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Geo-Strategic Importance of Pakistan:
Regional and Global Dimensions
1-CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING
Geostrategic Importance:
“Geostrategic means the importance of a country or a region as
by virtue of its geographical location.”
The geographical significance of a country plays a pivotal role
in the world politics for that country. It marks that how
critically beneficial is the country to the other countries in
social, economic and political respects.
2-INTRODUCTION
Pakistan is located at a region which has great political, economic and strategic
location. It has been hub of activities of great powers for the hundreds of years. It has
witnessed intervention of three great powers i.e Britain, USSR, and USA:
Before Partition:
i) On 31 December 1600, a group of merchants who had incorporated themselves
into the East India Company were given monopoly privileges on all trade with the
East Indies. The Company's ships first arrived in India, at the port of Surat, in 1608.
After Partition:
ii) Its significance was further enhanced during cold war when it becomes ally of
US
policy of containment of USSR when USSR attacked Afghanistan in 1979.
iii) The post-cold war era has witnessed its significance particularly after the events
of 9/11 and US allied forces stepped in Pakistan, i.e. Shamsi Air Base
(Surat, previously known as Suryapur, is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the
administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 km south of the state
Geo-Strategic Importance of Pakistan:
Regional and Global Dimensions
3-GEOGRAPHICALLY LOCATION OF PAKISTAN WITH-RESPECT
TO NEIGHBORS
i) Towards north is China. It shares 400 km long boarder with china.
ii) Towards north Tajikistan though no boarder but a narrow strip as Wahkhan
strip separate the two.
iii) Towards east, Punjab-Rajasthan boarders which is 1650 km long
iv) Towards west, Afghanistan and Durand line of 2250 km.
v) Towards south, Arabian and Indian sea. Coastal belt is about 700 km.
vi) Pakistan’s significance is enhanced as it lies near the Persian Gulf where 65%
of the world’s oil is produced
4- STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE
a) Proximity of great powers
b) Pivotal Role in Oil and Energy World Game:
c) Significance as a Transit economy
d) Important link in the chain of Muslim countries
e) Only Muslim country with nuclear capability
f) Natural Resources
g) Importance of Gwader Port
h) War against Terrorism
a) Proximity of great powers:
Pakistan is located at the junction of great powers. In its neighbor’s one world
power Russia and the other emerging power china lies. Any alliance among
world powers enhances its significance. This factor has been utilized by Pakistan
after 9/11. Security and business are two main US concerns in the region while
Pakistan is playing a front line role in the war against terrorism. Consequently, US
interests in the region are to contain the growing china, nuclear Iran, terrorist
Afghanistan and to benefit from the market of India. Today the political
scenario of the region is shaded by US invasion of Afghanistan. Further, the core
issues of this region where Pakistan is located are Iran’s nuclear program,
India’s geopolitical muscles (new strategic deal with US) to gain hegemony and
to counter the rise of china; which has earned all the qualities to change unipolar
world into bipolar world. In all these issues, Pakistan is directly or indirectly
involved especially after al-Qeada operations. The American think tank has
repeatedly accepted that war against terrorism could never be won without the
help of Pakistan. Pakistan has rigorously fought and an ongoing operation in
Waziristan is also targeting the suspected Taliban in the bordering area.
b) Pivotal Role in Oil and Energy World Game:
 Central Asia is the center stage of new Great games. Quest for resources (oil and energy
resources) holds the central point in the policies of great powers towards the central Asia.
After USSR decline, new quest started which is manifested in the politics of great powers
towards acquiring oil and gas. Central Asian states are Muslim states and Pakistan is the
most suitable country for these states which can offer them sea routs for trade.
 Further, Pakistan is located very close to the oil rich Middle Eastern countries. The belt
starts from Iran and is extended to the southern tip of Arabian Peninsula with Saudi
Arabia as the chief exporter of the oil in the world. Thus, Pakistan can play an influential
role in the shipment of oil.
