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Environmental Studies
&
Disaster Management
Somanath Sarvade
Assistant Professor (Agroforestry)
College of Agriculture Balaghat
E-mail: somanath553@jnkvv.org
Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya,
Jabalpur
‘God sleeps in the minerals, awakens in plants, walks in
animals, and thinks in man’ - Arthur Young
Mine: an excavation made in the earth to extract minerals
Mining: the activity, occupation and industry concerned with the
extraction of minerals
Mining engineering: the practice of applying engineering principles
to the development, planning, operation, closure and reclamation of
mines
Mineral: a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound
having an orderly internal structure and a characteristic chemical
composition, crystal form and physical properties
Rock: any naturally formed aggregate of one or more types of
mineral particles
Mineral resources
Ore: a mineral deposit that has sufficient utility and value to be mined at a
profit.
Gangue: the valueless mineral particles within an ore deposit that must be
discarded.
Waste: the material associated with an ore deposit that must be mined to get
at the ore and must then be discarded. Gangue is a particular type of waste.
Metallic ores: those ores of the ferrous metals (iron, manganese,
molybdenum, and tungsten), the base metals (copper, lead, zinc, and tin), the
precious metals (gold, silver, the platinum group metals), and the radioactive
minerals (uranium, thorium, and radium).
Nonmetallic minerals (also known as industrial minerals): the nonfuel
mineral ores that are not associated with the production of metals. These
include phosphate, potash, halite, trona, sand, gravel, limestone, sulfur, and
many others.
Fossil fuels (also known as mineral fuels): the organic mineral substances
that can be utilized as fuels, such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, coalbed
methane, gilsonite, and tar sands.
• Minerals are essential for the formation and functioning of organisms, plant
animals and human beings.
• In the modern era, human life needs variety of minerals to sustain industry
based civilization.
• Mineral resources are broadly defined as elements, chemical compounds,
and mixtures which are extracted to manufacture sustainable commodity.
• India has rich mineral resource base to provide suitable base for industrial
development in the country.
• Sufficient reserve of nuclear energy minerals is available in India.
• India’s reserves, as well as production are adequate in petroleum, ores of
copper, lead, zinc, tin, graphite, mercury, tungsten, and in the minerals
required for fertilizer industry such as sulphur, potassium and phosphorus.
• Minerals are formed over a period of millions of years in the earth’s crust.
• These are nonrenewable resources important for modern civilization.
• India is endowed with significant mineral resources. India produces 89
minerals.
• The minerals of India are unevenly distributed and are localized in few
areas.
• More than 90% of our mineral wealth is concentrated in Chotta Nagpur
Plateau region (covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal and
Chhattisgarh).
• In India, 80% of mining is in coal and the balance 20% is in various metals
and other raw materials such as gold, copper.
Cont…
• India ranks 3rd in production of coal & lignite production. 11 the
in crude steel in the World.
• Over 1.1 million people are employed in the Indian mining
industry.
• With over 2,326 private and 292 public operating mines in the
country, minerals form 16 percent of India's exports.
• Minerals are obtained from the earth through the process of
mining.
• Mining operations progress through Five stage
Process of mining
Mining operations progress through five stages:
• Prospecting: Searching for minerals
• Exploration: assessing the size, shape, location, and economic
value of the deposit.
• Development: the work of preparing access to the deposit so that the
minerals can be extracted from it.
• Exploitation: Extracting the minerals from the mines.
• Reclamation: Restoration of site
Exploitation of Minerals
Depending on their use, mineral resources can be divided into several broad
categories such as elements for metal production and technology, building
materials, minerals for the chemical industry and minerals for agriculture.
When usually we think about mineral resources we often think of metals but
the predominant mineral resources are not metallic.
The picture of annual world consumption of some elements is as under:
• Sodium and iron are used at a rate of about 0.1 to 1.0 billion
metric tons per year.
