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JAPANESE PERIOD
IN THE
PHILIPPINES
PREPARED BY: NIŃA MAE SABILLO
EVENTS LEADING TO AMERICAN
DEFEAT IN THE PHILIPPINES
The bombing of pearl harbor
The Philippines Government
under the Japanese
The Cardinal Program
The Puppet Republic
The Japanese Colonization
Japanese Military
Government
Economy
Education
Society
THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR
 One of the reason why the Americans acquired the
Philippines was the belief that the Philippines was
strategically located, thus economically profitable.
 By 1942, however, the Japanese seemed unstoppable and
the Americans, particularly, President Theodore
Roosevelt, started to worry about the possible Japanese
invasion of the Philippines.
 They had reasons to worry because the Philippines
defense war was rather weak to prevent possible
Japanese invasion even with the appointment of General
Douglas McArthur as Field Marshall of the Philippine
Army.
THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR
In 1942, The Philippines reserve and
regular forces were incorporated into the
United States Army under the command
of General McArthur.
The United States froze the Japanese
assets in the United States thus
preventing Japan from using such assets
in the furtherance of its covert actions in
the Pacific.
THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR
Unfortunately, while Nomura was
in Washington, presenting the
Japanese peace proposals to the
US Secretary of State Cordell Hull,
Japanese bombers attack Pearl
Harbor, an American vessel and
killed 2,897 men. This surprise
attack took place in the early
morning of December 7, 1941,
Hawaiian time.
THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR
The bombing of Pearl Harbor drew the ire of the
people of United States.
The bombing was regarded as treacherous, and it
was just a matter of time that the Americans
would declare war against Japan.
On December 8, 1942, 12:30 pm, after a joint
meeting of both Houses of the US Congress,
President Roosevelt announced that he asked
Congress to declare war against Japan.
THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR
The American declaration of war against
Japan echoed around the world.
Prime Minister Winston Churchill of
Great Britain followed suit.
This event eventually became the Second
World War.
THE PHILIPPINES GOVERNMENT UNDER
THE JAPANESE
On January 8, 1942, after the occupation of Manila under the
Japanese Imperial forces, General Homma issued a proclamation
announcing the end of American occupation and the beginning of
the Japanese is rule.
He articulated the purpose of their coming to the Philippines as “to
emancipate you (Filipinos) from the opposive domination of the US
letting you establish “The Philippines id for the Filipinos” as the
member of the Co-Prosperity Sphere in Greater East Asia and
making you enjoy your own prosperity and culture.
THE PHILIPPINES GOVERNMENT UNDER
THE JAPANESE
Soon the government was recognized.
On January 23, 1942, the Commander-in-
Chief of the Japanese Imperial forces issued
Military order No. 1, appointing Jorge B.
Vargas Chairman of the Executive
Commission.
The pressure from the Japanese military and
civil administration to form a “puppet
government” was intense and constant.
THE PHILIPPINES GOVERNMENT UNDER
THE JAPANESE
• 5 commissioners were appointed: Interior
headed by Benigno Aquino; Justice by Jose
P. Laurel; education, health and public
welfare by Claro M. Recto; public works
and communication by Quintin Paredes;
and Jose Yulo as Chief Justice.
• Thus, the Japanese had accomplished its
principal objective, “the active
collaboration of the most prestigious
Filipino in record of time.”
THE CARDINAL PROGRAM
The Japanese cardinal program was
embodied in a communique’ on Philippine
Independence issued by the Director
General of the Japanese Military
Administration dated January 28, 1942.
THE CARDINAL PROGRAM
This program consisted of the following:
1) Eradication of all entanglements and connection of the American regimes.
2) To initiate effective ways and means of bringing about the much-needed economic self-
sufficiency of the Philippines through rapid reconstruction and renovation of the
economic structure of the land.
3) Work for the speedy reorientation of your people both spiritually and intellectually,
thereby regaining your origin Oriental soul, and that as the foundation, drastically,
reorganize the social structure of the Philippines in strict accordance with the ideals and
standards of Oriental people.
