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SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series Small Ruminant Program
2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series Jan 13I.  Late Gestation Jan 20	II. Vaccinations Feb 3		III. Parturition Feb 10	IV. Neonatal Care Feb 17		V.  Lactation Feb 24	VI. Weaning
Late gestation Last 4 to 6 weeks of pregnancy (142-158 days) The most critical period in the female’s production cycle.
What’s happening?! 70 percent of fetal growth is occurring. Ewe lambs and doe kids are still growing themselves! The udder tissue is developing. Rumen capacity is decreasing. Boer x Nubian doe (carrying triplets)
Extra nutrition is needed Why? To support fetal growth To support udder development To prevent pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) and milk fever. To ensure the birth of strong, healthy babies of moderate birth weight.
Nutrient requirements of a 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) at different stages of production Lbs. per day NRC 2007
Nutrition During Late Gestation Energy (TDN) is the nutrient most likely to be deficient in the late gestation diet of ewes and does. Nutrient requirements vary by species, age, size (weight), and number of fetuses. To meet energy needs, you usually need to feed some grain.  If forage quality is low, you may also need to supplement protein and calcium.
Do not underfeed (including the fat ones) Inadequate nutrition can result in . . . Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) Small and weak babies  Higher mortality Reduced colostrum quality and quantity Poor milk yield Reduced wool production (in offspring) via fewer secondary follicles
Do not overfeed(including the skinny ones) Because . . .  Fat  females are more prone to pregnancy toxemia.  Overfed females have more dystocia problems. Large fetuses can have difficulty being born.
Nutrition during late gestation What you should do Balance or evaluate a ration  to see if what you are feeding is meeting the nutrient requirements of your pregnant females. Adjust, if necessary What we usually do Free choice hay + some grain (1/2 to 1 lb. per head per day) Introduce grain slowly and increase incrementally. http://www.sheepandgoat.com/feed.html#ration
Energy (TDN) requirements as affected by species and genetic potential for a 132-lb. mature female Lbs. per day NRC 2007
Nutrient requirements of different size ewes in late gestation (twin fetuses)  Lbs. per day NRC, 2007
Nutrient requirements of different size  (non-dairy) does in late gestation (twin fetuses)  Lbs. per day NRC, 2007, Errata
Nutrient requirements of ewes in late gestationas affected by age Lbs. per day NRC, 2007
Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. ewe during late gestation, as affected by number of fetuses Lbs. per day NRC, 2007
Effect of a lower critical temperature on the energy requirements of a goat needing 2.8 lbs. of TDN.
Selenium (Se) and vitamin E Many soils are deficient in selenium (Se). http://tin.er.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/averages/se/usa.html  Low levels of Se and/or vitamin E have been associated with … Poor reproductive performance Retained placentas White muscle disease in lambs and kids. Se is passed from the placenta  to the fetus during late gestation
Selenium (Se) and vitamin E Free choice mineral mixes usually provide adequate selenium. Adding a selenium-fortified mineral mix to the grain ration should ensure adequate intake of Se. On farms with a history of white muscle disease, Se injections are sometimes necessary. Bo-Se must be obtained from a licensed veterinarian. There is a narrow range between what animals need and Se toxicity.
Calcium Calcium requirements virtually double during late pregnancy. Milk fever is caused by low blood calcium resulting from … An inadequate intake of calcium  Failure to mobilize calcium reserves. You also need to avoid excessive Ca intake. Save alfalfa or similar hay for lactation diet. This ewe required IV calcium.
Mineral requirements of a 176-lb. ewe (twins) Grams per day NRC, 2007
Stage of productionMineral requirements of a 132-lb. doe (twins) Grams per day NRC, 2007
Calcium Grains (corn, barley, and oats) and soybean meal are low in calcium. Forages are higher in calcium, especially legumes. Supplemental Ca  Complete grain mixes  Mineral supplements  Limestone (38%) Dicalcium phosphate (25%)Trace minerals (14-18%) Kelp (2.7% Ca) If a low quality forage is fed, calcium should be added to the grain ration.
Proper feed bunk management Make sure all ewes or does can eat at the same time. Feed pregnant ewe lambs and doelings separately from mature females. Separate males after breeding. Do not feed on the ground.
Pre-lambing/kidding vaccinationsCD-T: clostridium perfringins type C & D (overeating disease) and tetanus Vaccinate pregnant females approximately one month prior to parturition.  Only way to protect lambs and kids from type C overeating disease and provide early immunity to tetanus.  Females never vaccinated before or whose vaccination status is unknown should receive two vaccinations during late pregnancy. Do not vaccinate within 2 weeks of parturition. Lambs and kids will acquire passive immunity when they consume colostrum (first milk).
