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THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
SUBMITTED BY- DEVESH TRIPATHI
 Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a variety of polymer materials
that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form.. Thermoset
materials are usually liquid, powder, or malleable prior to curing, and
designed to be molded into their final form, or used as adhesives.
 The curing process transforms the resin into a plastic or rubber by cross-
linking. The molecular chains link into a rigid, 3-D structure.

"Plastics are defined as the polymers (solid materials) which become
mobile on heating and thus can be cast into moulds."
Thermoset materials are generally stronger
than thermoplastic materials, and are also
better suited to high-temperature
applications.
EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING
PLASTICS
 Rubber
 Bakelite, a Phenol Formaldehyde Resin (used in
electrical insulators and plastic wear)
 Duroplast
 Urea-Formaldehyde Foam (used in plywood,
particleboard and medium-density fibreboard)
 Melamine (used on worktop surfaces)
 Polyester Resin (used in glass-reinforced
plastics/Fibreglass (GRP))
 Epoxy Resin (used as an adhesive and in fibre reinforced
plastics such as glass reinforced plastic and graphite-
reinforced plastic)
Bakelite
 Bakelite, a Phenol Formaldehyde Resin (used in electrical insulators
and plastic wear).
 Bakelite is a brand name material based on the thermosetting Phenol
Formaldehyde Resin Ploy-oxy-benzyl-methyl-engyl-colanhydride.
 Developed in 1907-1909 by Dr. Leo Baekland.
 Formed by the reaction under heat and pressure of Phenol and
Formaldehyde.
 It was the first plastic made from synthetic polymers.
 It was used for its nonconductive and heat-resistant properties in
radio and telephone casings and electrical insulators.
 Hard and durable.
 Cheap usually black and brown in colour.
 Bakelite is manufactured under various commercial brand names
such as Micarta.
 Micarta is produced in sheets, rods and tubes for hundreds of
industrial applications in the electronics, power generation and
aerospace industries.
 Bakelite Phenolic is produced in dozens of commercial grades to
meet mechanical, electrical and thermal requirements.
CLASSIFICATION
1. PAPER REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Normal electrical
applications, moderate mechanical strength, continuous operating
temperature of 250°F.
2. CANVAS REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Good mechanical
and impact strength with continuous operating temperature of 250°F.
3. LINEN REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Good mechanical &
electrical strength. Recommended for intricate high strength parts.
Continuous operating temperature 250°F.
4. NYLON REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Superior electrical
properties under humid conditions, fungus resistant, continuous
operating temperature of 160°F.
camera
tool set
radio
pencil sharpener
laundry
sprinkler
funnel
razor set
jewellery box
hair cutter
hair dryer
Measuring
tape
air pressure
tester
ash tray
Cigarette
case
Reading
lamp
telephone
Duroplast
 Duroplast is a composite material a close relative of bakelite.
 It is a resin plastic reinforced with fibers (either cotton or wool) making
it a fiber-reinforced plastic similar to glass-reinforced plastic.
 It can be made in a press similar to shaping steel it is more suitable for
volume car production.
 Being used in cars Duroplast was also used to make suitcases.
 Duroplast can't be recycled, and burning it makes toxic fumes, so
disposing of the bodies of old aircrafts-hardware was a problem.
 Duroplast's components are edible and there are stories of pigs, sheep
or other domestic farm animals consuming duroplast.
Melamine
Melamine is a strong organic base with chemical formula
C3H6N6, with the IUPAC name 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine. Its SMILES string is
NC1=NC(N)=NC(N)=N1. It is primarily used to produce melamine resin, which when
combined with formaldehyde produces a very durable thermoset plastic.
Melamine foam has an interlinking bubble format which
produces a structure more like a block of microscopic fiberglass than normal foam.
It is used for soundproofing, as a fire-retardant material
Uses
1. Melamine formaldehyde is available clear and in a wide range of
colours.
2. When heated cured, it is hard wearing, durable and resistant to The
heat, and is therefore used as the wallboard and best known for
surface layers of brightly coloured decorative laminates.
3. Melamine formaldehyde is resistant to ignition, but produces fishy
smell on burning.
 Properties
1.Hard
2.Strong
3.Heat resistant
4. Superior resistance to hot and cold water.
Urea-formaldehyde
Urea-formaldehyde is a transparent thermosetting resin or plastic, made
from urea and formaldehyde heated in the presence of a mild base such
as ammonia or pyridine. These resins are used in adhesives, finishes,
and molded objects. Urea-formaldehyde resin has a high tensile strength,
flexural modulus and HDT, low water absorption and mould shrinkage and
higher surface hardness, elongation at break and volume resistance.
