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JAISALMER
“The Golden City”
“the yellow sand and the yellow sandstone used in every
architecture of the city gives a yellowish-golden tinge to the city and
its surrounding area”..
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE
DEVESH TRIPATHI
BARCH 3RD YEAR
ANSAL SCHOOLOFARCHITECTURE
HISTORY FOR FORT
• The fort & town of JAISALMER was founded by Maharawal Jaisal in the
year 1156 AD after having shifted his capital from Ludharva (18 Kms
away from Jaisalmer) to a safer place.
• The ruling family of the erstwhile Jaisalmer State belongs to Bhati Clan
of Yadu Rajputs of Chandrawasnshi (Lunar) race who claim descent
from Lord Krishna,the defied hero who ruled at Dwarka.
• The historical origin of Bahttis can be inferred from the couplet which
says that the Yadu Rajputs ruled and constructed Forts at
Kashi,Mathura, Pragvad, Gajni,Bhatner,Digam,Dirwal,Lodurva and ninth
in Jaisalmer.
• Jaisalmer was merged into the state of Rajasthan, there was no
important change in the area of the state.
• On October 6,1949,the region was given the status of an independent
district in Jodhpur division.
INTRODUCTION
• Set in the arid plains of western Rajasthan, in the midst of the vast
Thar desert, the city of Jaisalmer is a living fortress, perhaps the
only one of its kind in India.
• There are many spectacular forts in India, particularly in Rajasthan,
reflecting a martial history of which the local people are self
consciously proud.
• These forts have tremendous tourist potential, and proposals are
afoot to convert some into ‘heritage hotels’ or museums.
• To the visitor, almost every nook and corner of this richly crafted
town in the midst of the desert is fascinating, because a medieval
aura is still palpable in the streets, architecture and the traditional
society of Jaisalmer.
• Today this town consists of two major components:
The fortified upper citadel, elevated on a ridge, with more: than
400 houses, groups of temples and a palace complex,
the lower town, also fortified, set on the north-eastern slopes of the
ridge in the wind shadow of the citadel.
MATERIALS USE IN FORT CONSTRUCTION
• Most common building materials:
– Light yellowish sandstone for walls (0.45m or more in thickness).
– 50 mm thick panels of limestone used on upper levels for elements
on projecting wall facades.
PLANNING
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN IN THE
TRADIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF
JAISALMER FORT
-The study focuses on the sandstone havelis (urban courtyard houses) of
the desert city of Jaisalmer, north-west Rajasthan, India.
-While the city has been much admired by contemporary Indian
architects, their understanding has been a Modernist one, based largely
on the idea of 'spatial organisation'.
Three distinct architectural schools, or shaili, are then identified. THE
SOMPURIYA SHAILI (the Sompuras are traditional temple builders)
has its roots in the medieval architecture known from surviving temples,
THE MUGHLAI SHAILI is influenced by the imperial Mughal style, THE
ANGREZI (ENGLISH) SHAILI brought an influx of western Classicism.
Architecturally, Jaisalmer fort consists of three layers of wall.
- The outer wall (the lowest) is composed of solid stone blocks.
- From the inner wall, Rajput warriors used to throw boiling water,oil,
- massive blocks of rocks on the enemies, when they got trapped
between the inner and the middle walls.
- The architecture of these forts is a blend of Islamic, Persian and
Indian styles of architecture.
The buildings are analysed at their various levels of organsiation:
- formal and spatial planning,
- composition of elevations (interior and exterior),
- architectural components and details.
Aedicules, miniature representations of buildings, play an important role
as compositional elements.
LAYOUT PLANNING & ARCHITECTURAL
STYLES IN JAISALMER FORT
These were built of sandstone or marble and were endowed with
1. jharokhās (a type of overhanging balcony),
2. chatrīs (elevated, dome-shaped pavilions),
3. chajjās (projecting eaves or cover usually supported on large carved brackets) and
4. jālīs (perforated stone or latticed screen used for ventilation as well as decoration
Most of these forts had ingenious water structures designed for
harvesting and storage, including step-wells, elaborate reservoirs
and channels.
of
•In its overall
fortification.
wall and is
he city is
•It is a city
set on top of
triangular in
• The Royal r.
s making
•The city str
the loca
fortification.
secondl
distinct resid
CITY FORM
shape, Jaisalmer is an irregular polygon with a double line
within a city. The inner city is more protected with a stronger
a hill about 100 meters higher than the surrounding area. T
shape due to the shape of the hill on which it is built.
