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International Relations
By
Zahid Mehmood Zahid
https://www.facebook.com/groups/144123599
347978/
National Officers Academy (NOA), Islamabad.
Recommended Books
1 Books (Part I, II) available at NOA Book Store
2 “Globalization of World Politics: An introduction to
international relations”
4th edi. by John Baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owens
3 “International Relations”
10th edi. by Joshua S. Goldstein and Jon C. Pevehouse
Introduction
• The definition and Scope of IR
• The Nation State System
• Evolution of International society
IR - a World of Possibilities;
Pak-Soviet relations, Pak- Russia relations today.
Pak-US relations, Pak-US relations today.
Turkey’s relations with Russia, Turkey’s relations today.
Saudi relations with Israel, relations today.
South-North Korean relations, and the recent thaw.
IR analysis necessitates IR sense
Think in terms of IR, and always use the language and
principles IR deals in.
IR is more foreign policy oriented and less focuses on
domestic politics.
IR has less regards for ‘Religious morality’.
IR operates through levels.
Individual: Charismatic Leader, Poor Decision Maker,
Greedy Leader, aggressive, timid Leader
Domestic: Democracy, Dictatorship, Elections, Autonomy
International: Wars, Diplomacy, Alliances, Trade
agreements
History of IR and what is it all about…?
IR is relatively a new field of study established in the after
math of WWI.
IR became an academic discipline in 1919 when university
of Aberystwyth (UK) established IR department.
IR is the branch of Political Science & It provides methods
and Frameworks of understanding the world.
IR Defined:
 “Official relations among states”,
Jeremy Bentham
 “IR encompasses relations among states, International
organizations and groups. It includes variety of
international relationships at different levels, above and
below the state level in the international system”
Palmer and Perkins
Ingredients of IR
Political and social issues.
Economics.
International Organizations, World Bank, IMF, WTO, BRICS,
ASEAN)
National power & National Interest, Alliances.
War and Diplomacy,
Nuclear Proliferation & Weapons,
Foreign policies,
and many more.
Scope of IR
Few Scholars say, scope covers govt to govt relations -
dealing with war and peace. (limited definition)
Other scholars believe IR covers political, economic and
social relations through institutions like UNO, SCO, ASEAN,
ECO, EU etc. (comprehensive definition)
Scope – the fields IR deals with;
Politics, economics, Law, history, diplomacy, security,
globalization, nuclear proliferation, terrorism, environment,
and human rights etc.
Why study IR?
First, It expands your understanding beyond domestic
horizon.
Secondly, very few other subjects cover such a broad range
of topics.
Think Critically …!
Why do we identify ourselves as Pakistanis, Indians,
Iranians, Chinese, Canadians, and Russians?
What is sovereignty?
Are all states equal?
If Yes, Why do countries like US and Russia interfere into
other countries of the world?
Evolution of Nation State System
Nation
 “A large body of people united by common history, culture,
identity, and language, inhabiting a particular state or territory”.
Nation State
 A nation state has defined territory with a sovereign
government, with population sharing a common culture,
history, and language.
Nation State System
“A pattern of political life in which people are separately
organized into sovereign states and interact with one another”.
Modern Nation State System.
The nation-state is a recent phenomenon.
Where state is supposed to protect its citizens from all
types of threats.
For that purpose nation States use methods like
diplomacy and wars.
Where has this concept come from?
Rise of Nation State System
Prior to the 1500s, nation-states did not exist in Europe.
People used to identify themselves with their region or
feudal lord.
Feudalism was not only an economic system but also was
a political system.
Crusade wars and decline of Feudalism
After Crusades wars European soldiers returned home with
tales of the wealthy Muslims.
They started demanding independence from local lords.
Rise of the Modern Nation-State System
During 16th and 17th centuries Holy Catholic Church was
ruling the West.
But, few kings wanted to have control over religious affairs
to get absolute power.
In England, Henry VIII broke away from the Pope and
established an independent Protestant church in the
1530s.
‘Thirty Year War’ 1618-1648
The war involved almost entire Europe, including Germany,
Austria, Sweden, France, and Spain.