THE PUPPET REPUBLIC
To make the Filipinos believed the
Japanese intention to make the
Philippines free, Japanese Premier Hideki
Tojo, in an address to the Imperial Diet on
January 21, 1942 announced that Japan
“will grant the Philippines its
Independence so long as it cooperates and
recognizes Japan’s program of
establishing a Greater East Asia Co-
Prosperity Sphere”.
THE PUPPET REPUBLIC
The declaration of Independence was read
and the “Puppet Republic” was
inaugurated on October 14, 1943.
Despite this artificiality, a huge crowd
attended the inauguration and “for the first
time, the Philippines flag was allowed to be
displayed.” As a matter of fact, it was
displayed everywhere.
THE JAPANESE COLONIZATION
The campaign of Adolf Hitler in Europe was equaled by the
Japanese under the leadership of Emperor Mutsihito or Teno
Meiji.
The reign of Mutsihito was the time modernization of Japan.
After the long time of closure of Japan to international
market and to the communication in the outside world, the
Japanese stared the modernization and the government
sends the brilliant Japanese students to travel in Europe to
observe the government and technology in the different
countries in Europe.
THE JAPANESE COLONIZATION
The Germans headed by Adolf Hitler had their revenge against the countries
who divided them as the punishment after they lost the First World War and
the Japanese wanted to be part of the world power and gained colonies
because of the following reasons:
First, was to get more raw materials for their products and to feed its
growing population
Second was to gain additional market for their goods
And third was to gain the glory as part of the powerful country.
THE JAPANESE COLONIZATION
This event is popularly known in the history as the Death March.
The remaining US and Filipino soldiers were asked to walk from Bataan to
Camp O’Donnell in Tarlac.
All soldiers who fell were killed by the Japanese, some of the Filipinos who
witnessed the march brought food and water to the Filipino and American
soldiers.
When they reached San Fernando Pampanga, they were asked to ride in a
container van without windows.
DEATH MARCH.
JAPANESE MILITARY GOVERNMENT
The Japanese establish a military government in Philippines which was
composed of different agencies that would ensure the peach and order in the
country.
In January 21, 1943, Hideki Tojo the Premier of Japan announced the
establishment of the Republic of the Philippines because of the cooperation of
the Filipinos to the Japanese Government.
Jose P. Laurel was appointed as the President of the 2nd Republic.
JAPANESE MILITARY GOVERNMENT
The National government was replaced by the Central Administrative
Organization which was composed of 6 branches:
The Interior Department – Benigno Aquino Sr.
The Finance Department – Antonio de Las Alas
The Agriculture and Commerce Department – Rafael Alunan
The Education Department – Claro M. Recto
The Public Welfare and the Public Works and Communication – Quintin Paredes
The Justice Department – Jose P. Laurel
ECONOMY
The fear of the Filipinos of the Japanese became the hindrance in the
continuation of trade and commerce, some of the Japanese also
confiscated the goods of Filipinos and the agriculture was also affected
by the war and the fear existed in the society.
The supplies of the products decreased so the prices of the commodities
went up, inflation and devaluation led to the existence of the Mickey
Mouse money or the Japanese money which because of the inflation did
not have value.
ECONOMY
The Buy and Sell emerged as the number one job of the Filipinos because
even if people had money they experienced a hard time looking for a product
to buy so there were people who would buy a certain product and resold it for
a higher price.
In the scarcity of food, the government encouraged the people to plant
vegetable in their households.
Kangkong became the popular for the Filipinos because it was easy to plant
and harvest.
ECONOMY
• To organize the distribution of rice, the government created the BIBA or
the Bigasang Bayan; However, it does not answer to the problem in the
rice production and distribution.
• Some of the food like tea and coffee were used twice to use resources.
• And other used substitute for the goods which have limited supply like
for rice, corn, sweet potatoes and banana were used as substitute.
EDUCATION
The Japanese also used education to
reorient the Filipinos about their culture
and to eradicate the influence of Western
influence in the Filipinos.