Palace with the Royal Square forms the nucleus of Jaisalme
ucturing manifests itself in two strong ways :
tion of the Royal Quarters on top of the hill with the strong
y the dispersal of communities is affected by caste grouping
ential zones of different communities.
TOWN LAYOUT
• Narrow winding streets with
densely built construction on
both sides.
• All Major streets were oriented
in the East-West direction at
right angles to the direction of
dust storms.
• The height of the building
compared to the width of streets
is large to create shaded cool
environment for the pedestrians
and other social activities on the
streets.
Plan of Jaisalmer town
HAVELI’S
1.The most complex and
interesting residential buildings in
Jaisalmer are the haveli’s built by
the rich merchants or courtiers.
2.In these four or five-storied
houses, the courtyard is
surrounded by rooms or verandahs
on all sides.
3.There are underground rooms as
well, sometimes at two levels one
below the other.
4.The uppermost storey comprises
terraces enclosed by wind
pavilions and high parapet walls. In
some cases, the house is built
around two courtyards.
PLAN AND SECTION OF A TYPICAL HAVELI INJAISALMER
PUBLIC SPACES
Public spaces in Jaisalmer may be classified according to their types.The
major categories are :
The Royal Square in the center of the upper city ;
Public spaces like Gandhi Chowk and Gopa Chowk ;
Community spaces at the level of residential clusters.
STREETS OF JAISALMER
Jaisalmer is a compact network of streets rarely too long. With fairly high buildings
and width of streets rarely more than three meters, one can move around the town
in cool shade.
There is a significant difference in the street patterns of the upper and the lower city.
The radial pattern in the upper city is contrasted by the somewhat irregular grid iron
pattern in the lower city.
A street
showing
additions
and
Alterations
in Jaisalmer
A typical cobbled street in Jaisalmer
Generation of form in space is
affect of opening these
horizontal and vertical
elements in space.It depends
on size,number and location of
openings.
1.Main Chowk has full
enclosure with two streets
opening the visual link.
2.Neighbourhood Space
activity linked to houses opens
to the residential streets.
3. Angan near the house.
4.Transition space in house
and street.
Main Village Square is village
community space,
at intersection of main streets.
CONSTRUCTION
TECHNIQUES
Two types of construction used for floors and roofs:
– TRADITIONAL METHOD: Laying closely spaces
timber beams and covering them with a layer or reed
or grass matting with a layer of earth on top.
 Because of lack of availability in the desert, stone
beams are being used.
NATURAL COOLING SYSTEMS OF JAISALMER
The natural cooling systems used at Jaisalmer include:
1. Dense clustering of buildings.
2. Sun control through orientation and structural projections.
3. Cooling of sunlit surfaces by use of fins.
4. Massive construction for roofs and walls.
5. Courtyards and other air ducts for ventilation.
The effectiveness of each of these
cooling methods has been evaluated
by temperature observations and
this will be reported in a subsequent
paper.
Details of carved panel
CONTROL OF HEATING BY TEXTURE OF
SURFACES:
The heat inside of the building is controlled by the use of textures in Jaisalmer. This is
organized at three levels.
1.At the town scale the buildings are of unequal height with parapets and high
walls, creating uneven sky lines and desired shading of each other.
2. Secondly, the building facades have large number of projections like jharokhas
and chajjas which provide shade to the facades.
3.Thirdly, the front part of the facade which remains exposed are controlled by
creating deeply carved patterns. Use of such devices minimizes the heat gain by
providing shading due to texture.
- Such devices also result in increased convective transfer of heat because of
increased surface area.
JAISALMER AND PRE-CAST CONSTRUCTION
Jaisalmer as a city, as urban fabric, is in total harmony with its soil, its terrain
and the lifestyle of its people. A city in yellow stone, a sculpture that emerges
out of the landscape. But, Jaisalmer is a man-made sculpture of small well-
designed parts. The parts that make the harmonious whole are the key to the
urban fabric that one sees today in Rajasthan.
It is a system of carved elements - stone slabs, beams, columns - pieces put
together, the putting together - a carefully pre-planned process. Stone carvers
- the artists, the artisans working in groups to deliver the pieces as required,
with every piece cut, carved, to make a railing, to turn it to make a junction or
to break the monotony of a symmetrical façade.
