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TRANSFORMATION FROM MODERN
TO POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE
 SUBMITTED BY- DEVESH TRIPATHI
 SUBJECT- HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
 B ARCH 3RD YEAR SEM – 6TH
 A.S.A , LKO
Comparision betweenModernist&
Postmodernist Architecture
ModernistArchitecture PostmodernistArchitecture
Duration: late 19th- early 20thcentury Late 20th -21stcentury
Predecessor: Nordic Classicism Modernist Architecture
Modernism is efforts to reconcile the
principles underlying architectural
design with rapid technological
advancement and the modernization of
society.
Postmodernism refers to
the functional and formalized shapes
and spaces of the modernist style are
replaced by diverse aesthetics.
Major concept: Form follows function pluralism, double coding, flying
buttresses and high
ceilings, irony and paradox,
and contextualism.
Modernism
Modernism is aphilosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes,
arosefrom wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late
19th and early 20th centuries.
Theterm is often applied to modernist movements at the turn of the 20th century,
with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid
technologicaladvancement and the modernization of society.
InfluentialArchitects
Notable architects important to the history and development of the
modernist movement include:
• Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
• LeCorbusier
• Walter Gropius
• Erich Mendelsohn
• FrankLloyd Wright
• LouisSullivan
• Gerrit Rietveld
• Bruno Taut
• Arne Jacobsen
• OscarNiemeyer
• AlvarAalto
Increasingly, during the 1950s, modern architecture was criticized for
its sterility, its "institutional" anonymity, and its disregard for regional
building traditions.
More varied modes of expression were sought by architects of the
next generation, although the basic emphasis on structure and
materials continued.
This tendency was evident in the works of louis kahn, edward durell
stone, and philip cortelyou johnson in the united states, and the
architects of the so-called new brutalism movement in england.
A dynamic sculptural unity distinguished the buildings of eero
saarinen and the late works of le corbusier.
EVOLUTION
Context
• There are multiple lensesthrough which the evolution of modern
architecture may be viewed. Somehistorians seeit asasocial matter,
closely tied to the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment.
• Modern architecture developed, asaresult of social and political
revolutions. Others seeModern architecture asprimarily driven by
technological and engineering developments. Still other historiansregard
Modernism asamatter of taste, areaction against eclecticism and the
lavish stylistic excessesof Victorian and Edwardianarchitecture.
• With the Industrial Revolution, the availability of newly-available building
materials suchasiron, steel, and sheet glassdrove the invention of new
building techniques.
Characterstics
• Commonthemes of modern architectureinclude:
• The notion that "form follows function", a dictum originally expressed
by frank lloyd wright's early mentor louis sullivan, meaning that the
result ofdesign should derive directly from its purpose
• Simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessarydetail"
• Materials at 90 degrees to eachother
• Visual expression of structure (asopposed to the hiding of structural
Elements)
• The related concept of "truth to materials", meaning that the true nature
or natural appearance of amaterial ought to be seenrather than
concealed or altered to represent somethingelse
• Useof industrially-produced materials; adoption of themachine aesthetic
• Particularly in international style modernism, avisual emphasis on
horizontal and vertical lines
TheGuggenheimMuseum
• Situated in Manhattan, New YorkCity, it is the permanent home of a
renowned and continuously expanding collection of Impressionist,Post-
Impressionist, early Modern and contemporaryart.
• Designed by FrankLloyd Wright, the cylindrical building, wider at the top
than the bottom, wasconceived asa"temple of thespirit".
• Its design wasinspired by a"Ziggurat" Babylonian temple pyramid,
inverted.
• TheMuseum Guggenheinexhibits agreat difference to the buildings in
the vicinity becauseof its spiral shape, marked by the mergeing of
triangles, ovals, arcs,circles and squares, which correspond to theconcept
of organicarchitecture
• Its unique ramp gallery extends up from ground level in along,
continuous spiral along the outer edgesof the building to end just under
the ceilingskylight.
• Thematerials usedin its construction were basically precast concrete
blocks.The white paint used on the internal walls makesthe works of art
stand out. Theskylight is supported by steeljoints.
The
Guggenheim
Museum
SectionalElevation
WainwrightBuilding
• Known asthe Wainwright State Office Building, it is a10-story
red brick office building at St. Louis, Missouri.