 Iran is struggling to export its surplus gas and oil to eastern countries. Qatar, Pakistan
and Turkmenistan pipeline projects also highlight the country’s pivotal position. In the
energy scarce world, Pakistan is located in the hub of energy rich countries i-e Iran and
Afghanistan: both are energy abundant while India and china are lacking. Geostrategic
significance of the country increases manifolds while under the fact that China finds
short way to Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea through Karakoram highway.
c) Significance as a Transit economy:
Pakistan has the potential to develop transit economy on account of its strategic
location. Land locked Afghanistan now is at the phase of reconstruction. It is
linked to outside world mainly through Pakistan. China with its fastest economy
growth rate of 9% (now slowed down to 7.3% yet still appreciably significant) is
developing southern provinces because its own part is 4500 km away from
Sinkiang but Gwader is 2500 km away. Moreover, Pakistan offers Central Asian
regions the shortest route of 2600 km as compared to Iran 4500 km or Turkey
5000 km. Gwader port with its deep waters attracts the trade ships from China,
CAR and South East Asian countries, also the coastal belt of Baluchistan can
provide outlet to china’s western provinces to have access to middles eastern
markets with the development of coastal highways and motorways.
Transport economics is a branch of economics founded in 1959 by American
economist John R. Meyer that deals with the allocation of resources within
the transport sector. It has strong links to civil engineering.
d) Important link in the chain of Muslim countries:
 If we look at the map of Muslim countries, Pakistan
occupies a central location. Towards west of Iran, china
extends to North Africa. Thus it can actively participate in
the activities of Muslim world-economic development,
transport of resources and above all combat terrorism.
e) Only Muslim country with nuclear capability:
 In the region Pakistan is the only Muslim country having
nuclear capability which has great influence on the
political, socio-economic activities in the region and the
maintenance of status-quo in the region.
f) Natural Resources:
It is believed that they most vital factor which can be
helpful for any country is the natural resources. And
Pakistan is a world’s populous country due to its natural
resources. Pakistan has the world’s fifth largest gold
mine in Baluchistan, world’s second largest salt mine in
Punjab and world’s sixth coal mine also in Punjab.
Pakistan has three of the biggest mountains of the
world. It is said that these mountain ranges serve us safe
from Siberia winds. The huge glaciers supply water in
the rivers. Our huge market makes it an avid hub for
export of the commodities by our neighbors.
g) Importance of Gwader Port:
 History shows that Russia had exhibited its curiosity to attain ‘warm water’
seaport and to counter the growing supremacy of us in the region and on the
globe as well. They wanted to have a port which will help them directly counter
the intrusion of any state to capture or create threat to Russia. For this the two
main parts of this South Asian region, the Gwader port and the Chahbahar port
of Iran were the vital ones. Being the 3rd largest country by area on the globe
and 2nd in Asia, China does not have any hot water port which it can use for its
trade throughout the year to multiply its economy. For this China is looking
very keenly to operationalize the Gwader port to full extent which will help in
its trade and economy throughout the year.
 Caribbean contains warm water: The water is very clear therefore visibility is
obvious. Channel Islands and California contain semi-warm water: The water is
clear, but not as clear as in the Caribbean. On the contrary side, Puget Sound
and Strait of Georgia contain Cold water therefore visibility is very limited. In
trade visibility has great importance.
 Gwadar Port is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated on the Arabian Sea
at Gwadar in Balochistan province of Pakistan. The port is a major destination
in the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor.
h) War against Terrorism:
 The world is facing a huge problem of terrorism. Pakistan is a route for
transportation and a front line state against terrorism. Afghanistan
which is now the focus of world’s attention is generally regarded as the
breeding ground of all the international terrorism. Now, the US and
NATO troops fighting in Afghanistan are well aware that they are
heavily dependent on Pakistan for winning war in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan has other neighbors also such as Iran, Turkmenistan and
Tajikistan, but Pakistan provides the easiest route for the provision of
NATO Supplies to the forces in Afghanistan. The American think tank
has repeatedly accepted that war against terrorism could never be won
without the help of Pakistan. Pakistan has rigorously fought and an
ongoing operation in Waziristan is also targeting the suspected Taliban
in the bordering area.