Stone blocks cut
and carved to make
an arch, a doorway,
a jharokha, brackets
that support a
circular jharokha,
brackets that are
radiating out from a
point and therefore
vary in their sizes,
but must be carved
to precision to take
their place away
from the courtyard
of the carver's
house, in the walls
of the palace.

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Jaisalmer ppt

  • 1. JAISALMER “The Golden City” “the yellow sand and the yellow sandstone used in every architecture of the city gives a yellowish-golden tinge to the city and its surrounding area”.. INDIAN ARCHITECTURE DEVESH TRIPATHI BARCH 3RD YEAR ANSAL SCHOOLOFARCHITECTURE
  • 2. HISTORY FOR FORT • The fort & town of JAISALMER was founded by Maharawal Jaisal in the year 1156 AD after having shifted his capital from Ludharva (18 Kms away from Jaisalmer) to a safer place. • The ruling family of the erstwhile Jaisalmer State belongs to Bhati Clan of Yadu Rajputs of Chandrawasnshi (Lunar) race who claim descent from Lord Krishna,the defied hero who ruled at Dwarka. • The historical origin of Bahttis can be inferred from the couplet which says that the Yadu Rajputs ruled and constructed Forts at Kashi,Mathura, Pragvad, Gajni,Bhatner,Digam,Dirwal,Lodurva and ninth in Jaisalmer. • Jaisalmer was merged into the state of Rajasthan, there was no important change in the area of the state. • On October 6,1949,the region was given the status of an independent district in Jodhpur division.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Set in the arid plains of western Rajasthan, in the midst of the vast Thar desert, the city of Jaisalmer is a living fortress, perhaps the only one of its kind in India. • There are many spectacular forts in India, particularly in Rajasthan, reflecting a martial history of which the local people are self consciously proud. • These forts have tremendous tourist potential, and proposals are afoot to convert some into ‘heritage hotels’ or museums. • To the visitor, almost every nook and corner of this richly crafted town in the midst of the desert is fascinating, because a medieval aura is still palpable in the streets, architecture and the traditional society of Jaisalmer. • Today this town consists of two major components: The fortified upper citadel, elevated on a ridge, with more: than 400 houses, groups of temples and a palace complex, the lower town, also fortified, set on the north-eastern slopes of the ridge in the wind shadow of the citadel.
  • 4. MATERIALS USE IN FORT CONSTRUCTION • Most common building materials: – Light yellowish sandstone for walls (0.45m or more in thickness). – 50 mm thick panels of limestone used on upper levels for elements on projecting wall facades.
  • 6. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN IN THE TRADIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF JAISALMER FORT -The study focuses on the sandstone havelis (urban courtyard houses) of the desert city of Jaisalmer, north-west Rajasthan, India. -While the city has been much admired by contemporary Indian architects, their understanding has been a Modernist one, based largely on the idea of 'spatial organisation'. Three distinct architectural schools, or shaili, are then identified. THE SOMPURIYA SHAILI (the Sompuras are traditional temple builders) has its roots in the medieval architecture known from surviving temples, THE MUGHLAI SHAILI is influenced by the imperial Mughal style, THE ANGREZI (ENGLISH) SHAILI brought an influx of western Classicism.
  • 7. Architecturally, Jaisalmer fort consists of three layers of wall. - The outer wall (the lowest) is composed of solid stone blocks. - From the inner wall, Rajput warriors used to throw boiling water,oil, - massive blocks of rocks on the enemies, when they got trapped between the inner and the middle walls. - The architecture of these forts is a blend of Islamic, Persian and Indian styles of architecture. The buildings are analysed at their various levels of organsiation: - formal and spatial planning, - composition of elevations (interior and exterior), - architectural components and details. Aedicules, miniature representations of buildings, play an important role as compositional elements. LAYOUT PLANNING & ARCHITECTURAL STYLES IN JAISALMER FORT
  • 8. These were built of sandstone or marble and were endowed with 1. jharokhās (a type of overhanging balcony), 2. chatrīs (elevated, dome-shaped pavilions), 3. chajjās (projecting eaves or cover usually supported on large carved brackets) and 4. jālīs (perforated stone or latticed screen used for ventilation as well as decoration Most of these forts had ingenious water structures designed for harvesting and storage, including step-wells, elaborate reservoirs and channels.