• Nitrogen, Sulphur, potassium and calcium are primarily used as
fertilizers at a rate of about 10 to 100 million metric tons per year.
• Zinc, copper, aluminium and lead are used at a rate of about 3 to
10 million metric tons per year;
• Gold and silver are used at a rate of about 10 thousand metric
tons per year.
• Out of all the metallic minerals, iron consumption is 95% of the
metals consumed
Thus, with the exception of iron, the non-metallic minerals are consumed
at much greater rates than the elements used for their metallic properties.
Classification of minerals
Group Minerals
Metallic Minerals (Ferrous
Group)
Chromite, Iron, Manganese
Metallic Minerals (Non
Ferrous Group)
Antimony, Bauxite, Copper, Lead & Zinc, Platinum
group of metals
Precious & Semi precious
Minerals
Diamond, Emerald, Garnet, Gold, Ruby, Sapphire,
Silver
Strategic Minerals Cobalt, Molybdenum, Nickel, Rare Earth Elements, Tin,
Titanium, Tungsten, Vanadium
Fertilizer Minerals Phosphate(Apatite), Rock Phosphate, Potash, Pyrite,
Sulphur
Refractory Minerals Andalusite, Graphite, Kyanite, Magnesite, Sillimanite
Ceramic and Glass Mineral Wollastonite
Other Industrial Minerals Asbestos, Borax, Diatomite, Fluorite, Limestone, Marl,
Perlite, Rock Salt, Vermiculite, Zircon
Minor Minerals Ball Clay, Barytes, Bentonite, Calcite, Chalk, China
Clay, Corundum, Diaspore, Dolomite, Dunite, Feldspar,
Fire Clay, Fuller's Earth, Granite, Gypsum, Laterite,
Marble, Mica, Ochre, Pyrophyllite, Quartz & Silica
Sand, Quartzite, Talc/Steatite/Soapstone, Shale, Slate
Important minerals in the States of India
State Prominent Minerals
Andhra
Pradesh
Garnet, Barytes, Ball clay, China clay, Dolomite, Feldspar, Fireclay,
Iron, Quartzite, Manganese, Laterite, Mica, Ochre, Quartz/silica sand,
Talc/soapstone/ steatite, Vermiculite
Assam Petroleum & Natural Gas, Coal
Chhattisgarh Coal, Dolomite, Bauxite, Iron, Fireclay, Limestone, Quartzite,
Quartz/silica sand
Goa Iron, Bauxite
Gujarat Bauxite, Marl, Petroleum & Natural Gas, Chalk, Bentonite, China clay,
Dolomite, Lignite, Limestone, Laterite, Quartz/silica sand, Fireclay,
Manganese, Talc/soapstone/ steatite
Jharkhand Coal, Graphite, Bauxite, Iron, Copper, Kyanite, Dolomite, Manganese,
Talc/soapstone/ steatite
Karnataka Gold, Iron, Manganese, Limestone, Dolomite, Dunite, Magnesite,
Quartz/silica sand, Granite, Silver, China clay, Chromite, Copper,
Quartzite
State Prominent Minerals
Madhya
Pradesh
Diamond, Copper, Manganese, Rock phosphate, Limestone,
Diaspore, Laterite, Bauxite, Coal, Pyrophyllite, Dolomite, Iron, Ochre,
China clay
Maharashtra Fluorite, Kyanite, Bauxite, Manganese, Coal, Iron, Limestone, Quartz/
silica sand, Quartzite, Sillimanite, Dolomite
Odisha Chromite, Garnet, Bauxite, Manganese, Iron, Quartzite, Dolomite, Coal,
Pyrophyllite, Titanium Minerals, Dunite, Limestone, Quartz/ silica sand
Rajasthan Lead & zinc, Wollastonite, Silver, Copper, Limestone, Rock phosphate,
Talc/soapstone/ steatite, Gypsum, Ochre, Bentonite, Fuller's earth,
Feldspar, Calcite, Ball clay, China clay, Dolomite, Fireclay, Iron, Lignite,
Mica, Quartz/silica sand, Granite, Manganese
Tamil Nadu Vermiculite, Dunite, Fireclay, Graphite, Lignite, Limestone, Magnesite,
Quartz/silica sand, Titanium Minerals, Zircon, Sillimanite, Bauxite,
Feldspar
Telangana Coal, Manganese, Limestone, Barytes, Dolomite, Feldspar,
Quartz/silica sand, Laterite, Shale, China clay, Iron
Uttar Pradesh Diaspore, Pyrophyllite, Silica sand, Coal
Uses of minerals
• Iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese and copper are important raw
materials for industrial use.