• The Wainwright Building is among the first skyscrapers in the world. It was
designed by DankmarAdler and LouisSullivan (father of modern
architecture) in the Palazzostyle and builtbetween 1890 and 1891.
• It exemplifies Sullivan's theories about the tall building, which included a
tripartite (three-part) composition (base-shaft-attic) basedon thestructure
of the classicalcolumn.
• Thebasecontained retail stores that required wide glazedopenings.Above
it the semi-public nature of offices up asingle flight of stairs are expressed
asbroad windows in the curtain wall. Acornice separates the second floor
from the grid of identical windows of the screen wall, where each window is
"a cell in ahoneycomb, nothing more". Thebuilding's windows and
horizontals were inset slightly behind columns and piers, aspart ofa
“vertical aesthetic”
Planof building
• Theornamentation for the building includes awide frieze below the deep
cornice, which expressesthe formalized yet naturalisticcelery-leaf foliage.
• It hasrich decorative patterns in low relief, varying in design and scale
with eachstory. Thefrieze is pierced by unobtrusive bull's-eye windows
that light the top-story floor, originally containing water tanks and
elevator machinery, the building includes embellishments of terra cotta.
Details of
ornamentation done
bull's-eye windows that light the
top-story floor, originally containing
water tanks and elevatormachinery
Details of ornamentationdone
Postmodernity
Postmodernity in architecture is said to be heralded by the return of "wit,
ornament and reference" to architecture in response to the formalism of
the International Style ofmodernism.
Thefunctional and formalized shapesand spacesof the modernist style are
replaced by diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake,
and new waysof viewing familiar styles and spaceabound. Perhapsmost
obviously, architects rediscovered the expressive and symbolic value of
architectural elements and forms that had evolved through centuries of
building which had been abandoned by themodern style.
Characterstics
Thecharacteristics of postmodernism allow its aim to be expressedindiverse
ways.
• Thesecharacteristics include the useof sculpturalforms,
ornaments, anthropomorphism and materials which performtrompe
l'oeil. Thesephysical characteristics are combined with conceptual
characteristics of meaning, including pluralism, double coding,flying
buttresses and high ceilings, irony and paradox, andcontextualism.
• The sculptural forms, not necessarily organic, were created with much
ardor. Each building’s forms are nothing like the conforming rigid ones
of Modernism. Theseforms are sculptural and are somewhatplayful.
Theseforms are not reduced to an absolute minimum; they are built and
shaped for their ownsake.
• Postmodernism, with its sensitivity to the building’s context, did not
exclude the needs of humans from the building. Thecharacteristics of
Postmodernism were rather unified given their diverse appearances.The
most notable among their characteristics is their playfully extravagant
forms and the humour of the meanings the buildings conveyed.
InfluentialArchitects
• Someof the best-known and influential architects in the Postmodern style
are:
• Aldo Rossi
• Barbara Bielecka
• Ricardo Bofill
• JohnBurgee
• Terry Farrell
• Michael Graves
• Helmut Jahn
• JonJerde
• Edward Jones
• Philip Johnson
• HansKollhoff
• Ricardo Legorreta
• FrankGehry
PetronasTwinTower
 Twin skyscrapersin KualaLumpur, Malaysia
 Designedby: Argentine American architect CésarPelli.
 Constrction period:3 yearsi.e. march 1993-march1996
 Floor area: 395,000 m2 (4,252,000 sqft).
 The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced
concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble
motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim
religion.
 ThePetronasTowersfeature adiamond-faceted facade consisting
of 83,500 square metres (899,000 sqft) of stainlesssteel
extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding
systemresides within thetowers.
 the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious
sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed
of 55,000 square metres (590,000 sqft) of 20.38-millimetre
(0.802 in) laminated glassto reduce heat by reflecting
harmful UVrays.
• Thetowers feature adouble decker skybridge connecting the twotowers
on the 41st and 42ndfloors.
• Thebridge is 170 m (558 ft) above the ground and 58 m (190 ft) long,
weighing 750tons.
• Themain bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower.All main
lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to
even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. T
oreach
an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengersmusttake
an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.
• Onthe top of each tower is apinnacle standing 73.5 metres (241 ft)
tall. Eachpinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main
components: thespire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh
176 tons.