They prohibited the use of English and
forced the use of Tagalog and introduced
Nihongo, opened the primary schools to
educate the young minds about the good
intentions of the Japanese of their
colonization of the country
EDUCATION
They also opened vocational schools, schools for teacher and
schools for professional to enhance the courses in Agriculture
and Engineering and Fisheries.
In June 1942, the Japanese ordered the opening of the schools
but most of the Filipinos were hesitant to go to school because of
fear of the Japanese and most of the children also helped their
parents in looking for food for survival.
SOCIETY
The society of the Philippines during the Second World War was full of
fear, some of the people in the cities preferred to live in the provinces
and in mountains to avoid the Japanese.
In some houses, the family dug a big hole in their backyard big enough
for the whole family and stored food and water.
If the Japanese forces were present in their community, they would
stay in the hole until the Japanese forces left the vicinity.
SOCIETY
The Kempeitai or the Japanese Military Police was created to discipline
the Japanese troops in the Philippines however they were not successful
in forcing their soldiers not to abuse the Filipinos.
Some of the Filipino men and women experienced torture like the water
cure, burning, insertion of nail in the fingers, Jujitsu, electrocution and
mental torture.
They also established a house where they brought the comfort women and
so with the comfort gays.
SOCIETY
The Japanese also had the Radio Tasio and
if the jingle of the radio tasio was played,
Filipinos anywhere in the country should
dance in the choreography that the
Japanese taught to the Filipinos.
This was the evidence of obedience of the
Filipinos to the Japanese rule.
But the Filipinos used the Radio San
Francisco to gain knowledge about the
update of the wars in the different parts of
the world and so with the news about the
American forces.
SOCIETY
HUKBALAHAP or the Hukbong Bayan Laban
sa mga Hapones was established by the
Filipinos to help themselves against the abuse
of the Japanese soldiers.
They were the true heroes of the community
who were willing to take the risk and continued
the fights even after the Americans left the
country during that time that the Filipinos
needed their help.
SOCIETY
To combat the HUKBALAHAP, the Japanese hired the
Makapili as spy of the Japanese government who would
help them identify the member of the HUKBALAHAP and
Guerillas.
This Makapili received food from the Japanese so the
other Filipinos became Makapili so that family could
survive in the wars.

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Japanese period in the philippines

  • 2. EVENTS LEADING TO AMERICAN DEFEAT IN THE PHILIPPINES The bombing of pearl harbor The Philippines Government under the Japanese The Cardinal Program The Puppet Republic The Japanese Colonization Japanese Military Government Economy Education Society
  • 3. THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR  One of the reason why the Americans acquired the Philippines was the belief that the Philippines was strategically located, thus economically profitable.  By 1942, however, the Japanese seemed unstoppable and the Americans, particularly, President Theodore Roosevelt, started to worry about the possible Japanese invasion of the Philippines.  They had reasons to worry because the Philippines defense war was rather weak to prevent possible Japanese invasion even with the appointment of General Douglas McArthur as Field Marshall of the Philippine Army.
  • 4. THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR In 1942, The Philippines reserve and regular forces were incorporated into the United States Army under the command of General McArthur. The United States froze the Japanese assets in the United States thus preventing Japan from using such assets in the furtherance of its covert actions in the Pacific.
  • 5. THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR Unfortunately, while Nomura was in Washington, presenting the Japanese peace proposals to the US Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Japanese bombers attack Pearl Harbor, an American vessel and killed 2,897 men. This surprise attack took place in the early morning of December 7, 1941, Hawaiian time.
  • 6. THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR The bombing of Pearl Harbor drew the ire of the people of United States. The bombing was regarded as treacherous, and it was just a matter of time that the Americans would declare war against Japan. On December 8, 1942, 12:30 pm, after a joint meeting of both Houses of the US Congress, President Roosevelt announced that he asked Congress to declare war against Japan.
  • 7. THE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR The American declaration of war against Japan echoed around the world. Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain followed suit. This event eventually became the Second World War.
