CAUSES OF PHILIPPINE
The abuses of Spanish officials
Persecution of Filipino leaders
who defended the rights of their fellow
Filipinos 'desire to regain their independence.
Discovery of the Katipunan and Bonifacio’s
call for revolution.
THE PHILIPPINE Revolution began in 1896 and really
ended only in 1901.At first, it was a war of independence against the
Spain.Later,it turned into a war of independence against the United
State The first part of revolution was a success. Many of our best
heroes were killed during the revolution.
On August 13, 1896, Father Agustin Hernandez wrote to Don
Manuel Luengo, the civil governor of Manila abuot the evening
Gathereing in his Parish.
August 19,1896, Katipunan was finally discovered by the
betrayal of Teodoro pateno to Father Mariano Gil.
After the discovery of the Katipunan ,Bonifacio gathered his
men in the hills of balintawak. Balintawak was the place north of
Manila which was then a secret meeting place of the katipuneros.
The spanish Cazadores began making of hundred of
arrests. Many of them died in suffocation.
August 21-22, Bonifacio called for a meeting at the house
of vidal Acab; then the residence of Apolonio Samson in
August 23, Bonifacio and Jacinto met at Bahay Toro,
Pugadlawin Balintawak and gathered at the residence of Melchora
On August 26,1896,the fiery Bonifacio stopped all the
talking .”There is no other way,”he told them, ”enough is enough!”
He angrily tore his residence certificate(Cedulas Personales). It
was the symbol of Spanish oppression of Filipinos. Also their tore
cedulas the called for a revolution. The katipuneros led by
Bonifacio started the Revolution
The first battle of the revolution took
place at the town of San Juan del at
dawn of Sunday, August 30 ,1986. Bonifacio
and some 1000 katipuneros attacked the
Spanish arsenal at San Juan. It was bloody and
awful battle. The Filipinos were armed only
with bolos,a few handmade guns (paltics) old
rifles,bamboo spears, and amulets (anting-
anting). BATTLE OF PINAGLABANAN
The superior weapons' of the Spanish.
Armed forces won the day. The Filipinos lost
and retreated. They left 153 dead comrades
The revolution quickly spread
like wild fire in Southern Luzon, The
Spanish Governor General Ramon
Blanco, declared a state of war in eight
provinces; Manila,Bulacan, Pampanga,
Batangas on August 30,1896.
The Spanish officials terrorized the Filipinos and executed many of
their famous leaders.
On September 4, four members of the Katipunan were executed at
On September 12, thirteen were put to death at Plaza de Armas(Los
Many Filipino patriots were arrested and put in prison at Fort
Santiago.About 1,000 Filipinos were exiled to Guam,Africa and other Spanish
prisons abroad. The martyrdom of their leaders made the Filipinos more angry at
the Spanish officials.
José Protasio Mercado Rizal y
Alonso Realonda or popularly known
as José Rizal was a Filipino nationalist
during the tail end of the Spanish c
olonial period of the Philippines.
Born: June 19, 1861, Calamba, Laguna
Siblings: Paciano Rizal, Saturnina Hidalgo,
Concepción Mercado, more
Parents: Teodora Alonso, Francisco Mercado
Nicknames: Jose P. Rizal, Pepe, Dr. Jose Rizal
Rizal was allowed to leave Dapitan and go to Cuba as a volunteer
doctor in the Spain army. He was arrested and taken back to Manila.He
was put in prison at fort Santiago and tried by the military court . He was
found guilty of being a traitor to Spain and sentenced to death. At dawn of
December 30,1896, at 7:30 am Rizal was shot by a firing squad at the
Thousands of Filipinos were inspired to join the revolution
in the nearby provinces. The Filipino revolutionaries captured, Las
Piñas, Parañaque, and other towns around in manila.
The revolutionaries was divided in two. The Magdalos-
Aguinaldo’s group and the Magdiwangs- Bonifacio’s group.
Aguinaldo win his battles while Bonifacio lost all his battle.
Bonifacio’s supporters refused to help Aguinaldo when they were
attacked similarly. Aguinaldo’s followers, did not help the
Magdiwangs when they fought the Spaniard.
Emilio Aguinaldo (Born on
March 22, 1869. )Quit his studies at
the Letran College in Manila after
his father died in 1882.
September 5 ,Emilio aguinaldo
and his men assailed thye spanish
troops staioned at Itmus under the
Command of Gen. Eusebio Aguirre.
Spaniards lost hundred of men and 60
After this battle aguinaldo was called Heneral
Miong, no longer Capitan Miong
Both rival groups decided to meet at Tejeros, Cavite on
March 22, 1897. They wanted to settle the controversy on
Leadership because a revolution must have only one leader. They
decided to elect the officers of a Revolutionary Government.
Bonifacio was over-confident. His followers outnumbered the
followers of Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo wasn’t able to attend the election
because he was fighting the Spanish army at Imus.