  • 9. of •In its overall fortification. wall and is he city is •It is a city set on top of triangular in • The Royal r. s making •The city str the loca fortification. secondl distinct resid CITY FORM shape, Jaisalmer is an irregular polygon with a double line within a city. The inner city is more protected with a stronger a hill about 100 meters higher than the surrounding area. T shape due to the shape of the hill on which it is built. Palace with the Royal Square forms the nucleus of Jaisalme ucturing manifests itself in two strong ways : tion of the Royal Quarters on top of the hill with the strong y the dispersal of communities is affected by caste grouping ential zones of different communities.
  • 10. TOWN LAYOUT • Narrow winding streets with densely built construction on both sides. • All Major streets were oriented in the East-West direction at right angles to the direction of dust storms. • The height of the building compared to the width of streets is large to create shaded cool environment for the pedestrians and other social activities on the streets. Plan of Jaisalmer town
  • 11. HAVELI’S 1.The most complex and interesting residential buildings in Jaisalmer are the haveli’s built by the rich merchants or courtiers. 2.In these four or five-storied houses, the courtyard is surrounded by rooms or verandahs on all sides. 3.There are underground rooms as well, sometimes at two levels one below the other. 4.The uppermost storey comprises terraces enclosed by wind pavilions and high parapet walls. In some cases, the house is built around two courtyards.
  • 12. PLAN AND SECTION OF A TYPICAL HAVELI INJAISALMER
  • 13. PUBLIC SPACES Public spaces in Jaisalmer may be classified according to their types.The major categories are : The Royal Square in the center of the upper city ; Public spaces like Gandhi Chowk and Gopa Chowk ; Community spaces at the level of residential clusters. STREETS OF JAISALMER Jaisalmer is a compact network of streets rarely too long. With fairly high buildings and width of streets rarely more than three meters, one can move around the town in cool shade. There is a significant difference in the street patterns of the upper and the lower city. The radial pattern in the upper city is contrasted by the somewhat irregular grid iron pattern in the lower city. A street showing additions and Alterations in Jaisalmer A typical cobbled street in Jaisalmer
  • 14. Generation of form in space is affect of opening these horizontal and vertical elements in space.It depends on size,number and location of openings. 1.Main Chowk has full enclosure with two streets opening the visual link. 2.Neighbourhood Space activity linked to houses opens to the residential streets. 3. Angan near the house. 4.Transition space in house and street. Main Village Square is village community space, at intersection of main streets.
  • 16. Two types of construction used for floors and roofs: – TRADITIONAL METHOD: Laying closely spaces timber beams and covering them with a layer or reed or grass matting with a layer of earth on top.  Because of lack of availability in the desert, stone beams are being used.
  • 17. NATURAL COOLING SYSTEMS OF JAISALMER The natural cooling systems used at Jaisalmer include: 1. Dense clustering of buildings. 2. Sun control through orientation and structural projections. 3. Cooling of sunlit surfaces by use of fins. 4. Massive construction for roofs and walls. 5. Courtyards and other air ducts for ventilation. The effectiveness of each of these cooling methods has been evaluated by temperature observations and this will be reported in a subsequent paper. Details of carved panel
  • 18. CONTROL OF HEATING BY TEXTURE OF SURFACES: The heat inside of the building is controlled by the use of textures in Jaisalmer. This is organized at three levels. 1.At the town scale the buildings are of unequal height with parapets and high walls, creating uneven sky lines and desired shading of each other. 2. Secondly, the building facades have large number of projections like jharokhas and chajjas which provide shade to the facades. 3.Thirdly, the front part of the facade which remains exposed are controlled by creating deeply carved patterns. Use of such devices minimizes the heat gain by providing shading due to texture. - Such devices also result in increased convective transfer of heat because of increased surface area.
  • 19. JAISALMER AND PRE-CAST CONSTRUCTION Jaisalmer as a city, as urban fabric, is in total harmony with its soil, its terrain and the lifestyle of its people. A city in yellow stone, a sculpture that emerges out of the landscape. But, Jaisalmer is a man-made sculpture of small well- designed parts. The parts that make the harmonious whole are the key to the urban fabric that one sees today in Rajasthan. It is a system of carved elements - stone slabs, beams, columns - pieces put together, the putting together - a carefully pre-planned process. Stone carvers - the artists, the artisans working in groups to deliver the pieces as required, with every piece cut, carved, to make a railing, to turn it to make a junction or to break the monotony of a symmetrical façade.
  • 20. Stone blocks cut and carved to make an arch, a doorway, a jharokha, brackets that support a circular jharokha, brackets that are radiating out from a point and therefore vary in their sizes, but must be carved to precision to take their place away from the courtyard of the carver's house, in the walls of the palace.