Uses
1. This is used in the manufacture of the electrical components and others
moulded components such as WC seat.
2. Urea formaldehyde is resistant to ignition, but produces a
fishy smell on burning.
3. Urea formaldehyde foam is no longer used for cavity wall insulation.
4. Urea formaldehyde resin are used for adhesives in the production of plywood,
veneers and asseSSmbly glue.`
Properties
1. Always brown or a dark colour.
2. Heavy solid plastic materials.
3. Fishy smell when burnt.
POLYSTER AND EPOXIDE RESINS
The main disadvantage of most of the thermosetting resins of the
phenolic and amino- plastics types is the need for the application of very
high pressures during moulding. This requirement does not exist in the
case of the polyester and epoxide resins, two versatile types of
thermosetting resin.
POLYESTER RESIN
POLYESTER resin (used in glass-reinforced plastics) this is the versatile type
of thermosetting plastics. The particular feature of the polyester resins is their
exceptionally high resistance to impact when reinforced with glass fibres.
APPLICATIONS :
•Fibers (and microfibers) for fabric .
•Bottles
•Photographic film (after cellulose triacetate, polyester is the most important substrate
film base)
•A common matrix for glass-reinforced plastic (commonly called "fiberglass") and other
composite materials.
•Liquid crystal displays
•Holograms
•Filters
•Dielectric film for capacitors and film insulation for wire, and insulating tapes
•Liquid crystalline polyesters are among the first industrially used liquid crystalline
polymers.They have extremely good mechanical properties and are extremely heat
resistant. For that reason, they can be used as an abradable seal in jet engines.
•Thermosetting polyester resins are commonly used as casting materials, fiberglass
laminating resins, and non-metallic auto-body fillers.
EPOXY RESIN:
EPOXY resin (used as an adhesive and in glass reinforced
plastic/fiberglass (GRP), and FRP).
The main properties of the epoxide resins are good adhesion (to most
materials), low shrinkage on hardening, good electrical and mechanical properties.
Liquid and solid types are manufactured to meet different requirements . They are
among the most versatile of the plastics and can be formulated with hardening agents,
fillers and pigments to produce compositions used in quite diverse applications.
The use of epoxide resins in conventional solvent based paints is firmly
established. These possess superior resistance to acids, alkalis, solvents and organic
chemical generally. There is, in addition, increasing interest in the use of solvent–less
epoxide systems for producing especially tough, thick chemical and water –resistant
coatings. Fillers such as sand , slate dust or glass fibres are often used In these
applications . The solvent-less coatings finds many uses in buildings, marine and civil
engineering industries.
PAINTS AND COATINGS
• Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coatings (FBE) are
extensively used for corrosion protection of steel pipes
and fittings used in the oil & gas industry, potable
water transmission pipelines (steel), concrete
reinforcing rebar etc.
• Epoxy coatings are also widely used
as primers to improve the adhesion of automotive and
marine paints especially on metal surfaces where
corrosion (rusting) resistance is important.
•Epoxy resins are also used for high performance &
decorative flooring applications especially terrazzo
flooring, Chip Flooring [1]and colored aggregate
flooring [2].
Considerable development work has been carried out upon the use of epoxide resin
compositions as adhesives, gap fillers, solders, special putties, flooring and jointing
compoAunds.
Industrial tooling and composites
• Epoxy systems are also used in industrial tooling applications to produce molds,
master models, laminates, castings, fixtures, and other industrial production aids. This
"plastic tooling" replaces metal, wood and other traditional materials and generally
improves the efficiency and either lowers the overall cost or shortens the lead-time for
many industrial processes.
• Epoxies are also used in producing fiber reinforced or composite parts. They are
more expensive than polyester resins and vinyl ester resins, but generally produce
stronger more temperature resistant composite parts.
Electrical systems and electronics
Epoxy resin formulations are also important in the electronics industry and are used
in many parts of electrical systems. In electrical power generation, epoxy systems
encapsulate or coat motors, generators, transformers, switchgear, bushings, and
insulators. Epoxy resins are excellent electrical insulation materials and they protect
electrical components from short circuiting, dust, humidity and other environmental
factors that could damage the electrical equipment.
MOULDING
THIS IS MOST COMMONLY ADOPTED PROCESS FOR FABRICATION OF
PLSTICS ARTICLES.THE GENERAL PROCESS CONSISTS IN PLACING
THE RAW MATERIALS IN A MOULD AND THEN HEATING IT.