  • 8. THE PHILIPPINES GOVERNMENT UNDER THE JAPANESE On January 8, 1942, after the occupation of Manila under the Japanese Imperial forces, General Homma issued a proclamation announcing the end of American occupation and the beginning of the Japanese is rule. He articulated the purpose of their coming to the Philippines as “to emancipate you (Filipinos) from the opposive domination of the US letting you establish “The Philippines id for the Filipinos” as the member of the Co-Prosperity Sphere in Greater East Asia and making you enjoy your own prosperity and culture.
  • 9. THE PHILIPPINES GOVERNMENT UNDER THE JAPANESE Soon the government was recognized. On January 23, 1942, the Commander-in- Chief of the Japanese Imperial forces issued Military order No. 1, appointing Jorge B. Vargas Chairman of the Executive Commission. The pressure from the Japanese military and civil administration to form a “puppet government” was intense and constant.
  • 10. THE PHILIPPINES GOVERNMENT UNDER THE JAPANESE • 5 commissioners were appointed: Interior headed by Benigno Aquino; Justice by Jose P. Laurel; education, health and public welfare by Claro M. Recto; public works and communication by Quintin Paredes; and Jose Yulo as Chief Justice. • Thus, the Japanese had accomplished its principal objective, “the active collaboration of the most prestigious Filipino in record of time.”
  • 11. THE CARDINAL PROGRAM The Japanese cardinal program was embodied in a communique’ on Philippine Independence issued by the Director General of the Japanese Military Administration dated January 28, 1942.
  • 12. THE CARDINAL PROGRAM This program consisted of the following: 1) Eradication of all entanglements and connection of the American regimes. 2) To initiate effective ways and means of bringing about the much-needed economic self- sufficiency of the Philippines through rapid reconstruction and renovation of the economic structure of the land. 3) Work for the speedy reorientation of your people both spiritually and intellectually, thereby regaining your origin Oriental soul, and that as the foundation, drastically, reorganize the social structure of the Philippines in strict accordance with the ideals and standards of Oriental people.
  • 13. THE PUPPET REPUBLIC To make the Filipinos believed the Japanese intention to make the Philippines free, Japanese Premier Hideki Tojo, in an address to the Imperial Diet on January 21, 1942 announced that Japan “will grant the Philippines its Independence so long as it cooperates and recognizes Japan’s program of establishing a Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere”.
  • 14. THE PUPPET REPUBLIC The declaration of Independence was read and the “Puppet Republic” was inaugurated on October 14, 1943. Despite this artificiality, a huge crowd attended the inauguration and “for the first time, the Philippines flag was allowed to be displayed.” As a matter of fact, it was displayed everywhere.
  • 15. THE JAPANESE COLONIZATION The campaign of Adolf Hitler in Europe was equaled by the Japanese under the leadership of Emperor Mutsihito or Teno Meiji. The reign of Mutsihito was the time modernization of Japan. After the long time of closure of Japan to international market and to the communication in the outside world, the Japanese stared the modernization and the government sends the brilliant Japanese students to travel in Europe to observe the government and technology in the different countries in Europe.
  • 16. THE JAPANESE COLONIZATION The Germans headed by Adolf Hitler had their revenge against the countries who divided them as the punishment after they lost the First World War and the Japanese wanted to be part of the world power and gained colonies because of the following reasons: First, was to get more raw materials for their products and to feed its growing population Second was to gain additional market for their goods And third was to gain the glory as part of the powerful country.
  • 17. THE JAPANESE COLONIZATION This event is popularly known in the history as the Death March. The remaining US and Filipino soldiers were asked to walk from Bataan to Camp O’Donnell in Tarlac. All soldiers who fell were killed by the Japanese, some of the Filipinos who witnessed the march brought food and water to the Filipino and American soldiers. When they reached San Fernando Pampanga, they were asked to ride in a container van without windows.