• Theinteriors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to
the design through traditional aspects suchasfabric and carvings typical
of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the
towers.
the Petronas Twin Towersfloor plan
design adopted asimple Islamic
geometric forms of two interlocking
squarescreating ashape of eight-
points stars with the semi-circles
softening in the innerangles.
Planof 17th floor
HaroldWashingtonLibrary
• TheHarold Washington LibraryCenteris the central library for the Chicago
Public Library System.
• Thebuilding contains approximately 756,000 square feet (70,200 m2)of
space.
• Architects: Hammond, BeebyandBabka.
• Exterior:-
Theexterior evokesthe design of the Rookery,Auditoriumand
the Monadnockbuildings. Thebottom portion is made of large granite blocks.
Redbrick makesup the majority of the exterior. Thesetwo portions draw on
the Beaux-Artstyle.
Onthe north, east and south sidesof the build are five story tall arched
windows. Between the windows are ropefriezes.
Thepediments and most of the west side facing Plymouth Courtare glass,steel
and aluminum with ornamentation hearkening to the Mannerist style.
the roof wasornamented with sevenlarge,painted
aluminum acroteria designed by Kent Bloomer withowl figures by Raymond
Kaskey.
Detailed exterior elements
Elevation at western face
Interior:-
• All public doors lead to the lobby.Thecorridor goeseast then south then west
and opens south to thelobby.
• Thelower level housesthe Cindy PritzkerAuditorium, Multi-PurposeRoom
and Exhibit Hall.
• Thecentral lobby is two stories tall. Onthe east side, the Popular Library is
housed.
• Thesecondfloor housesthe ThomasHughesChildren’slibrary.
Planof Harold
Washington
library
NeueStaatsgalerie
• TheNeue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany,wasdesigned by the British
firm JamesStirling, Michael Wilford andAssociates,although largely
accredited solely to partner JamesStirling.
• Thebuilding hasbeen claimed asthe epitome of Post-modernism.
• It was constructed in the 1970sand opened to the public in 1984.
• Thebuilding incorporates warm, natural elements of travertine and
sandstone in classical forms, to contrast with the industrial pieces of green
steel framing systemand the bright pink and bluesteel handrails.
• Thebuilding's most prominent feature is acentral open-top rotunda. This
outdoor, enclosed spacehousesthe sculpture garden. It is circumvented
by apublic footpath and ramp that leads pedestrians through thesite. This
feature allows the public to reach the higher elevation behind the
museumfrom the lower front of the building's main face.
Sideviews of NeueStaatsgalerie
3Dview of Neue Staatsgalerie
Plan of NeueStaatsgalerie
Ground Floor
First Floor
Tange Kenzo
• Thepursuit of new urbanism in Japanin the postwar period often
took the form of utopian speculationsthat reflected currents of
socio-ideological changesand diverse local conditions.
• Thisdissertation examinesthe issueof utopianism in
contemporary urbanism through an investigation of the
JapaneseMetabolist movement, and inparticular, T
angeKenzo's
works of urban design in the1960s.
• Theutopian nature of Metabolism wasmanifestedin T
ange's
seminal works during the 1960s: the Planfor Tokyo,Yamanashi
Communications Center,the Redevelopment Planfor Skopje,
and the OsakaExpo.
• Servingasapolemical alternative to the official plans of Tokyo,
this project posed itself to fundamentally transform its urban
structure for the imminent arrival of apost-industrial age,and
heralded the architect's later works
• Thedesign wasaradical plan for the reorganization andexpansion
of the capital in order to cater for apopulation beyond 10 million
• Thedesign wasfor alinear city that used aseries of ninekilometre
modules that stretched 80 km acrossTōkyōBayfrom Ikebukuro in
the north west to Kisarazuin the south east.
• Theperimeter of each of the modules wasorganised into three
levels of looping highways, asT
angewasadamant that an efficient
communication systemwould be the keyto modernliving.
• Themodules themselves were organised into building zonesand
transport hubs and included office, government administration and
retail districts aswell asanew Tōkyōtrain station and highway links
to other parts ofTōkyō.
• Residential areas were to be accommodated on parallel streets
that ran perpendicular to the main linear axis and like the Boston
Bayproject, people would build their own houses within giantA-
frame structures.
• plan incorporated three elements both on the land and theseaand
included alooped highway that connectedall
the prefectures around thebay.