• Important non-metallic resources include coal, salt, clay, cement and
silica.
• Stone used for building material, such as granite, marble, limestone,
constitute another category of minerals.
• Minerals with special properties such as diamonds, emeralds and
rubies are used for aesthetic and ornamental purpose.
• Minerals in the form of oil, gas, coal were formed when ancient plants
and animals were converted into underground fossil fuels.
Environmental effects
• The mining, processing, and use of resources
require enormous amounts of energy and often
cause land disturbance.
• Mineral industry is a major contributor to air and
water pollution and to emissions of greenhouse
gases.
• The grade of an ore – its percentage of metal
content – has an impact on metal mining; it takes
more money, energy and water to exploit lower
grade ores.
• Exploring the minerals involve geophysical
surveys, drilling and trenching lead to camp
garbage, road erosion, habitat disruption, and
noise pollution.
• Mining and milling operations lead to wildlife and fisheries habitat
loss, changes in local water balance, sedimentation, and heavy
metal leaching from acid mine drainage.
• Smelting and refining activities lead to sulphur dioxide emissions
contribute to acid rain.
• Even mine closure activities would be causing revegetation failure,
wind borne dust, seepage of toxic solutions into ground and surface
water contamination from acid mine drainage.
Roads and unlimited access to mines have a negative impact on
wilderness areas in 4 ways:
• Habitat fragmentations as roads disrupt movement and
migratory routes.
• Collisions between vehicles and wildlife occur. Roads allow
uncontrolled hunting and increased wildlife mortality
• Degradation and sedimentation of streams and river beds.
• Pollutants in pristine areas.
Reclamation
• Topographic Reconstruction
• Replacement of Topsoil and Soil Reconstruction
 Scrap the top soil prior to drilling and blasting
 Scrapped topsoil should be used immediately for plantation work;
otherwise it should be stacked in a designated area.
 Stacked topsoil should be surrounded by proper embankments to
prevent erosion.
 Stacked topsoil should be stabilized further by grasses and bush to
protect from the wind.
• Revegetation
 Planting pollutant tolerant species.
 Plants of fast growing with thick vegetation foliage
 Indigenous/exotic plants species with easy adaptability to the locality.
 Socio economic requirement of the people of the surrounding area.
Conservation of Minerals
Conservation of minerals can be done in number of ways and these are as
follows,
• Industries can reduce waste by using more efficient mining and
processing methods.
• In some cases, industries can substitute plentiful materials for scarce
ones.
• Some mineral products can be recycled. Aluminum cans are commonly
recycled. Although bauxite is plentiful, it can be expensive to refine.
Recycling aluminum products does not require the large amounts of
electric power needed to refine bauxite.
• Products made from many other minerals, such as nickel, chromium,
lead, copper, and zinc, can also be recycled.
• Strict laws should be made and enforced to ensure efficient management
of mining resources.
Case Study
• Aravalli mountains which covers about 10% of geographical area is rich
source of minerals wealth .This mountain range play important role in
control of climate and act as mini watershed. On the request of
environmentalist, Honorable Supreme Court has passed the order to stop
these mines in Rajasthan
• Marble mining near Rajsamant Lake has lead to drying up of lake. Marble
mining was stopped on December 2002.