IN CASE OF PLASTIC MOULDING IS DONE BY TWO METHODS
1.BLOW MOULDING : Blow molding is a manufacturing process by which
hollow plastic parts are formed. IT IS OF THREE TYPES :
(A) Extrusion Blow Molding
(B) Injection Blow Molding
(C) Stretch Blow Molding.
In Extrusion Blow Molding (EBM) : Plastic is melted and extruded into a
hollow tube (a parison). This parison is then captured by closing it into a
cooled metal mold. Air is then blown into the parison, inflating it into the
shape of the hollow bottle, container or part. After the plastic has cooled
sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is ejected.
EBM processes may be either continuous (constant extrusion of the parison,
or intermittent. Types of EBM equipment may be categorized as follows:
Continuous Extrusion Equipment
rotary wheel blow molding systems
shuttle machinery
Intermittent Extrusion Machinery
reciprocating screw machinery
accumulator head machinery
Examples of parts made by the EBM process include dairy
containers, shampoo bottles, and hollow industrial parts such as
drums.
The injection blow molding machine is based on an extruder barrel and
screw assembly which melts the polymer.
The molten polymer is fed into a manifold where it is injected through
nozzles into a hollow, heated preforms mould.
The preform mold forms the external shape and is clamped around a
mandrel (the core rod) which forms the internal shape of the preform.
The preform consists of a fully formed bottle/jar neck with a thick tube of
polymer attached, which will form the body.
The preform consists of a fully formed bottle/jar neck with a thick tube of
polymer attached, which will form the body.
The preform mold opens and the core rod is rotated and clamped into the
hollow, chilled blow mold. The core rod opens and allows compressed air
into the preform, which inflates it to the finished article shape.
After a cooling period the blow mold opens and the core rod is rotated to the
ejection position. The finished article is stripped off the core rod and leak-tested
prior to packing. The preform and blow mold can have many cavities, typically
three to sixteen depending on the article size and the required output. There are
three sets of core rods, which allow concurrent preform injection, blow molding
and ejection .
These preforms are produced with the necks of the bottles, including threads (the
"finish") on one end. These preforms are packaged, and fed later (after cooling) into
an EBM blow molding machine. In the SBM process, the preforms are heated
(typically using infrared heaters) above their glass transition temperature, then
blown using high pressure air into bottles using metal blow molds. Usually the
preform is stretched with a core rod as part of the process. The stretching of some
polymers, such as PET (PolyEthylene Terepthalate) results in strain hardening of
the resin, allowing the bottles to resist deforming under the pressures formed by
carbonated beverages, which typically
The main applications are bottles, jars and other containers. The Injection blow
molding process produces bottles of superior visual and dimensional quality
compared to extrusion blow molding. The process is ideal for both narrow and
wide-mouthed containers and produces them fully finished with no flash.
Stretch blow molding :
These preforms are produced with the necks of the bottles,
including threads (the "finish") on one end. These preforms are
packaged, and fed later (after cooling) into an EBM blow
molding machine. In the SBM process, the preforms are
heated (typically using infrared heaters) above their glass
transition temperature, then blown using high pressure air into
bottles using metal blow molds. Usually the preform is
stretched with a core rod as part of the process.
Injection moulding :
The plastic material is loaded heated and plastic is injected at high pressure
into a mold, which is the inverse of the desired shape. The mold is made by a
moldmaker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum, and
precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection
moulding is very widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the
smallest component to entire body panels of cars. It is the most common
method of production, with some commonly made
items including bottle caps
and outdoor furniture
Extrusion Moulding is a manufacturing process used to make pipes,
hoses, drinking straws, curtain tracks, rods, and fibres.
The machine used to extrude materials is very similar to an injection
moulding machine. A motor turns a screw which feeds granules of plastic
through a heater. The granules melt into a liquid which is forced through a
die, forming a long 'tube like' shape. The shape of the die determines the
shape of the tube. The extrusion is then cooled and forms a solid shape. The
tube may be printed apon, and cut at equal intervals. The pieces may be
rolled for storage or packed together. Shapes that can result from extrusion
include T-sections, U-sections, square sections, I-sections, L-sections and
circular sections. One of most famous products of extrusion moulding is the
fiber optic.