Periparturient egg rise Small ruminant females suffer a temporary loss of immunity to parasites around and after parturition.
Management options Deworm all females prior to lambing or kidding. At the time of vaccinationor two weeks prioror at the time of parturition Use the FAMACHA© system and Five Point Check© to determine the need for deworming individual females. Increase the level of protein in the ration during late gestation. Do not administer Valbazen® during first 30 days of pregnancy.
Feed a coccidiostatTo reduce the number coccidia oocytes in the lambing and kidding environment In feed or mineral Bovatec® - sheep Rumensin® - goats Deccox® - both Continue through weaning. As an aid to prevent abortions caused by Toxoplasmagondii.   Coccidiostats, especially Rumensin® are toxic to the equine family.
AntibioticsIf there is a flock history or risk of abortions Feed Chlortetracycline (aureomycin) fed at a level of 80 mg/head/day during the last 6 weeks of gestation Injections Oxytetracycline (LA-200) at 2 week intervals.
Give injectable antibiotics to remaining females. Isolate aborting females Submit fetuses and placenta to diagnostic lab. Destroy fetuses, fluid, and placenta from abortion females. Disinfect pens. In the event of an abortion “storm”
Shear or crutch before lambing/kidding (about one month prior) Results in a cleaner, drier, healthier, environment for babies. Shorn ewes are less likely to lay on their lambs.  Ewes take up less space in barn and around feeders ,[object Object],Shorn ewes will seek shelter Shorn ewes/does will need more feed to compensate for heat loss from shearing. Freshly shorn ewes/does require adequate shelter. Crutching– removal of wool around udder and vulva area.
Get your facilities, equipment, and supplies ready 2 weeks before the first babies are due.
Clean, dry, draft-free building (cold or inclement weather) Put dams and offspring in small pen after parturitionbr />Called a “jug” 5 ft. by 5 ft. (bigger or smaller depending upon size of female) 1-3 days Clean, well-rested pastures (during mild weather) Have shelter available Pen dams and offspring with problem Lambing and kidding
Recommended supplies to have on hand Frozen colostrum Prolapse retainer or harness Weigh sling Milk replacer Colostrum supplement Elastrator OB lube Needles and syringes Ear tags OB sleeves Antibiotic(s) Rubber rings OB lubricant ,[object Object]
Nipples/teats
OB S-curved needle

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Late Gestation

  • 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series Small Ruminant Program
  • 2. 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series Jan 13I. Late Gestation Jan 20 II. Vaccinations Feb 3 III. Parturition Feb 10 IV. Neonatal Care Feb 17 V. Lactation Feb 24 VI. Weaning
  • 3. Late gestation Last 4 to 6 weeks of pregnancy (142-158 days) The most critical period in the female’s production cycle.
  • 4. What’s happening?! 70 percent of fetal growth is occurring. Ewe lambs and doe kids are still growing themselves! The udder tissue is developing. Rumen capacity is decreasing. Boer x Nubian doe (carrying triplets)
  • 5. Extra nutrition is needed Why? To support fetal growth To support udder development To prevent pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) and milk fever. To ensure the birth of strong, healthy babies of moderate birth weight.
  • 6. Nutrient requirements of a 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) at different stages of production Lbs. per day NRC 2007
  • 7. Nutrition During Late Gestation Energy (TDN) is the nutrient most likely to be deficient in the late gestation diet of ewes and does. Nutrient requirements vary by species, age, size (weight), and number of fetuses. To meet energy needs, you usually need to feed some grain. If forage quality is low, you may also need to supplement protein and calcium.
  • 8. Do not underfeed (including the fat ones) Inadequate nutrition can result in . . . Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) Small and weak babies Higher mortality Reduced colostrum quality and quantity Poor milk yield Reduced wool production (in offspring) via fewer secondary follicles
  • 9. Do not overfeed(including the skinny ones) Because . . . Fat females are more prone to pregnancy toxemia. Overfed females have more dystocia problems. Large fetuses can have difficulty being born.
  • 10. Nutrition during late gestation What you should do Balance or evaluate a ration to see if what you are feeding is meeting the nutrient requirements of your pregnant females. Adjust, if necessary What we usually do Free choice hay + some grain (1/2 to 1 lb. per head per day) Introduce grain slowly and increase incrementally. http://www.sheepandgoat.com/feed.html#ration
  • 11. Energy (TDN) requirements as affected by species and genetic potential for a 132-lb. mature female Lbs. per day NRC 2007
  • 12. Nutrient requirements of different size ewes in late gestation (twin fetuses) Lbs. per day NRC, 2007
  • 13. Nutrient requirements of different size (non-dairy) does in late gestation (twin fetuses) Lbs. per day NRC, 2007, Errata
  • 14. Nutrient requirements of ewes in late gestationas affected by age Lbs. per day NRC, 2007
  • 15. Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. ewe during late gestation, as affected by number of fetuses Lbs. per day NRC, 2007
  • 16. Effect of a lower critical temperature on the energy requirements of a goat needing 2.8 lbs. of TDN.