Protestants defeated Catholics.
Treaty of Westphalia 1648 ended the war.
Treaty of Westphalia established that;
“sovereign ruler of a state will control nation, state, and
religion.”
Resultantly, England, France, Germany, and Spain became
nation states.
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Treaty was meant to settle conflicts, especially conflicts over
religion.
Pope regarded this treaty as ‘null’ and ‘Sin’.
Over the course of time, State system brought democracy,
int. Law, diplomacy, and mutual trade etc.
Principles of Westphalian Treaty
Sovereignty,
Legal Equality of states,
Non-intervention
The UN Charter
Chapter 1: Purposes and principles
Article: 2 (1) The organization is based on the principle of
the sovereign equality of all its member states.
Article: 2 (4) All members shall refrain in their relations
from the threat or use of force against the territorial
integrity or political independence of any state …...
Outcomes of Treaty
1- Religion; Treaty Favoured secularism and made religion
private affair of the individual.
Reformation movement had begun in 1517-1648 against
unbiblical practices of Catholic Church.
2- Nationalism
In the absence of religion Nationalism became the new
religion for Europe.
Significance of Nation State System
Each state can decide the best for its people with out
external pressures.
Other states, no matter how powerful, do not have the
right to intervene into other sovereign countries.
The principle of autonomy does not allow exploitation of
the weaker state by powerful states.
Challenges to the state system
Global Terrorism (Al-Qaeda, ISIS)
Globalization (WTO, IMF, World Bank, MNCs)
Regionalism (EU, ASEAN)
Humanitarian intervention (Libya)
Questions to attempt;
Explain significance and scope of IR in a changing world.
What are the salient features of modern nation state
system?
Discuss why has nation state been such a successful
political unit? Analyse how far future of the state will be
affected by an interdependent world?
How do you see the role of nation state in the future,
given that that globalization and MNCs are undermining
state authority?

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Approaches and historical analysis of IR.pptx

  • 1. International Relations By Zahid Mehmood Zahid https://www.facebook.com/groups/144123599 347978/ National Officers Academy (NOA), Islamabad.
  • 2. Recommended Books 1 Books (Part I, II) available at NOA Book Store 2 “Globalization of World Politics: An introduction to international relations” 4th edi. by John Baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owens 3 “International Relations” 10th edi. by Joshua S. Goldstein and Jon C. Pevehouse
  • 3. Introduction • The definition and Scope of IR • The Nation State System • Evolution of International society
  • 4. IR - a World of Possibilities; Pak-Soviet relations, Pak- Russia relations today. Pak-US relations, Pak-US relations today. Turkey’s relations with Russia, Turkey’s relations today. Saudi relations with Israel, relations today. South-North Korean relations, and the recent thaw.
  • 5. IR analysis necessitates IR sense Think in terms of IR, and always use the language and principles IR deals in. IR is more foreign policy oriented and less focuses on domestic politics. IR has less regards for ‘Religious morality’.
  • 6. IR operates through levels. Individual: Charismatic Leader, Poor Decision Maker, Greedy Leader, aggressive, timid Leader Domestic: Democracy, Dictatorship, Elections, Autonomy International: Wars, Diplomacy, Alliances, Trade agreements
  • 7. History of IR and what is it all about…? IR is relatively a new field of study established in the after math of WWI. IR became an academic discipline in 1919 when university of Aberystwyth (UK) established IR department. IR is the branch of Political Science & It provides methods and Frameworks of understanding the world.
  • 8. IR Defined:  “Official relations among states”, Jeremy Bentham  “IR encompasses relations among states, International organizations and groups. It includes variety of international relationships at different levels, above and below the state level in the international system” Palmer and Perkins
  • 9. Ingredients of IR Political and social issues. Economics. International Organizations, World Bank, IMF, WTO, BRICS, ASEAN) National power & National Interest, Alliances. War and Diplomacy, Nuclear Proliferation & Weapons, Foreign policies, and many more.