EXTRUSION MOULDING
IN THIS METHOD, THE RESIN POWDER IS LED THROUGH HOPPER AT
INLET AT THE INLET END OF THE REVOLVING SCREW. AT THE OUTLET
END , THE MATERIAL IS HEATED AND IT IS EXTRUDED OR FORCED
THROUGH A NOZZLE . THE PLASTIC MATERIAL AS IT COMES OUT FROM
NOZZLE IS RECEIVED IN MOULDS AND IT IS COOLED WITH AIR JETS OR
WATER BATH.THIS MOULDING IS SIMPLE THEREFORE USED MOSTLY.
JET MOULDING
IN THIS METHOD , THE PLASTIC
MATERIAL IS MODERATELY HEATED.
IT IS THEN AKLLOWED TO PASS
THROUGH NOZZLE, WHICH IS
PREHEATED TO A HIGH TEMPERATURE.
COMPRESSION MOULDING :
IN THIS METHOD THEMOULDS TO RECEIVE THE PLASTIC MATERIAL ARE
PREPARED. THE MOULD ARE HEATED AND THEN THE PLASTIC MATERIAL
IS PLACED IN THE MOULDS THE MOULDS ARE CLOSED AND THEY ARE
HEATED TO A TEMPERATURE OF 100-200 DEGREE CENTIGRADE UNDER
PRESSURE OF 10 -50 NMM SQUARE.
IN CASE OF THERMOPLSTICS, THE MOULDS ARE COOLED BEFORE
THE ARTICLES ARE TAKEN OUT.. THUS MOULDS ARE HEATED AND
COOLED ALTERNATIVELY IN PREPARATION OF THERMOPLASTICS
ARTICLES.
MOULDING COMPOUNDS :
TO GIVE DSIRED SHAPES TO FINISHED PLASTIC ARTICLES,
CERTAIN MOULDING COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TI THE
PLASTICS.FOLLOWING ARE MOULDING COMPOUNDS :
1. CATALYSTS
2. FILLIERS
3. HARDENERS
4. LUBRICANTS
5. PIGMENTS
6. PLASTICIZERS
7. SOLVENTS
CATALYST
THESE COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TO ASSIST AND ACCELARATE THE
HARDENING OF RESINS. FOR INSTANCE, THE ESTER ACTS AS
CATALYSTFOR UREA FORMALDEHYDE. THEY ARE USED FOR QUIC
AND COMPLETE POLYMERIZATION.
FILLERS
THESE ARE INERT MATERIAL AND THEY IMPART STRENTH, HARDNESS
AND OTHER PROPERTIES TO THE PLASTICS.THE CHOICE OF A
FILLER SHOULD BE CAREFULLY MADE. IT SHOULD BE CONFIRMED
THAT THE ADDITION OF A FILLER DOES NOT HAVE DETRIMENTAL
EFFECT ON OTHER PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS.FILLERS CAN BE
USED IN FOLLOWING FORMS :
(i) FIBROUS FILLERS
(ii) LAMINATED FILLERS
(iii) POWDER FILLERS
HARDENERS
THESE COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TO INCREASE THE HARDNESS OF
RESIN.FOR INSTANCE, THE HEXAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE ACTS AS
HARDENER FOR PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE.
LUBRICANTS
THESE ARE APPLIED ON THE SURFACE OF MOULDS SO THAT THE
ARTICLES OF PLASTICS DO NOT STICK TO THE MOULDS. THE APPLICATION
OF LUBRICANTS ON SURFACEE OF MOULDS ALLOW EASY REMOVAL OF
ATRTICLES OF PLASTICS FROM MOULDS. THE COMMONLY USED
LUBRICANTS ARE GRAPHITE, PARAFINE, WAX , ETC
PIGMENTS
THE ADDITION OF DYES AND PIGMENTS HELPS IN TWO
WAYS , THEY ACT AS FILLERS AND THEY IMPART DESIRED COLOURS TO
PLASTICS. THEY SHOULD BE DURABLE AND ADEQUATELY FAST TO LIGHT.
THE COMMONLY USED PIGMENTS ARE ZINC OXIDE, BARYTES , ETC
PLASTICIZERS
THE PLSTICIZERS ARE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WHICH ARE OILY IN
NATURE AND OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT .THEY ARE USED TO SEPARATE
THE POLYMER CHAIN BY A GREATER DISTANCE TO MAKE THE
CRYSTALIZATION DIFFICULT. A NON CRYSTALINE SOLID IS THEREBY
PRODUCED FROM A POLYMER THAT NORMALLY CRSTALLIZES. THESE
COMPOUND ARE ADDED TO IMPROVE PLASTICITY AND TO IMPART
SOFTNESS TO PLASTICS. THEY SHOULD BE CHEMICALLY INERT, POORLY
VOLATILE AND NON TOXIC.CAMPHOR,TRIACETAIN,TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE
ETC ARE SOME OF COMMONLY USED PLASTICIZERS.