Bonifacio was elected as the new leader. He did not know that
the Filipinos no longer wanted him as the leader. Aguinaldo won the
majority vote for new President of the First Revolutionary
Government on March 23 and lasted until October 31, 1897.
Bonifacio lost even the position of Vice- President and the other lower
positions. As a consolation, Bonifacio was elected to the last office of
secretary of the interior but even the lowest position was protested by
Aguinaldo was elected as the President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic
on November 1, 1897.
Bonifacio was elected as the new leader. He did not know that the
Filipinos no longer wanted him as the leader. Aguinaldo won the majority
vote for new President of the First Revolutionary Government on March 23
and lasted until October 31, 1897. Bonifacio lost even the position of Vice-
President and the other lower positions. As a consolation, Bonifacio was
elected to the last office of secretary of the interior but even the lowest
position was protested by Daniel Tirona.
Aguinaldo was elected as the President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic on
November 1, 1897.
The Filipinos freedom fighter fought with crude wepons: bolos,
clubs , stones, bamboo, spears, old musket, and
homomade guns (paltiks). The Filipinos won
many battles against the Spanish Government
troop. The Greatest victory in the battle of the
Filipino was won by Emilio Aguinaldo in the
Battle of Binakayan, Cavite on November 9 to
At the Battle of Limbon, Bonifacio and his men lost the fight
and were taken prisoners. Andres was wounded and his brother
Ciriaco was killed. His wife Gregoria de Jesus was one of the
prisoners. The Revolutionary Government tried Bonifacio and his
brother Procopio by military court martial at Maragondon on May 5,
1897 and they were found guilty they were sentenced to die.
Aguinaldo reduced their sentence to life imprisonment but
was able to cancel that order and execute Bonifacio. On May 19,
1897 Andres and Procopio were shot by a firing squad of Aguinaldo’s
soldiers in near Maragondon. Under the command of Major Lazaro
December 4 1896, the katipunan members of Balangay
Dimasalang met at Bigaa, province of Bulacan, conduct an election
under their newly founded Kakarong Republic led by Gen. Eusebio
Roque(Maestrong Sebio and Dimabungo).
January 1, 1897, General Olaguer –Feliu rushed to the
fortifications of Kakarong anf launched a massive assault against
the people including ciilians.January 16 at 5:00 pm, Maestrong
Sebio was executed
February 15,1897, Governor Polaveja launched an all-
out offenssive in Cavite. Two days later, General Lachambre
captured the town of Silan. gen,. Aguinaldo aided by Gen. Vito
Belarmino and Artemio Recarte, mounted a counteroffenssive,
but failed to get Silang back.
February 25,1897, Dasmarinas, Cavite cwas taken by
Gen. Antonio Zabala who also attacked Salitran which was
defended by Gen. Flaviano Yenko. Yengko was mortally
wounded in action and died on March 3, 1897 at Itmus military
Dr. Pedro A. Paterno, a prominent Filipino ,acted as the
go-between in the peace negotiations. He succeeded in
negotiating the agreement to end the fighting between the
Filipinos and the Spaniards. This was historic Pact of Biak na
Bato. It was signed by General Aguinaldo and Governor General
Primo Rivera on Dec. 14 and 15 1897
He was the youngest general of the Revolution younger
tham del Pilar by one year, two months and seven days
Peace was proclaimed in the
Philippines after the Pact of Biak-na-
Bato. Gen. Aguinaldo and other
revolutionary leaders went to exile in
Hong Kong as a part of agreement.
Aguinaldo and his companions reached
Hong Kong on December 30, 1897.
Women of the Revolution Melchora Aquino (popularly
known as “Tandang Sora” Gregoria Montoya (joan of Arc of
Cavite”) Agueda Kahabagan (joan of Arc of the Sant Cruz,
Laguna”); Teresa Magbanua (joan of aec of the Visayas”) Trinidad
Tecson (“Mother of Biaknabato”) (“Florence Nightingale of
Panay”) Patronicia Gamboa (Heroine of jaro”) Marcela Agoncillo
(wife of Filipino doplomat Felipe agoncillo).
Both the Filipinos and the
Spaniards broke their peace agreement
at Biak-na-Bato. Spain did not pay P1.7
million war indemnity to the Filipinos.
Only P600,000 was paid. Spanish
officials continue to arrest and punish Filipino
During the Phillipine Revolution, thousands of filipino’s have give
and sacrifice their lives for the independence of our country. Blood and sweat
are given by them inorder to have our independene. They fight for their
country and their fellowmen. That is why we have our heroes. They are the
one that give us the way for peace. So, as a citezen of our country, we must
have patriotism. We must love and fight for our country over those people that
make our country be in poverty. We must help each other like the soldiers do
during the wars in the revolution. We must stand in one for the succes and
development of our native land.