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Presented by
Jasna Jamaluddin
Language And Culture
INTRODUCTION
Language is the most important component of the culture. Language doesn’t exist
apart from culture. Its is a social construct. Language teaching means culture
teaching. Culture finds its best expression through the medium of literature.
Knowledge of culture is essential for accurate learning of its language. Culture plays
vital role in facilitating the study of the language. Culture determines how people
encode messages. Culture imposes its orders and manners upon the language. The
standard of ones culture indicates the standard of the language one uses. Cultural
differences causes linguistic variations. Culture determines personal space for
communication. It facilitates sharing of thoughts ideas etc. for e.g.. English
familiarizes western culture
ROLE OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY
Role Of Parents In The Language Development Of
Child
Children learn language by listening to speech in the world around them. By
speaking to them parents are modeling language and the rule system that
makes up the language of the child.
How children learn language
Children's brain are wired to study the patterns of speech that they hear and
discern the rules that are used by the people who are speaking. Children learn
these rules and learn to apply them as they create their own speech. The
process of learning language involves repetitive and complex learning that
occurs through regular interaction.
 Interaction with others is the most important way that children learn
languages.
 Reading aloud to child helps build language skills.
Who comes first, society or language? Do you shape
your perspective of society through lens of your
language, or is your language altered by the culture
in you live?
Take for example, The words river and stream in French and in English. The
division between in these concepts in the two languages differ significantly. In
French, one selects the appropriate word based on the end point of the flow of
water. A stream flows into a large body of water. Where as a river flows into
another river. On the other hand, an English speaker distinguishes stream from
river based on its size. A stream is a natural flow of water that is smaller than
the river.
Certain special factors play an evident role in how we speak; in fact the study of
this relationship forms the field known as sociolinguistics
Different personal characteristics can influence our linguistic habits; for example,
age and gender are considered important extra-linguistic factors that can impact
our language use.
Morphology is the branch of linguistics that deals with the identification,
analysis and description of the structure of words. It investigates the internal
structure of words.
Morphology can be defined as the study of morphemes is the minimal
meaningful unit of language. For example: the word international contains two
morphemes ‘inter’ and ‘national’.
A morpheme may have different phonetic realisation. For example, plural
morphemes ‘s’ or ‘es’ in the words are pronounced ‘s’ or ‘z’ and ‘iz’ respectively.
This variants in phonetic manifestation in morpheme is known as Allomorphs
Morphology
Infection
It deals the grammatical
aspects.infectional affixes
indicate grammatical
relations. They occur only as
a suffixes. E.g.. Play-plays
Derivations
It deals with the creation of
words. Derivational affixes are
used to create words. They
occur as prefixes and suffixes.
E.g.. Impossible, examination
MORPHEMES
Free morphemes: A morpheme
that can occur independently is
called a free morpheme. It is
classified into two lexical and
grammatical. All content words
are lexical and structure words
are grammatical
Bound morpheme: a
morpheme that cannot stand
independently is called a bound
morpheme. It occurs in
connection with free
morpheme. In the word cruelly,
‘cruel’ is a free morpheme and
‘ly’ is a bound morpheme
Phonetics is part of linguistics. It is the science dealing with production,
transmission and reception of speech sounds. It can also be defined as the study
both the elements of speech
Speech sounds
Speech sound are produced using the air we breathe in and out. The flow of air through
mouth and nose is called Air Stream. The air stream is modified into speech sounds due
to movements and interruptions of certain organs. This is called Air Stream mechanism.
The air stream mechanism using lung air is called Pulmonic Air Stream. When air stream
pushes air out, it is called eggressive air stream mechanism. When it takes air in it is
called ingressive air stream mechanism. All English sound are produced using pulmonic
eggressive air stream mechanism
During the production of certain sound, the air escapes only through mouth. Such sounds
are called oral sounds. The sounds in leg, book and tip are oral sounds. During the
production of certain sound, the air escapes only through nose are called nasal sounds.
The initial sounds in the words map, nail and net are nasal sounds. If the air escapes
simultaneously through mouth and nose during production of any sound, it is called
nasalised sound
English has 24 letters and 44 sounds. Speech sounds are broadly classified as Vowels and
Consonants.
VOWELS: English has 20 vowel sounds. Vowels are classified as monophothongs,
diphthongs and tripthongs. The vowels that do not change their quality are known as
monophthongs or pure vowels. E.g.. The vowel sounds in words book, cut, sit etc. it is
single vowel sound.