SOLVENTS
THESE COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TO DISSOLVE THE PLASTICIZERS. FOR
INSTANCE, THE ALCOHOL IS ADDED IN CELLULOSE NITRATE PLASTICS TO
DISSOLVE CAMPHOR.
GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYESTER
The standard matrix material for glass –fibre reinforced plastics is polyester
resin, although other thermosetting resins, including phenolic, epoxy and
polyurethane, may be used.
The polyester, which has a low modulus of elasticity, when reinforce with
glass fibres produces a material which is rigid enough for use as a cladding
material.
The proportion of glass fibres ranges widely from 20%-80% by weight
depending upon the strength required. Enhance performance can be
achieved by using the more expensive S-grade high strength and modulus
glass fibres used mainly in aero-space industry.
FABRICATION PROCESS
The moulds for producing GRP is usually made from timber, but steel or GRP itself may
also be used. Moulds are reused, sometimes with minor variations.
In the fabrication process, the moulds is coated with a release agent to prevent
bonding. A gel coat, which ultimately will be the weathering surface, is applied to a
finished thickness of 0.25 -0.4 mm. the subsequent fabrication involves the laying- up of
layers of glass fibres and polyester resin to the required thickness, usually with either
sprayed rovings or chopped strand mat. Reinforcement and fixings are usually done in
aluminium due to same coefficient-
of- thermal expansion. Plastic
foam insulation may be
encapsulated to give the
required thermal properties.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GRP
• The high strength to weight ratio of GRP allows for the use of large panel units.
Curved edges to panels and openings are preferred to reduce stress –raising points
at very sharp corners.
• the high thermal expansion co- efficient of GRP demands careful detailing of
movement joints and their appropriate sealing.
•Colour fading and yellowing of GRP panels has been a problem. Recent products
with UV light protection are more colour fast. Slightly textured finishes are generally
more durable than smooth.
• it can be made fire- resistant by the some additives like- phenolic resins at the time
of manufacturing.
•GRP is vandal resistant and can be laminated sufficiently to be bullet resistant.
USES OF GLASS- FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTICS
•The light weight properties of GRP make it eminently suitable for the manufacture of
large cladding panels and custom moulded structures.
•
RUBBER
RUBBER
The rubber are of following types:
 Natural rubber
 Synthetic rubber
1. NATURAL RUBBER
This variety of rubber is obtained from latex or a viscous milky
juice tapped from rubber trees.
The process of obtaining natural rubber is:
 Plantation
 Tapping latex
 Purification
 coagulation
Synthetic rubber
The term synthetic or artificial rubber was conceived through
research and development as a polymer which can be
used to replace natural rubber.
The important forms of rubber are as follows:
1. Crepe rubber
This variety is one form of crude rubber.
this rubber has irregular rough surfaces and hence it is
called crepe rubber.
2. Foam rubber
In the liquid latex the chemicals producing
gases are added and the mixture is well stirred till
foam is formed.
3. Guayule rubber
this type of rubber is a variety of natural rubber it
is prepared from the branches of guayule.it contains 70% of
hydrocarbons,20% of resins ,10% of insoluble materials.
4. Gutta percha rubber
This type of rubber is a variety of natural
rubber.it is best material for preparing rope of submarines and
as a insulating material in electrical works.
5. poly-butadiene rubber
this is a type of synthetic rubber which is
used where high abrassion resistance and strength is
required.the main area of application are automotive moulded
goods,melting,engineering,floor tiles,footwears etc.
6. Smoked rubber
this variety is one form of crude rubber .After coagulation
the rubber pieces are dried in room filled with smoke at a
temperature of about 40 deg. To 50 deg. C.
7. Sponge rubber
this rubber is prepared by adding sodium bicarbonate
during the process of vulcanization.it is good insulating material for
heat and sound.s
Properties of rubber
 It can absorb due to an impact.
 It can contain liquid and gasses.
 It creeps or extent in length when forces are
appliedover it.
 It is bad conductor of heat.
 It is plastic in nature and hence moulded in any
desired shape.
 It is possible to alter its properties by the process of
vulcanization and compounding.
 It posses the quality of flexibility.
 It resist abrasion in a better way.
Uses of rubber
 This is used to make gaskets for doors and windows. Airtight in case of
refrigerator,vehicles,air-conditioned rooms etc.