• Recently, mining in Goa has attained the attention of the press and media
and ultimately government has to take the decision to stop this mining.
Thank You

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Lecture 3 1ppt Mineral Resources

  • 1. Environmental Studies & Disaster Management Somanath Sarvade Assistant Professor (Agroforestry) College of Agriculture Balaghat E-mail: somanath553@jnkvv.org Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Jabalpur
  • 2. ‘God sleeps in the minerals, awakens in plants, walks in animals, and thinks in man’ - Arthur Young
  • 3. Mine: an excavation made in the earth to extract minerals Mining: the activity, occupation and industry concerned with the extraction of minerals Mining engineering: the practice of applying engineering principles to the development, planning, operation, closure and reclamation of mines Mineral: a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and a characteristic chemical composition, crystal form and physical properties Rock: any naturally formed aggregate of one or more types of mineral particles Mineral resources
  • 4. Ore: a mineral deposit that has sufficient utility and value to be mined at a profit. Gangue: the valueless mineral particles within an ore deposit that must be discarded. Waste: the material associated with an ore deposit that must be mined to get at the ore and must then be discarded. Gangue is a particular type of waste. Metallic ores: those ores of the ferrous metals (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and tungsten), the base metals (copper, lead, zinc, and tin), the precious metals (gold, silver, the platinum group metals), and the radioactive minerals (uranium, thorium, and radium). Nonmetallic minerals (also known as industrial minerals): the nonfuel mineral ores that are not associated with the production of metals. These include phosphate, potash, halite, trona, sand, gravel, limestone, sulfur, and many others. Fossil fuels (also known as mineral fuels): the organic mineral substances that can be utilized as fuels, such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, coalbed methane, gilsonite, and tar sands.
  • 5. • Minerals are essential for the formation and functioning of organisms, plant animals and human beings. • In the modern era, human life needs variety of minerals to sustain industry based civilization. • Mineral resources are broadly defined as elements, chemical compounds, and mixtures which are extracted to manufacture sustainable commodity. • India has rich mineral resource base to provide suitable base for industrial development in the country. • Sufficient reserve of nuclear energy minerals is available in India. • India’s reserves, as well as production are adequate in petroleum, ores of copper, lead, zinc, tin, graphite, mercury, tungsten, and in the minerals required for fertilizer industry such as sulphur, potassium and phosphorus.
  • 6. • Minerals are formed over a period of millions of years in the earth’s crust. • These are nonrenewable resources important for modern civilization. • India is endowed with significant mineral resources. India produces 89 minerals. • The minerals of India are unevenly distributed and are localized in few areas. • More than 90% of our mineral wealth is concentrated in Chotta Nagpur Plateau region (covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh). • In India, 80% of mining is in coal and the balance 20% is in various metals and other raw materials such as gold, copper.
  • 7. Cont… • India ranks 3rd in production of coal & lignite production. 11 the in crude steel in the World. • Over 1.1 million people are employed in the Indian mining industry. • With over 2,326 private and 292 public operating mines in the country, minerals form 16 percent of India's exports. • Minerals are obtained from the earth through the process of mining. • Mining operations progress through Five stage
  • 8. Process of mining Mining operations progress through five stages: • Prospecting: Searching for minerals • Exploration: assessing the size, shape, location, and economic value of the deposit. • Development: the work of preparing access to the deposit so that the minerals can be extracted from it. • Exploitation: Extracting the minerals from the mines. • Reclamation: Restoration of site
  • 9. Exploitation of Minerals Depending on their use, mineral resources can be divided into several broad categories such as elements for metal production and technology, building materials, minerals for the chemical industry and minerals for agriculture. When usually we think about mineral resources we often think of metals but the predominant mineral resources are not metallic.