 An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to
fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949.
5-ANALYSIS
Pakistan is a junction of south Asia, west Asia and central Asia; a way
from resource efficient countries to resource deficient countries. The
world is facing energy crises and terrorism. Pakistan is a route for
transportation and a front line state against terrorism. Moreover
Pakistan has been traditionally ally of emerging economic giant; china.
So in the vague of any change in world politics, Pakistan’s geo-
strategic significance would further be enhanced.
“While history has been unkind to Pakistan, its geography has been its greatest benefit. It
has resources rich area in the northwest, people rich in the North East.”
By Stephen Cohn
 Pakistan offers huge potential and opportunities for trade and
investment to both foreign investors and the local economy.
 Pakistan is ranked number one in the World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing
Business Index.’ in Asia
 Pakistan is world’s 2nd largest producer of water, buffalo meat and milk
 Pakistan is world’s 3rd largest producer of cotton
 Pakistan is the 4th largest goat meat supplier
 Pakistan has 5th largest Coal and Gold reserves
 Pakistan is the 7th largest wheat grower
South Asian, West Asian, Central Asian Countries
South Asia: The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), a contiguous block
of countries, started in 1985 with seven countries — Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the
Maldives,Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka — but was extended to include Afghanistan as an
eighth member in 2006.
West Asia : Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lebanon, Syria, Qatar, Kuwait, Jordan,
Iraq, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Oman, and Yemen as part of West Asia
Central Asia:
1. Kazakhstan
2. Kyrgyzstan
3. Tajikistan
4. Turkmenistan
5. Uzbekistan
Balkan States
The countries in the Balkan Peninsula: Croatia, Bosnia a
nd Herzegovina,Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo,
Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria,Albania, Greece, and the
European part of Turkey.
Southeast Asian
 Indonesia
 Thailand
 Malaysia
 Singapore
 Philippines
 Vietnam
 Burma
 Brunei
 Cambodia
 Laos
 Timor

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Geostrategic significance of South Asian countries.ppt

  • 1. Geo-Strategic Importance of Pakistan: Regional and Global Dimensions
  • 2. 1-CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING Geostrategic Importance: “Geostrategic means the importance of a country or a region as by virtue of its geographical location.” The geographical significance of a country plays a pivotal role in the world politics for that country. It marks that how critically beneficial is the country to the other countries in social, economic and political respects.
  • 3. 2-INTRODUCTION Pakistan is located at a region which has great political, economic and strategic location. It has been hub of activities of great powers for the hundreds of years. It has witnessed intervention of three great powers i.e Britain, USSR, and USA: Before Partition: i) On 31 December 1600, a group of merchants who had incorporated themselves into the East India Company were given monopoly privileges on all trade with the East Indies. The Company's ships first arrived in India, at the port of Surat, in 1608. After Partition: ii) Its significance was further enhanced during cold war when it becomes ally of US policy of containment of USSR when USSR attacked Afghanistan in 1979. iii) The post-cold war era has witnessed its significance particularly after the events of 9/11 and US allied forces stepped in Pakistan, i.e. Shamsi Air Base (Surat, previously known as Suryapur, is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 km south of the state
  • 4. Geo-Strategic Importance of Pakistan: Regional and Global Dimensions
  • 5. 3-GEOGRAPHICALLY LOCATION OF PAKISTAN WITH-RESPECT TO NEIGHBORS i) Towards north is China. It shares 400 km long boarder with china. ii) Towards north Tajikistan though no boarder but a narrow strip as Wahkhan strip separate the two. iii) Towards east, Punjab-Rajasthan boarders which is 1650 km long iv) Towards west, Afghanistan and Durand line of 2250 km. v) Towards south, Arabian and Indian sea. Coastal belt is about 700 km. vi) Pakistan’s significance is enhanced as it lies near the Persian Gulf where 65% of the world’s oil is produced