 It is used for a lining material for parts of machines subjected to heavy
friction and for tanks to be used for heavy processes.
 It is used for preparing tires and machines.
 It is used to prepare rubber threads which are useful as wires , ropes
etc.
 It is widely used for absorbing shocks and reducing vibrations in
machines.
 It may be used as hose pipes to carry petrol and kerosene
oils,gaskets,insulation for high tention wires etc.
 The natural rubber should be protected from sunlight.
 The outstanding property of rubber is that it is capable to undergo great
deformation without being structurally damaged.
 The synthetic rubber offers great resistance to acids, petroleum
products etc.
RUBBER HOSES
.
 Wire and Cable
 Silastic high consistency silicone rubber
 is the right coating for insulated wire &
 insulated cable such as:

 UL wire
 Power and control cable
 Communication cable
 These are demanding applications requiring materials to insulate the electrical
or control cables from the environment in which they are situated. Silastic
silicone rubber is ideal for these uses, because of its high temperature
resistances, good dielectrics and fire resistances. (Our high consistency
silicone rubber conforms to Low Smoke Low Toxicity requirements.) Silicone
rubber also offers good abrasion resistance and oil resistance for those
applications that demand
Air and Water Gaskets and Seals
Silastic® high consistency silicone rubber is the premier gasket material to
use in manufacturing a wide array of products including:
•Intake manifold gaskets
•Electrical terminal boxes
•Telephone exchange boxes
•Lighting
•Air conditioning equipment
•Cable blocks
In these applications one needs a high integrity rubber seal that performs over
an extended life, to provide an environment free of surprises or trouble. Our
silicone rubber gasket material offers temperature resistance, weather (uv and
ozone) resistance, and fire resistance (our materials conform to Low Smoke
Low Toxicity requirements). Silicone rubber has very good compression set
resistance allowing it to maintain a proper seal over a lifespan of many years.
 OTHER TYPES OF ADHESIVES
 Heat Activated Adhesives
 These are mainly natural rubbers, which when activated by temperature, provide high
adhesion and shear strength. These adhesives have limited resistance against
temperatures and solvents.
 Electrically Conductive/ Anti-Static Adhesives
 A layer of conductive particles embedded within the adhesive provide a pathway for
electrical current to flow between substrates. This layer will also dissipate static charge,
preventing a build-up in static sensitive applications.
 Thermally Conductive Adhesives
 A layer of thermally conductive particles in the adhesive allow heat to pass through the
adhesive. They are mainly used in the attachment of heat sinks to PCB's.
FLOOR TILE SHEET RUBBER
Stair treads withstand heavy-duty wear,
reduce noise, are highly slip-retardant,
require no waxing, feature fracture-free
nosings
STAIR TREADS
STAIR CASE
WALK WAY
SHOPPING MALLS
LIBRARY
GYMNASIUM
ENTRANCES
CAR WORKSHOPS SUPERMARKETS
RUBBER EXPANSION JOINTS
The modular tiles were designed for rooftops, patios, walkways, pool surrounds,
playgrounds and more. Footed tiles allow excellent drainage and slip-resistance for
outdoor applications, while indoors, they offer an alternative to raised access flooring
by allowing cable transport beneath the tiles.
MODULAR TILES
•Outstanding for abuse
oriented spaces
•Extra-heavy-duty use
indoors and outdoors
•Unaffected by ice, water
and extreme temperatures
•Safe and slip-resistant
•Indoor and outdoor
"dogbone" Paver
Embossed Tile
Rectangular Tile
RUBBER PAVERS
RUBBER FOAM
THERMOSETTING
RUBBER PRODUCTS

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Thermosetting plastics & rubber

  • 2.  Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a variety of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form.. Thermoset materials are usually liquid, powder, or malleable prior to curing, and designed to be molded into their final form, or used as adhesives.  The curing process transforms the resin into a plastic or rubber by cross- linking. The molecular chains link into a rigid, 3-D structure.  "Plastics are defined as the polymers (solid materials) which become mobile on heating and thus can be cast into moulds." Thermoset materials are generally stronger than thermoplastic materials, and are also better suited to high-temperature applications.