  • 17. Selenium (Se) and vitamin E Many soils are deficient in selenium (Se). http://tin.er.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/averages/se/usa.html Low levels of Se and/or vitamin E have been associated with … Poor reproductive performance Retained placentas White muscle disease in lambs and kids. Se is passed from the placenta to the fetus during late gestation
  • 18. Selenium (Se) and vitamin E Free choice mineral mixes usually provide adequate selenium. Adding a selenium-fortified mineral mix to the grain ration should ensure adequate intake of Se. On farms with a history of white muscle disease, Se injections are sometimes necessary. Bo-Se must be obtained from a licensed veterinarian. There is a narrow range between what animals need and Se toxicity.
  • 19. Calcium Calcium requirements virtually double during late pregnancy. Milk fever is caused by low blood calcium resulting from … An inadequate intake of calcium Failure to mobilize calcium reserves. You also need to avoid excessive Ca intake. Save alfalfa or similar hay for lactation diet. This ewe required IV calcium.
  • 20. Mineral requirements of a 176-lb. ewe (twins) Grams per day NRC, 2007
  • 21. Stage of productionMineral requirements of a 132-lb. doe (twins) Grams per day NRC, 2007
  • 22. Calcium Grains (corn, barley, and oats) and soybean meal are low in calcium. Forages are higher in calcium, especially legumes. Supplemental Ca Complete grain mixes Mineral supplements Limestone (38%) Dicalcium phosphate (25%)Trace minerals (14-18%) Kelp (2.7% Ca) If a low quality forage is fed, calcium should be added to the grain ration.
  • 23. Proper feed bunk management Make sure all ewes or does can eat at the same time. Feed pregnant ewe lambs and doelings separately from mature females. Separate males after breeding. Do not feed on the ground.
  • 24. Pre-lambing/kidding vaccinationsCD-T: clostridium perfringins type C & D (overeating disease) and tetanus Vaccinate pregnant females approximately one month prior to parturition. Only way to protect lambs and kids from type C overeating disease and provide early immunity to tetanus. Females never vaccinated before or whose vaccination status is unknown should receive two vaccinations during late pregnancy. Do not vaccinate within 2 weeks of parturition. Lambs and kids will acquire passive immunity when they consume colostrum (first milk).
  • 25. Periparturient egg rise Small ruminant females suffer a temporary loss of immunity to parasites around and after parturition.
  • 26. Management options Deworm all females prior to lambing or kidding. At the time of vaccinationor two weeks prioror at the time of parturition Use the FAMACHA© system and Five Point Check© to determine the need for deworming individual females. Increase the level of protein in the ration during late gestation. Do not administer Valbazen® during first 30 days of pregnancy.
  • 27. Feed a coccidiostatTo reduce the number coccidia oocytes in the lambing and kidding environment In feed or mineral Bovatec® - sheep Rumensin® - goats Deccox® - both Continue through weaning. As an aid to prevent abortions caused by Toxoplasmagondii.  Coccidiostats, especially Rumensin® are toxic to the equine family.
  • 28. AntibioticsIf there is a flock history or risk of abortions Feed Chlortetracycline (aureomycin) fed at a level of 80 mg/head/day during the last 6 weeks of gestation Injections Oxytetracycline (LA-200) at 2 week intervals.
  • 29. Give injectable antibiotics to remaining females. Isolate aborting females Submit fetuses and placenta to diagnostic lab. Destroy fetuses, fluid, and placenta from abortion females. Disinfect pens. In the event of an abortion “storm”
  • 30.
  • 31. Get your facilities, equipment, and supplies ready 2 weeks before the first babies are due.
  • 32. Clean, dry, draft-free building (cold or inclement weather) Put dams and offspring in small pen after parturitionbr />Called a “jug” 5 ft. by 5 ft. (bigger or smaller depending upon size of female) 1-3 days Clean, well-rested pastures (during mild weather) Have shelter available Pen dams and offspring with problem Lambing and kidding
  • 33.
  • 40. Heat lamp or warming box
  • 44. Bo-Se
  • 46.
  • 51. Shear or crutch full-fleeced animals.
  • 52. Deworm or evaluate need for deworming
  • 54. Inventory suppliesDON’T’s Introduce new animals Mix pregnant ewe lambs and doelings with mature females Overfeed Underfeed Stress Leave males in
  • 55. Thank you for your attention. Questions? Susan Schoenianwww.sheepandgoat.com sschoen@umd.edu Small Ruminant Program