The vowel that change their quality are known as vowel glides. In other words, vowels of
changing quality are known as glides. The combination of two vowel sound is known as
diphthongs. English has 8 diphthongs. E.g.: the vowel sound in the words boy, here, tour,
poor, gate etc
CONSONANTS: English has 24 consonant sounds. Consonants are generally produced by
the interruption of the air stream.
When two or more consonant sounds are pronounced in succession without an
intervening vowel (as in the words dream and bursts), the group is called a consonant
blend or consonant cluster In a consonant blend, the sound of each individual letter can
be heard.
In a number of cases in English, consonant letters can be silent, such as the
letter b following m (as in the word dumb), the letter k before n (know), and the
letters b and p before t (debt and receipt). When a double consonant appears in a
word, usually only one of the two consonants is sounded (as in bal l summer, and puppy)
Semantics is a systematic study of meanings of words and phrases in a language. It is
the branch of semiotic dealing with the relationship between sign and the signifier. The
relationship between the words in a language are a part of the semantic structure of the
language.
HYPONYMY is the relationship of inclusion of the different words in a set under a word
that stands for some features of meaning common to the entire set. E.g.. Cottage, hut
bungalow, etc. are the hyponyms of the term house.
SYNONYMY means sameness of meaning and stands for the phenomenon of different
words having the same meaning. But the sameness hold sonly in a particular context. E.g..
Begin-start, look-watch happy-joy etc
ANTONOMY means opposite of meanings. There are pair of words which are opposite in
some components of meanings. E.g.. Happy-sad, good-bad etc
HOMONYMS is each of two or more words having the same spelling or pronunciation
but different meanings and origins. E.g.. Watch, pole
POLYSEMY is the opposite of synonymy. This is the phenomena of same word having
different meanings.eg. Head, make, take etc.
SYNTAX is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure
of sentences in a given language, specifically word order. The term syntax is also
used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. .
More simply, syntax can be defined as the arrangement of words in a sentence.
The term syntax is also used to mean the study of the syntactic properties of
a language.
The rules that state how words can be combined into
sentences.
Dog the cat chased the . The dog chased the cat.
The rules that state how different combinations give different
meanings.
The dog chased the cat. The cat chased the dog.
Language and culture

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Language and culture

  • 2. INTRODUCTION Language is the most important component of the culture. Language doesn’t exist apart from culture. Its is a social construct. Language teaching means culture teaching. Culture finds its best expression through the medium of literature. Knowledge of culture is essential for accurate learning of its language. Culture plays vital role in facilitating the study of the language. Culture determines how people encode messages. Culture imposes its orders and manners upon the language. The standard of ones culture indicates the standard of the language one uses. Cultural differences causes linguistic variations. Culture determines personal space for communication. It facilitates sharing of thoughts ideas etc. for e.g.. English familiarizes western culture
  • 3. ROLE OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY
  • 4. Role Of Parents In The Language Development Of Child Children learn language by listening to speech in the world around them. By speaking to them parents are modeling language and the rule system that makes up the language of the child. How children learn language Children's brain are wired to study the patterns of speech that they hear and discern the rules that are used by the people who are speaking. Children learn these rules and learn to apply them as they create their own speech. The process of learning language involves repetitive and complex learning that occurs through regular interaction.  Interaction with others is the most important way that children learn languages.  Reading aloud to child helps build language skills.
  • 5. Who comes first, society or language? Do you shape your perspective of society through lens of your language, or is your language altered by the culture in you live?