  • 3. EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS  Rubber  Bakelite, a Phenol Formaldehyde Resin (used in electrical insulators and plastic wear)  Duroplast  Urea-Formaldehyde Foam (used in plywood, particleboard and medium-density fibreboard)  Melamine (used on worktop surfaces)  Polyester Resin (used in glass-reinforced plastics/Fibreglass (GRP))  Epoxy Resin (used as an adhesive and in fibre reinforced plastics such as glass reinforced plastic and graphite- reinforced plastic)
  • 5.  Bakelite, a Phenol Formaldehyde Resin (used in electrical insulators and plastic wear).  Bakelite is a brand name material based on the thermosetting Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Ploy-oxy-benzyl-methyl-engyl-colanhydride.  Developed in 1907-1909 by Dr. Leo Baekland.  Formed by the reaction under heat and pressure of Phenol and Formaldehyde.  It was the first plastic made from synthetic polymers.  It was used for its nonconductive and heat-resistant properties in radio and telephone casings and electrical insulators.  Hard and durable.  Cheap usually black and brown in colour.
  • 6.  Bakelite is manufactured under various commercial brand names such as Micarta.  Micarta is produced in sheets, rods and tubes for hundreds of industrial applications in the electronics, power generation and aerospace industries.  Bakelite Phenolic is produced in dozens of commercial grades to meet mechanical, electrical and thermal requirements.
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION 1. PAPER REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Normal electrical applications, moderate mechanical strength, continuous operating temperature of 250°F. 2. CANVAS REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Good mechanical and impact strength with continuous operating temperature of 250°F. 3. LINEN REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Good mechanical & electrical strength. Recommended for intricate high strength parts. Continuous operating temperature 250°F. 4. NYLON REINFORCED PHENOLIC BAKELITE : Superior electrical properties under humid conditions, fungus resistant, continuous operating temperature of 160°F.
  • 13.  Duroplast is a composite material a close relative of bakelite.  It is a resin plastic reinforced with fibers (either cotton or wool) making it a fiber-reinforced plastic similar to glass-reinforced plastic.  It can be made in a press similar to shaping steel it is more suitable for volume car production.  Being used in cars Duroplast was also used to make suitcases.  Duroplast can't be recycled, and burning it makes toxic fumes, so disposing of the bodies of old aircrafts-hardware was a problem.  Duroplast's components are edible and there are stories of pigs, sheep or other domestic farm animals consuming duroplast.
  • 14. Melamine Melamine is a strong organic base with chemical formula C3H6N6, with the IUPAC name 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine. Its SMILES string is NC1=NC(N)=NC(N)=N1. It is primarily used to produce melamine resin, which when combined with formaldehyde produces a very durable thermoset plastic. Melamine foam has an interlinking bubble format which produces a structure more like a block of microscopic fiberglass than normal foam. It is used for soundproofing, as a fire-retardant material
  • 15. Uses 1. Melamine formaldehyde is available clear and in a wide range of colours. 2. When heated cured, it is hard wearing, durable and resistant to The heat, and is therefore used as the wallboard and best known for surface layers of brightly coloured decorative laminates. 3. Melamine formaldehyde is resistant to ignition, but produces fishy smell on burning.  Properties 1.Hard 2.Strong 3.Heat resistant 4. Superior resistance to hot and cold water.
  • 16. Urea-formaldehyde Urea-formaldehyde is a transparent thermosetting resin or plastic, made from urea and formaldehyde heated in the presence of a mild base such as ammonia or pyridine. These resins are used in adhesives, finishes, and molded objects. Urea-formaldehyde resin has a high tensile strength, flexural modulus and HDT, low water absorption and mould shrinkage and higher surface hardness, elongation at break and volume resistance. Uses 1. This is used in the manufacture of the electrical components and others moulded components such as WC seat. 2. Urea formaldehyde is resistant to ignition, but produces a fishy smell on burning. 3. Urea formaldehyde foam is no longer used for cavity wall insulation. 4. Urea formaldehyde resin are used for adhesives in the production of plywood, veneers and asseSSmbly glue.`
  • 17. Properties 1. Always brown or a dark colour. 2. Heavy solid plastic materials. 3. Fishy smell when burnt.
  • 18. POLYSTER AND EPOXIDE RESINS The main disadvantage of most of the thermosetting resins of the phenolic and amino- plastics types is the need for the application of very high pressures during moulding. This requirement does not exist in the case of the polyester and epoxide resins, two versatile types of thermosetting resin. POLYESTER RESIN POLYESTER resin (used in glass-reinforced plastics) this is the versatile type of thermosetting plastics. The particular feature of the polyester resins is their exceptionally high resistance to impact when reinforced with glass fibres.