Shizuoka Pressand Broadcasting T
ower
ARCHITECT
-T
angeKenzo
• Expo '70 was aworld's fair held
in Suita,Osaka,Japanbetween March 15 and
September 13, 1970.
• Thetheme of the Expowas "Progress and
Harmony for Mankind." In JapaneseExpo'70
is often referred to asŌsakaBanpaku.
• Thiswas the first world's fair held inJapan.
• Themaster plan for the Expowasdesigned
by the Japanese architect KenzoTange
THANK YOU….

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Devesh ppt history

  • 1. TRANSFORMATION FROM MODERN TO POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE  SUBMITTED BY- DEVESH TRIPATHI  SUBJECT- HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE  B ARCH 3RD YEAR SEM – 6TH  A.S.A , LKO
  • 2. Comparision betweenModernist& Postmodernist Architecture ModernistArchitecture PostmodernistArchitecture Duration: late 19th- early 20thcentury Late 20th -21stcentury Predecessor: Nordic Classicism Modernist Architecture Modernism is efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. Postmodernism refers to the functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist style are replaced by diverse aesthetics. Major concept: Form follows function pluralism, double coding, flying buttresses and high ceilings, irony and paradox, and contextualism.
  • 3. Modernism Modernism is aphilosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arosefrom wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Theterm is often applied to modernist movements at the turn of the 20th century, with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technologicaladvancement and the modernization of society.
  • 4. InfluentialArchitects Notable architects important to the history and development of the modernist movement include: • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe • LeCorbusier • Walter Gropius • Erich Mendelsohn • FrankLloyd Wright • LouisSullivan • Gerrit Rietveld • Bruno Taut • Arne Jacobsen • OscarNiemeyer • AlvarAalto
  • 5. Increasingly, during the 1950s, modern architecture was criticized for its sterility, its "institutional" anonymity, and its disregard for regional building traditions. More varied modes of expression were sought by architects of the next generation, although the basic emphasis on structure and materials continued. This tendency was evident in the works of louis kahn, edward durell stone, and philip cortelyou johnson in the united states, and the architects of the so-called new brutalism movement in england. A dynamic sculptural unity distinguished the buildings of eero saarinen and the late works of le corbusier. EVOLUTION
  • 6. Context • There are multiple lensesthrough which the evolution of modern architecture may be viewed. Somehistorians seeit asasocial matter, closely tied to the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment. • Modern architecture developed, asaresult of social and political revolutions. Others seeModern architecture asprimarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Still other historiansregard Modernism asamatter of taste, areaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excessesof Victorian and Edwardianarchitecture. • With the Industrial Revolution, the availability of newly-available building materials suchasiron, steel, and sheet glassdrove the invention of new building techniques.
  • 7. Characterstics • Commonthemes of modern architectureinclude: • The notion that "form follows function", a dictum originally expressed by frank lloyd wright's early mentor louis sullivan, meaning that the result ofdesign should derive directly from its purpose • Simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessarydetail" • Materials at 90 degrees to eachother • Visual expression of structure (asopposed to the hiding of structural Elements) • The related concept of "truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of amaterial ought to be seenrather than concealed or altered to represent somethingelse • Useof industrially-produced materials; adoption of themachine aesthetic • Particularly in international style modernism, avisual emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines
  • 8. TheGuggenheimMuseum • Situated in Manhattan, New YorkCity, it is the permanent home of a renowned and continuously expanding collection of Impressionist,Post- Impressionist, early Modern and contemporaryart. • Designed by FrankLloyd Wright, the cylindrical building, wider at the top than the bottom, wasconceived asa"temple of thespirit". • Its design wasinspired by a"Ziggurat" Babylonian temple pyramid, inverted. • TheMuseum Guggenheinexhibits agreat difference to the buildings in the vicinity becauseof its spiral shape, marked by the mergeing of triangles, ovals, arcs,circles and squares, which correspond to theconcept of organicarchitecture • Its unique ramp gallery extends up from ground level in along, continuous spiral along the outer edgesof the building to end just under the ceilingskylight. • Thematerials usedin its construction were basically precast concrete blocks.The white paint used on the internal walls makesthe works of art stand out. Theskylight is supported by steeljoints.