  • 19. JAPANESE MILITARY GOVERNMENT The Japanese establish a military government in Philippines which was composed of different agencies that would ensure the peach and order in the country. In January 21, 1943, Hideki Tojo the Premier of Japan announced the establishment of the Republic of the Philippines because of the cooperation of the Filipinos to the Japanese Government. Jose P. Laurel was appointed as the President of the 2nd Republic.
  • 20. JAPANESE MILITARY GOVERNMENT The National government was replaced by the Central Administrative Organization which was composed of 6 branches: The Interior Department – Benigno Aquino Sr. The Finance Department – Antonio de Las Alas The Agriculture and Commerce Department – Rafael Alunan The Education Department – Claro M. Recto The Public Welfare and the Public Works and Communication – Quintin Paredes The Justice Department – Jose P. Laurel
  • 21. ECONOMY The fear of the Filipinos of the Japanese became the hindrance in the continuation of trade and commerce, some of the Japanese also confiscated the goods of Filipinos and the agriculture was also affected by the war and the fear existed in the society. The supplies of the products decreased so the prices of the commodities went up, inflation and devaluation led to the existence of the Mickey Mouse money or the Japanese money which because of the inflation did not have value.
  • 22. ECONOMY The Buy and Sell emerged as the number one job of the Filipinos because even if people had money they experienced a hard time looking for a product to buy so there were people who would buy a certain product and resold it for a higher price. In the scarcity of food, the government encouraged the people to plant vegetable in their households. Kangkong became the popular for the Filipinos because it was easy to plant and harvest.
  • 23. ECONOMY • To organize the distribution of rice, the government created the BIBA or the Bigasang Bayan; However, it does not answer to the problem in the rice production and distribution. • Some of the food like tea and coffee were used twice to use resources. • And other used substitute for the goods which have limited supply like for rice, corn, sweet potatoes and banana were used as substitute.
  • 24. EDUCATION The Japanese also used education to reorient the Filipinos about their culture and to eradicate the influence of Western influence in the Filipinos. They prohibited the use of English and forced the use of Tagalog and introduced Nihongo, opened the primary schools to educate the young minds about the good intentions of the Japanese of their colonization of the country
  • 25. EDUCATION They also opened vocational schools, schools for teacher and schools for professional to enhance the courses in Agriculture and Engineering and Fisheries. In June 1942, the Japanese ordered the opening of the schools but most of the Filipinos were hesitant to go to school because of fear of the Japanese and most of the children also helped their parents in looking for food for survival.
  • 26. SOCIETY The society of the Philippines during the Second World War was full of fear, some of the people in the cities preferred to live in the provinces and in mountains to avoid the Japanese. In some houses, the family dug a big hole in their backyard big enough for the whole family and stored food and water. If the Japanese forces were present in their community, they would stay in the hole until the Japanese forces left the vicinity.
  • 27. SOCIETY The Kempeitai or the Japanese Military Police was created to discipline the Japanese troops in the Philippines however they were not successful in forcing their soldiers not to abuse the Filipinos. Some of the Filipino men and women experienced torture like the water cure, burning, insertion of nail in the fingers, Jujitsu, electrocution and mental torture. They also established a house where they brought the comfort women and so with the comfort gays.
  • 28. SOCIETY The Japanese also had the Radio Tasio and if the jingle of the radio tasio was played, Filipinos anywhere in the country should dance in the choreography that the Japanese taught to the Filipinos. This was the evidence of obedience of the Filipinos to the Japanese rule. But the Filipinos used the Radio San Francisco to gain knowledge about the update of the wars in the different parts of the world and so with the news about the American forces.
  • 29. SOCIETY HUKBALAHAP or the Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapones was established by the Filipinos to help themselves against the abuse of the Japanese soldiers. They were the true heroes of the community who were willing to take the risk and continued the fights even after the Americans left the country during that time that the Filipinos needed their help.
  • 30. SOCIETY To combat the HUKBALAHAP, the Japanese hired the Makapili as spy of the Japanese government who would help them identify the member of the HUKBALAHAP and Guerillas. This Makapili received food from the Japanese so the other Filipinos became Makapili so that family could survive in the wars.