  • 6. Take for example, The words river and stream in French and in English. The division between in these concepts in the two languages differ significantly. In French, one selects the appropriate word based on the end point of the flow of water. A stream flows into a large body of water. Where as a river flows into another river. On the other hand, an English speaker distinguishes stream from river based on its size. A stream is a natural flow of water that is smaller than the river. Certain special factors play an evident role in how we speak; in fact the study of this relationship forms the field known as sociolinguistics Different personal characteristics can influence our linguistic habits; for example, age and gender are considered important extra-linguistic factors that can impact our language use.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Morphology is the branch of linguistics that deals with the identification, analysis and description of the structure of words. It investigates the internal structure of words. Morphology can be defined as the study of morphemes is the minimal meaningful unit of language. For example: the word international contains two morphemes ‘inter’ and ‘national’. A morpheme may have different phonetic realisation. For example, plural morphemes ‘s’ or ‘es’ in the words are pronounced ‘s’ or ‘z’ and ‘iz’ respectively. This variants in phonetic manifestation in morpheme is known as Allomorphs
  • 10. Morphology Infection It deals the grammatical aspects.infectional affixes indicate grammatical relations. They occur only as a suffixes. E.g.. Play-plays Derivations It deals with the creation of words. Derivational affixes are used to create words. They occur as prefixes and suffixes. E.g.. Impossible, examination
  • 11. MORPHEMES Free morphemes: A morpheme that can occur independently is called a free morpheme. It is classified into two lexical and grammatical. All content words are lexical and structure words are grammatical Bound morpheme: a morpheme that cannot stand independently is called a bound morpheme. It occurs in connection with free morpheme. In the word cruelly, ‘cruel’ is a free morpheme and ‘ly’ is a bound morpheme
  • 12.
  • 13. Phonetics is part of linguistics. It is the science dealing with production, transmission and reception of speech sounds. It can also be defined as the study both the elements of speech Speech sounds Speech sound are produced using the air we breathe in and out. The flow of air through mouth and nose is called Air Stream. The air stream is modified into speech sounds due to movements and interruptions of certain organs. This is called Air Stream mechanism. The air stream mechanism using lung air is called Pulmonic Air Stream. When air stream pushes air out, it is called eggressive air stream mechanism. When it takes air in it is called ingressive air stream mechanism. All English sound are produced using pulmonic eggressive air stream mechanism During the production of certain sound, the air escapes only through mouth. Such sounds are called oral sounds. The sounds in leg, book and tip are oral sounds. During the production of certain sound, the air escapes only through nose are called nasal sounds. The initial sounds in the words map, nail and net are nasal sounds. If the air escapes simultaneously through mouth and nose during production of any sound, it is called nasalised sound
  • 14. English has 24 letters and 44 sounds. Speech sounds are broadly classified as Vowels and Consonants. VOWELS: English has 20 vowel sounds. Vowels are classified as monophothongs, diphthongs and tripthongs. The vowels that do not change their quality are known as monophthongs or pure vowels. E.g.. The vowel sounds in words book, cut, sit etc. it is single vowel sound. The vowel that change their quality are known as vowel glides. In other words, vowels of changing quality are known as glides. The combination of two vowel sound is known as diphthongs. English has 8 diphthongs. E.g.: the vowel sound in the words boy, here, tour, poor, gate etc CONSONANTS: English has 24 consonant sounds. Consonants are generally produced by the interruption of the air stream.
  • 15. When two or more consonant sounds are pronounced in succession without an intervening vowel (as in the words dream and bursts), the group is called a consonant blend or consonant cluster In a consonant blend, the sound of each individual letter can be heard. In a number of cases in English, consonant letters can be silent, such as the letter b following m (as in the word dumb), the letter k before n (know), and the letters b and p before t (debt and receipt). When a double consonant appears in a word, usually only one of the two consonants is sounded (as in bal l summer, and puppy)
  • 16.
  • 17. Semantics is a systematic study of meanings of words and phrases in a language. It is the branch of semiotic dealing with the relationship between sign and the signifier. The relationship between the words in a language are a part of the semantic structure of the language. HYPONYMY is the relationship of inclusion of the different words in a set under a word that stands for some features of meaning common to the entire set. E.g.. Cottage, hut bungalow, etc. are the hyponyms of the term house. SYNONYMY means sameness of meaning and stands for the phenomenon of different words having the same meaning. But the sameness hold sonly in a particular context. E.g.. Begin-start, look-watch happy-joy etc
  • 18. ANTONOMY means opposite of meanings. There are pair of words which are opposite in some components of meanings. E.g.. Happy-sad, good-bad etc HOMONYMS is each of two or more words having the same spelling or pronunciation but different meanings and origins. E.g.. Watch, pole POLYSEMY is the opposite of synonymy. This is the phenomena of same word having different meanings.eg. Head, make, take etc.
  • 19.
  • 20. SYNTAX is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, specifically word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. . More simply, syntax can be defined as the arrangement of words in a sentence. The term syntax is also used to mean the study of the syntactic properties of a language. The rules that state how words can be combined into sentences. Dog the cat chased the . The dog chased the cat. The rules that state how different combinations give different meanings. The dog chased the cat. The cat chased the dog.