  • 11. WainwrightBuilding • Known asthe Wainwright State Office Building, it is a10-story red brick office building at St. Louis, Missouri. • The Wainwright Building is among the first skyscrapers in the world. It was designed by DankmarAdler and LouisSullivan (father of modern architecture) in the Palazzostyle and builtbetween 1890 and 1891. • It exemplifies Sullivan's theories about the tall building, which included a tripartite (three-part) composition (base-shaft-attic) basedon thestructure of the classicalcolumn. • Thebasecontained retail stores that required wide glazedopenings.Above it the semi-public nature of offices up asingle flight of stairs are expressed asbroad windows in the curtain wall. Acornice separates the second floor from the grid of identical windows of the screen wall, where each window is "a cell in ahoneycomb, nothing more". Thebuilding's windows and horizontals were inset slightly behind columns and piers, aspart ofa “vertical aesthetic”
  • 13. • Theornamentation for the building includes awide frieze below the deep cornice, which expressesthe formalized yet naturalisticcelery-leaf foliage. • It hasrich decorative patterns in low relief, varying in design and scale with eachstory. Thefrieze is pierced by unobtrusive bull's-eye windows that light the top-story floor, originally containing water tanks and elevator machinery, the building includes embellishments of terra cotta. Details of ornamentation done
  • 14. bull's-eye windows that light the top-story floor, originally containing water tanks and elevatormachinery Details of ornamentationdone
  • 15. Postmodernity Postmodernity in architecture is said to be heralded by the return of "wit, ornament and reference" to architecture in response to the formalism of the International Style ofmodernism. Thefunctional and formalized shapesand spacesof the modernist style are replaced by diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new waysof viewing familiar styles and spaceabound. Perhapsmost obviously, architects rediscovered the expressive and symbolic value of architectural elements and forms that had evolved through centuries of building which had been abandoned by themodern style.
  • 16. Characterstics Thecharacteristics of postmodernism allow its aim to be expressedindiverse ways. • Thesecharacteristics include the useof sculpturalforms, ornaments, anthropomorphism and materials which performtrompe l'oeil. Thesephysical characteristics are combined with conceptual characteristics of meaning, including pluralism, double coding,flying buttresses and high ceilings, irony and paradox, andcontextualism. • The sculptural forms, not necessarily organic, were created with much ardor. Each building’s forms are nothing like the conforming rigid ones of Modernism. Theseforms are sculptural and are somewhatplayful. Theseforms are not reduced to an absolute minimum; they are built and shaped for their ownsake. • Postmodernism, with its sensitivity to the building’s context, did not exclude the needs of humans from the building. Thecharacteristics of Postmodernism were rather unified given their diverse appearances.The most notable among their characteristics is their playfully extravagant forms and the humour of the meanings the buildings conveyed.
  • 17. InfluentialArchitects • Someof the best-known and influential architects in the Postmodern style are: • Aldo Rossi • Barbara Bielecka • Ricardo Bofill • JohnBurgee • Terry Farrell • Michael Graves • Helmut Jahn • JonJerde • Edward Jones • Philip Johnson • HansKollhoff • Ricardo Legorreta • FrankGehry
  • 18. PetronasTwinTower  Twin skyscrapersin KualaLumpur, Malaysia  Designedby: Argentine American architect CésarPelli.  Constrction period:3 yearsi.e. march 1993-march1996  Floor area: 395,000 m2 (4,252,000 sqft).  The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion.  ThePetronasTowersfeature adiamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres (899,000 sqft) of stainlesssteel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding systemresides within thetowers.  the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres (590,000 sqft) of 20.38-millimetre (0.802 in) laminated glassto reduce heat by reflecting harmful UVrays.
  • 19. • Thetowers feature adouble decker skybridge connecting the twotowers on the 41st and 42ndfloors. • Thebridge is 170 m (558 ft) above the ground and 58 m (190 ft) long, weighing 750tons. • Themain bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower.All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. T oreach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengersmusttake an escalator to the upper deck of the lift. • Onthe top of each tower is apinnacle standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) tall. Eachpinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: thespire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. • Theinteriors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects suchasfabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.