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. 4- STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE a) Proximity of great powers b) Pivotal Role in Oil and Energy World Game: c) Significance as a Transit economy d) Important link in the chain of Muslim countries e) Only Muslim country with nuclear capability f) Natural Resources g) Importance of Gwader Port h) War against Terrorism
  • 9. a) Proximity of great powers: Pakistan is located at the junction of great powers. In its neighbor’s one world power Russia and the other emerging power china lies. Any alliance among world powers enhances its significance. This factor has been utilized by Pakistan after 9/11. Security and business are two main US concerns in the region while Pakistan is playing a front line role in the war against terrorism. Consequently, US interests in the region are to contain the growing china, nuclear Iran, terrorist Afghanistan and to benefit from the market of India. Today the political scenario of the region is shaded by US invasion of Afghanistan. Further, the core issues of this region where Pakistan is located are Iran’s nuclear program, India’s geopolitical muscles (new strategic deal with US) to gain hegemony and to counter the rise of china; which has earned all the qualities to change unipolar world into bipolar world. In all these issues, Pakistan is directly or indirectly involved especially after al-Qeada operations. The American think tank has repeatedly accepted that war against terrorism could never be won without the help of Pakistan. Pakistan has rigorously fought and an ongoing operation in Waziristan is also targeting the suspected Taliban in the bordering area.
  • 10. b) Pivotal Role in Oil and Energy World Game:  Central Asia is the center stage of new Great games. Quest for resources (oil and energy resources) holds the central point in the policies of great powers towards the central Asia. After USSR decline, new quest started which is manifested in the politics of great powers towards acquiring oil and gas. Central Asian states are Muslim states and Pakistan is the most suitable country for these states which can offer them sea routs for trade.  Further, Pakistan is located very close to the oil rich Middle Eastern countries. The belt starts from Iran and is extended to the southern tip of Arabian Peninsula with Saudi Arabia as the chief exporter of the oil in the world. Thus, Pakistan can play an influential role in the shipment of oil.  Iran is struggling to export its surplus gas and oil to eastern countries. Qatar, Pakistan and Turkmenistan pipeline projects also highlight the country’s pivotal position. In the energy scarce world, Pakistan is located in the hub of energy rich countries i-e Iran and Afghanistan: both are energy abundant while India and china are lacking. Geostrategic significance of the country increases manifolds while under the fact that China finds short way to Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea through Karakoram highway.
  • 11. c) Significance as a Transit economy: Pakistan has the potential to develop transit economy on account of its strategic location. Land locked Afghanistan now is at the phase of reconstruction. It is linked to outside world mainly through Pakistan. China with its fastest economy growth rate of 9% (now slowed down to 7.3% yet still appreciably significant) is developing southern provinces because its own part is 4500 km away from Sinkiang but Gwader is 2500 km away. Moreover, Pakistan offers Central Asian regions the shortest route of 2600 km as compared to Iran 4500 km or Turkey 5000 km. Gwader port with its deep waters attracts the trade ships from China, CAR and South East Asian countries, also the coastal belt of Baluchistan can provide outlet to china’s western provinces to have access to middles eastern markets with the development of coastal highways and motorways. Transport economics is a branch of economics founded in 1959 by American economist John R. Meyer that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector. It has strong links to civil engineering.
  • 12. d) Important link in the chain of Muslim countries:  If we look at the map of Muslim countries, Pakistan occupies a central location. Towards west of Iran, china extends to North Africa. Thus it can actively participate in the activities of Muslim world-economic development, transport of resources and above all combat terrorism. e) Only Muslim country with nuclear capability:  In the region Pakistan is the only Muslim country having nuclear capability which has great influence on the political, socio-economic activities in the region and the maintenance of status-quo in the region.