  • 10. The picture of annual world consumption of some elements is as under: • Sodium and iron are used at a rate of about 0.1 to 1.0 billion metric tons per year. • Nitrogen, Sulphur, potassium and calcium are primarily used as fertilizers at a rate of about 10 to 100 million metric tons per year. • Zinc, copper, aluminium and lead are used at a rate of about 3 to 10 million metric tons per year; • Gold and silver are used at a rate of about 10 thousand metric tons per year. • Out of all the metallic minerals, iron consumption is 95% of the metals consumed Thus, with the exception of iron, the non-metallic minerals are consumed at much greater rates than the elements used for their metallic properties.
  • 11. Classification of minerals Group Minerals Metallic Minerals (Ferrous Group) Chromite, Iron, Manganese Metallic Minerals (Non Ferrous Group) Antimony, Bauxite, Copper, Lead & Zinc, Platinum group of metals Precious & Semi precious Minerals Diamond, Emerald, Garnet, Gold, Ruby, Sapphire, Silver Strategic Minerals Cobalt, Molybdenum, Nickel, Rare Earth Elements, Tin, Titanium, Tungsten, Vanadium Fertilizer Minerals Phosphate(Apatite), Rock Phosphate, Potash, Pyrite, Sulphur Refractory Minerals Andalusite, Graphite, Kyanite, Magnesite, Sillimanite Ceramic and Glass Mineral Wollastonite Other Industrial Minerals Asbestos, Borax, Diatomite, Fluorite, Limestone, Marl, Perlite, Rock Salt, Vermiculite, Zircon Minor Minerals Ball Clay, Barytes, Bentonite, Calcite, Chalk, China Clay, Corundum, Diaspore, Dolomite, Dunite, Feldspar, Fire Clay, Fuller's Earth, Granite, Gypsum, Laterite, Marble, Mica, Ochre, Pyrophyllite, Quartz & Silica Sand, Quartzite, Talc/Steatite/Soapstone, Shale, Slate
  • 12. Important minerals in the States of India State Prominent Minerals Andhra Pradesh Garnet, Barytes, Ball clay, China clay, Dolomite, Feldspar, Fireclay, Iron, Quartzite, Manganese, Laterite, Mica, Ochre, Quartz/silica sand, Talc/soapstone/ steatite, Vermiculite Assam Petroleum & Natural Gas, Coal Chhattisgarh Coal, Dolomite, Bauxite, Iron, Fireclay, Limestone, Quartzite, Quartz/silica sand Goa Iron, Bauxite Gujarat Bauxite, Marl, Petroleum & Natural Gas, Chalk, Bentonite, China clay, Dolomite, Lignite, Limestone, Laterite, Quartz/silica sand, Fireclay, Manganese, Talc/soapstone/ steatite Jharkhand Coal, Graphite, Bauxite, Iron, Copper, Kyanite, Dolomite, Manganese, Talc/soapstone/ steatite Karnataka Gold, Iron, Manganese, Limestone, Dolomite, Dunite, Magnesite, Quartz/silica sand, Granite, Silver, China clay, Chromite, Copper, Quartzite
  • 13. State Prominent Minerals Madhya Pradesh Diamond, Copper, Manganese, Rock phosphate, Limestone, Diaspore, Laterite, Bauxite, Coal, Pyrophyllite, Dolomite, Iron, Ochre, China clay Maharashtra Fluorite, Kyanite, Bauxite, Manganese, Coal, Iron, Limestone, Quartz/ silica sand, Quartzite, Sillimanite, Dolomite Odisha Chromite, Garnet, Bauxite, Manganese, Iron, Quartzite, Dolomite, Coal, Pyrophyllite, Titanium Minerals, Dunite, Limestone, Quartz/ silica sand Rajasthan Lead & zinc, Wollastonite, Silver, Copper, Limestone, Rock phosphate, Talc/soapstone/ steatite, Gypsum, Ochre, Bentonite, Fuller's earth, Feldspar, Calcite, Ball clay, China clay, Dolomite, Fireclay, Iron, Lignite, Mica, Quartz/silica sand, Granite, Manganese Tamil Nadu Vermiculite, Dunite, Fireclay, Graphite, Lignite, Limestone, Magnesite, Quartz/silica sand, Titanium Minerals, Zircon, Sillimanite, Bauxite, Feldspar Telangana Coal, Manganese, Limestone, Barytes, Dolomite, Feldspar, Quartz/silica sand, Laterite, Shale, China clay, Iron Uttar Pradesh Diaspore, Pyrophyllite, Silica sand, Coal
  • 14. Uses of minerals • Iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese and copper are important raw materials for industrial use. • Important non-metallic resources include coal, salt, clay, cement and silica. • Stone used for building material, such as granite, marble, limestone, constitute another category of minerals. • Minerals with special properties such as diamonds, emeralds and rubies are used for aesthetic and ornamental purpose. • Minerals in the form of oil, gas, coal were formed when ancient plants and animals were converted into underground fossil fuels.