  • 10. Scope of IR Few Scholars say, scope covers govt to govt relations - dealing with war and peace. (limited definition) Other scholars believe IR covers political, economic and social relations through institutions like UNO, SCO, ASEAN, ECO, EU etc. (comprehensive definition)
  • 11. Scope – the fields IR deals with; Politics, economics, Law, history, diplomacy, security, globalization, nuclear proliferation, terrorism, environment, and human rights etc. Why study IR? First, It expands your understanding beyond domestic horizon. Secondly, very few other subjects cover such a broad range of topics.
  • 12. Think Critically …! Why do we identify ourselves as Pakistanis, Indians, Iranians, Chinese, Canadians, and Russians? What is sovereignty? Are all states equal? If Yes, Why do countries like US and Russia interfere into other countries of the world?
  • 13. Evolution of Nation State System Nation  “A large body of people united by common history, culture, identity, and language, inhabiting a particular state or territory”. Nation State  A nation state has defined territory with a sovereign government, with population sharing a common culture, history, and language.
  • 14. Nation State System “A pattern of political life in which people are separately organized into sovereign states and interact with one another”.
  • 15. Modern Nation State System. The nation-state is a recent phenomenon. Where state is supposed to protect its citizens from all types of threats. For that purpose nation States use methods like diplomacy and wars.
  • 16. Where has this concept come from?
  • 17. Rise of Nation State System Prior to the 1500s, nation-states did not exist in Europe. People used to identify themselves with their region or feudal lord. Feudalism was not only an economic system but also was a political system.
  • 18. Crusade wars and decline of Feudalism After Crusades wars European soldiers returned home with tales of the wealthy Muslims. They started demanding independence from local lords.
  • 19. Rise of the Modern Nation-State System During 16th and 17th centuries Holy Catholic Church was ruling the West. But, few kings wanted to have control over religious affairs to get absolute power. In England, Henry VIII broke away from the Pope and established an independent Protestant church in the 1530s.
  • 20. ‘Thirty Year War’ 1618-1648 The war involved almost entire Europe, including Germany, Austria, Sweden, France, and Spain. Protestants defeated Catholics. Treaty of Westphalia 1648 ended the war.
  • 21. Treaty of Westphalia established that; “sovereign ruler of a state will control nation, state, and religion.” Resultantly, England, France, Germany, and Spain became nation states.
  • 22. Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Treaty was meant to settle conflicts, especially conflicts over religion. Pope regarded this treaty as ‘null’ and ‘Sin’. Over the course of time, State system brought democracy, int. Law, diplomacy, and mutual trade etc.
  • 23. Principles of Westphalian Treaty Sovereignty, Legal Equality of states, Non-intervention
  • 24. The UN Charter Chapter 1: Purposes and principles Article: 2 (1) The organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its member states. Article: 2 (4) All members shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state …...
  • 25. Outcomes of Treaty 1- Religion; Treaty Favoured secularism and made religion private affair of the individual. Reformation movement had begun in 1517-1648 against unbiblical practices of Catholic Church. 2- Nationalism In the absence of religion Nationalism became the new religion for Europe.
  • 26. Significance of Nation State System Each state can decide the best for its people with out external pressures. Other states, no matter how powerful, do not have the right to intervene into other sovereign countries. The principle of autonomy does not allow exploitation of the weaker state by powerful states.
  • 27. Challenges to the state system Global Terrorism (Al-Qaeda, ISIS) Globalization (WTO, IMF, World Bank, MNCs) Regionalism (EU, ASEAN) Humanitarian intervention (Libya)
  • 28. Questions to attempt; Explain significance and scope of IR in a changing world. What are the salient features of modern nation state system? Discuss why has nation state been such a successful political unit? Analyse how far future of the state will be affected by an interdependent world? How do you see the role of nation state in the future, given that that globalization and MNCs are undermining state authority?

Editor's Notes

  1. Territory 1 No state has ever been established in the vacuum. 2 No state can survive or thrive without territory, e.g. Jews prior to the state of Israel, Kurds (stateless nation) Population State is for human beings Government legislature, executive, judiciary Sovereignty (internal. External)