  • 13. f) Natural Resources: It is believed that they most vital factor which can be helpful for any country is the natural resources. And Pakistan is a world’s populous country due to its natural resources. Pakistan has the world’s fifth largest gold mine in Baluchistan, world’s second largest salt mine in Punjab and world’s sixth coal mine also in Punjab. Pakistan has three of the biggest mountains of the world. It is said that these mountain ranges serve us safe from Siberia winds. The huge glaciers supply water in the rivers. Our huge market makes it an avid hub for export of the commodities by our neighbors.
  • 14. g) Importance of Gwader Port:  History shows that Russia had exhibited its curiosity to attain ‘warm water’ seaport and to counter the growing supremacy of us in the region and on the globe as well. They wanted to have a port which will help them directly counter the intrusion of any state to capture or create threat to Russia. For this the two main parts of this South Asian region, the Gwader port and the Chahbahar port of Iran were the vital ones. Being the 3rd largest country by area on the globe and 2nd in Asia, China does not have any hot water port which it can use for its trade throughout the year to multiply its economy. For this China is looking very keenly to operationalize the Gwader port to full extent which will help in its trade and economy throughout the year.  Caribbean contains warm water: The water is very clear therefore visibility is obvious. Channel Islands and California contain semi-warm water: The water is clear, but not as clear as in the Caribbean. On the contrary side, Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia contain Cold water therefore visibility is very limited. In trade visibility has great importance.  Gwadar Port is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated on the Arabian Sea at Gwadar in Balochistan province of Pakistan. The port is a major destination in the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor.
  • 15. h) War against Terrorism:  The world is facing a huge problem of terrorism. Pakistan is a route for transportation and a front line state against terrorism. Afghanistan which is now the focus of world’s attention is generally regarded as the breeding ground of all the international terrorism. Now, the US and NATO troops fighting in Afghanistan are well aware that they are heavily dependent on Pakistan for winning war in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has other neighbors also such as Iran, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan, but Pakistan provides the easiest route for the provision of NATO Supplies to the forces in Afghanistan. The American think tank has repeatedly accepted that war against terrorism could never be won without the help of Pakistan. Pakistan has rigorously fought and an ongoing operation in Waziristan is also targeting the suspected Taliban in the bordering area.  An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949.
  • 16. 5-ANALYSIS Pakistan is a junction of south Asia, west Asia and central Asia; a way from resource efficient countries to resource deficient countries. The world is facing energy crises and terrorism. Pakistan is a route for transportation and a front line state against terrorism. Moreover Pakistan has been traditionally ally of emerging economic giant; china. So in the vague of any change in world politics, Pakistan’s geo- strategic significance would further be enhanced. “While history has been unkind to Pakistan, its geography has been its greatest benefit. It has resources rich area in the northwest, people rich in the North East.” By Stephen Cohn
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  • 18.  Pakistan offers huge potential and opportunities for trade and investment to both foreign investors and the local economy.  Pakistan is ranked number one in the World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business Index.’ in Asia  Pakistan is world’s 2nd largest producer of water, buffalo meat and milk  Pakistan is world’s 3rd largest producer of cotton  Pakistan is the 4th largest goat meat supplier  Pakistan has 5th largest Coal and Gold reserves  Pakistan is the 7th largest wheat grower
  • 19. South Asian, West Asian, Central Asian Countries South Asia: The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), a contiguous block of countries, started in 1985 with seven countries — Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives,Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka — but was extended to include Afghanistan as an eighth member in 2006. West Asia : Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lebanon, Syria, Qatar, Kuwait, Jordan, Iraq, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Oman, and Yemen as part of West Asia Central Asia: 1. Kazakhstan 2. Kyrgyzstan 3. Tajikistan 4. Turkmenistan 5. Uzbekistan
  • 20. Balkan States The countries in the Balkan Peninsula: Croatia, Bosnia a nd Herzegovina,Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria,Albania, Greece, and the European part of Turkey.
  • 21. Southeast Asian  Indonesia  Thailand  Malaysia  Singapore  Philippines  Vietnam  Burma  Brunei  Cambodia  Laos  Timor