  • 15. Environmental effects • The mining, processing, and use of resources require enormous amounts of energy and often cause land disturbance. • Mineral industry is a major contributor to air and water pollution and to emissions of greenhouse gases. • The grade of an ore – its percentage of metal content – has an impact on metal mining; it takes more money, energy and water to exploit lower grade ores. • Exploring the minerals involve geophysical surveys, drilling and trenching lead to camp garbage, road erosion, habitat disruption, and noise pollution.
  • 16. • Mining and milling operations lead to wildlife and fisheries habitat loss, changes in local water balance, sedimentation, and heavy metal leaching from acid mine drainage. • Smelting and refining activities lead to sulphur dioxide emissions contribute to acid rain. • Even mine closure activities would be causing revegetation failure, wind borne dust, seepage of toxic solutions into ground and surface water contamination from acid mine drainage.
  • 17. Roads and unlimited access to mines have a negative impact on wilderness areas in 4 ways: • Habitat fragmentations as roads disrupt movement and migratory routes. • Collisions between vehicles and wildlife occur. Roads allow uncontrolled hunting and increased wildlife mortality • Degradation and sedimentation of streams and river beds. • Pollutants in pristine areas.
  • 18. Reclamation • Topographic Reconstruction • Replacement of Topsoil and Soil Reconstruction  Scrap the top soil prior to drilling and blasting  Scrapped topsoil should be used immediately for plantation work; otherwise it should be stacked in a designated area.  Stacked topsoil should be surrounded by proper embankments to prevent erosion.  Stacked topsoil should be stabilized further by grasses and bush to protect from the wind. • Revegetation  Planting pollutant tolerant species.  Plants of fast growing with thick vegetation foliage  Indigenous/exotic plants species with easy adaptability to the locality.  Socio economic requirement of the people of the surrounding area.
  • 19. Conservation of Minerals Conservation of minerals can be done in number of ways and these are as follows, • Industries can reduce waste by using more efficient mining and processing methods. • In some cases, industries can substitute plentiful materials for scarce ones. • Some mineral products can be recycled. Aluminum cans are commonly recycled. Although bauxite is plentiful, it can be expensive to refine. Recycling aluminum products does not require the large amounts of electric power needed to refine bauxite. • Products made from many other minerals, such as nickel, chromium, lead, copper, and zinc, can also be recycled. • Strict laws should be made and enforced to ensure efficient management of mining resources.
  • 20. Case Study • Aravalli mountains which covers about 10% of geographical area is rich source of minerals wealth .This mountain range play important role in control of climate and act as mini watershed. On the request of environmentalist, Honorable Supreme Court has passed the order to stop these mines in Rajasthan • Marble mining near Rajsamant Lake has lead to drying up of lake. Marble mining was stopped on December 2002. • Recently, mining in Goa has attained the attention of the press and media and ultimately government has to take the decision to stop this mining.