coordination & relationship between generalist & specialist • Poor organization of Public enterprises • Govt. departments, boards, regulatory agencies & financial institutions • Insufficient finances & material resources
  • 12. Solutions to the Problems of Development Administration • De-emphasis of hierarchy in the conventional pyramidal organization • Redesigned to enable cooperative decision making & promoting collaborative problem solving • Decentralization of authority – Enabling field units to make decisions on the spot – Free flow of reliable information in the organization for speedy & effective decision making – Recruitment , promotion, evaluation of public servants based on merit. – Traditional administration converted into modern administration through training/capacity building – Continuous man power planning – Emphasizing professional & technical personnel
  • 13. Solutions to the Problems of Development Administration – Flexibility & adaptability to quickly meet changes – Modern management techniques such as cost benefit analysis – Supremacy of the politician must be accepted & bureaucracy must work alongside as a co-partner of development – Administrative power should be under the direction & control of political authority – Bureaucracy must secure the cooperation an d participation of citizen in development
  • 14. Solutions to the Problems of Development Administration – Self help programs be encouraged – Popular participation in development is a resource – Work ethic – Vigorous & impartial collection of revenues – Avoiding wasteful expenditures
  • 15. F. W. Riggs / Widener views on Development Administration • Concept of development Administration by Riggs – Prismatic-sala model – Heterogeneity – Formulism – Overlapping • Widener’s idea on development administration – Nation Building – Socio-economic change – Modernization – System change & development – Development administration & result specific – Environmental factors – Political factors – Developmental & administration & bureaucracy
  • 16. Widener’s Development Administration Models • Ideal Model (Planned directional growth with system change) • Short-run payoff (planned directional growth with no system change) • Long run payoff (planned system change with no directional growth) • Failure Model (Planning with no growth & no system change) • Environmental stimuleous model (unplanned directional growth with system change) • Pragmatism Model (unplanned directional growth with no system change) • Crises Model (unplanned system change with no directional change) • Static Model (No plans – No Change)
  • 17. Approaches of Development Administration • Elitist (Ethnocentric approach) • Economic approach • Diffusion approach • Psychological approach • Dependency approach (theory) • Pluralistic approach • Less-western approach (indigenous approach)
  • 18. Conventional Public Administration Vs Developmental Administration. No Conventional Administration Developmental Administration 1 Administration Oriented Structure/action oriented. 2 Status quo oriented resists organizational changes Change Orientation & carrier of innovation 3 Oriented towards efficiency & economy Inclined towards program achievements & effectiveness 4 Regulatory Client centered – 5 Rigid Flexible & Dynamic 6 Centralized decision making Encourages participative decision making 7 People have no right in administration except the right of appeal & petition Gives position to representative of people in administrative process of making & implementing decisions
  • 19. No Conventional Administration Developmental Administration 8 No temporal dimensions Time oriented 9 It relies on status leadership It requires functional leadership 10 Problem solving Concerned with problem finding 11 Emphasizes centralized administration & unresponsive to the needs of the people Decentralized system & responsive to the people needs 12 It deals with routine operation, which are predictable It is concerned with new tasks & problems which at times are unpredictable Conventional Public Administration Vs Developmental Administration.
  • 21. Nature of Development Administration • By product of comparative study of Public Ad. • More relevant to the developing countries • Rooted in the field rather than headquarters • Emphasized decentralization of authority • Enables field units to take decision on the spot • Participative, responsive & accountable management • Ecological in nature • Closely linked with politics
  • 22. Scope of Development Public Ad • Extension & Community services • Program Planning • Project Management • Area Development • Urban Development • Personnel development & Administration
  • 23. Characteristics of Development Administration • Goal orientation • Change Orientation • Result Orientation • Time Orientation • Client Orientation • Commitment • Innovation • People’s participation