  • 20. the Petronas Twin Towersfloor plan design adopted asimple Islamic geometric forms of two interlocking squarescreating ashape of eight- points stars with the semi-circles softening in the innerangles. Planof 17th floor
  • 21. HaroldWashingtonLibrary • TheHarold Washington LibraryCenteris the central library for the Chicago Public Library System. • Thebuilding contains approximately 756,000 square feet (70,200 m2)of space. • Architects: Hammond, BeebyandBabka. • Exterior:- Theexterior evokesthe design of the Rookery,Auditoriumand the Monadnockbuildings. Thebottom portion is made of large granite blocks. Redbrick makesup the majority of the exterior. Thesetwo portions draw on the Beaux-Artstyle. Onthe north, east and south sidesof the build are five story tall arched windows. Between the windows are ropefriezes. Thepediments and most of the west side facing Plymouth Courtare glass,steel and aluminum with ornamentation hearkening to the Mannerist style. the roof wasornamented with sevenlarge,painted aluminum acroteria designed by Kent Bloomer withowl figures by Raymond Kaskey.
  • 23. Interior:- • All public doors lead to the lobby.Thecorridor goeseast then south then west and opens south to thelobby. • Thelower level housesthe Cindy PritzkerAuditorium, Multi-PurposeRoom and Exhibit Hall. • Thecentral lobby is two stories tall. Onthe east side, the Popular Library is housed. • Thesecondfloor housesthe ThomasHughesChildren’slibrary. Planof Harold Washington library
  • 24. NeueStaatsgalerie • TheNeue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany,wasdesigned by the British firm JamesStirling, Michael Wilford andAssociates,although largely accredited solely to partner JamesStirling. • Thebuilding hasbeen claimed asthe epitome of Post-modernism. • It was constructed in the 1970sand opened to the public in 1984. • Thebuilding incorporates warm, natural elements of travertine and sandstone in classical forms, to contrast with the industrial pieces of green steel framing systemand the bright pink and bluesteel handrails. • Thebuilding's most prominent feature is acentral open-top rotunda. This outdoor, enclosed spacehousesthe sculpture garden. It is circumvented by apublic footpath and ramp that leads pedestrians through thesite. This feature allows the public to reach the higher elevation behind the museumfrom the lower front of the building's main face.
  • 25. Sideviews of NeueStaatsgalerie 3Dview of Neue Staatsgalerie
  • 26. Plan of NeueStaatsgalerie Ground Floor First Floor
  • 27. Tange Kenzo • Thepursuit of new urbanism in Japanin the postwar period often took the form of utopian speculationsthat reflected currents of socio-ideological changesand diverse local conditions. • Thisdissertation examinesthe issueof utopianism in contemporary urbanism through an investigation of the JapaneseMetabolist movement, and inparticular, T angeKenzo's works of urban design in the1960s. • Theutopian nature of Metabolism wasmanifestedin T ange's seminal works during the 1960s: the Planfor Tokyo,Yamanashi Communications Center,the Redevelopment Planfor Skopje, and the OsakaExpo. • Servingasapolemical alternative to the official plans of Tokyo, this project posed itself to fundamentally transform its urban structure for the imminent arrival of apost-industrial age,and heralded the architect's later works
  • 28. • Thedesign wasaradical plan for the reorganization andexpansion of the capital in order to cater for apopulation beyond 10 million • Thedesign wasfor alinear city that used aseries of ninekilometre modules that stretched 80 km acrossTōkyōBayfrom Ikebukuro in the north west to Kisarazuin the south east. • Theperimeter of each of the modules wasorganised into three levels of looping highways, asT angewasadamant that an efficient communication systemwould be the keyto modernliving. • Themodules themselves were organised into building zonesand transport hubs and included office, government administration and retail districts aswell asanew Tōkyōtrain station and highway links to other parts ofTōkyō. • Residential areas were to be accommodated on parallel streets that ran perpendicular to the main linear axis and like the Boston Bayproject, people would build their own houses within giantA- frame structures. • plan incorporated three elements both on the land and theseaand included alooped highway that connectedall the prefectures around thebay.
  • 29. Shizuoka Pressand Broadcasting T ower ARCHITECT -T angeKenzo
  • 30. • Expo '70 was aworld's fair held in Suita,Osaka,Japanbetween March 15 and September 13, 1970. • Thetheme of the Expowas "Progress and Harmony for Mankind." In JapaneseExpo'70 is often referred to asŌsakaBanpaku. • Thiswas the first world's fair held inJapan. • Themaster plan for the Expowasdesigned by the Japanese architect KenzoTange
  • 31.