  • 19. APPLICATIONS : •Fibers (and microfibers) for fabric . •Bottles •Photographic film (after cellulose triacetate, polyester is the most important substrate film base) •A common matrix for glass-reinforced plastic (commonly called "fiberglass") and other composite materials. •Liquid crystal displays •Holograms •Filters •Dielectric film for capacitors and film insulation for wire, and insulating tapes •Liquid crystalline polyesters are among the first industrially used liquid crystalline polymers.They have extremely good mechanical properties and are extremely heat resistant. For that reason, they can be used as an abradable seal in jet engines. •Thermosetting polyester resins are commonly used as casting materials, fiberglass laminating resins, and non-metallic auto-body fillers.
  • 20. EPOXY RESIN: EPOXY resin (used as an adhesive and in glass reinforced plastic/fiberglass (GRP), and FRP). The main properties of the epoxide resins are good adhesion (to most materials), low shrinkage on hardening, good electrical and mechanical properties. Liquid and solid types are manufactured to meet different requirements . They are among the most versatile of the plastics and can be formulated with hardening agents, fillers and pigments to produce compositions used in quite diverse applications. The use of epoxide resins in conventional solvent based paints is firmly established. These possess superior resistance to acids, alkalis, solvents and organic chemical generally. There is, in addition, increasing interest in the use of solvent–less epoxide systems for producing especially tough, thick chemical and water –resistant coatings. Fillers such as sand , slate dust or glass fibres are often used In these applications . The solvent-less coatings finds many uses in buildings, marine and civil engineering industries.
  • 21. PAINTS AND COATINGS • Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coatings (FBE) are extensively used for corrosion protection of steel pipes and fittings used in the oil & gas industry, potable water transmission pipelines (steel), concrete reinforcing rebar etc. • Epoxy coatings are also widely used as primers to improve the adhesion of automotive and marine paints especially on metal surfaces where corrosion (rusting) resistance is important. •Epoxy resins are also used for high performance & decorative flooring applications especially terrazzo flooring, Chip Flooring [1]and colored aggregate flooring [2]. Considerable development work has been carried out upon the use of epoxide resin compositions as adhesives, gap fillers, solders, special putties, flooring and jointing compoAunds.
  • 22. Industrial tooling and composites • Epoxy systems are also used in industrial tooling applications to produce molds, master models, laminates, castings, fixtures, and other industrial production aids. This "plastic tooling" replaces metal, wood and other traditional materials and generally improves the efficiency and either lowers the overall cost or shortens the lead-time for many industrial processes. • Epoxies are also used in producing fiber reinforced or composite parts. They are more expensive than polyester resins and vinyl ester resins, but generally produce stronger more temperature resistant composite parts. Electrical systems and electronics Epoxy resin formulations are also important in the electronics industry and are used in many parts of electrical systems. In electrical power generation, epoxy systems encapsulate or coat motors, generators, transformers, switchgear, bushings, and insulators. Epoxy resins are excellent electrical insulation materials and they protect electrical components from short circuiting, dust, humidity and other environmental factors that could damage the electrical equipment.
  • 23. MOULDING THIS IS MOST COMMONLY ADOPTED PROCESS FOR FABRICATION OF PLSTICS ARTICLES.THE GENERAL PROCESS CONSISTS IN PLACING THE RAW MATERIALS IN A MOULD AND THEN HEATING IT. IN CASE OF PLASTIC MOULDING IS DONE BY TWO METHODS 1.BLOW MOULDING : Blow molding is a manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. IT IS OF THREE TYPES : (A) Extrusion Blow Molding (B) Injection Blow Molding (C) Stretch Blow Molding.
  • 24. In Extrusion Blow Molding (EBM) : Plastic is melted and extruded into a hollow tube (a parison). This parison is then captured by closing it into a cooled metal mold. Air is then blown into the parison, inflating it into the shape of the hollow bottle, container or part. After the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is ejected. EBM processes may be either continuous (constant extrusion of the parison, or intermittent. Types of EBM equipment may be categorized as follows: Continuous Extrusion Equipment rotary wheel blow molding systems shuttle machinery Intermittent Extrusion Machinery reciprocating screw machinery accumulator head machinery Examples of parts made by the EBM process include dairy containers, shampoo bottles, and hollow industrial parts such as drums.
  • 25. The injection blow molding machine is based on an extruder barrel and screw assembly which melts the polymer. The molten polymer is fed into a manifold where it is injected through nozzles into a hollow, heated preforms mould. The preform mold forms the external shape and is clamped around a mandrel (the core rod) which forms the internal shape of the preform. The preform consists of a fully formed bottle/jar neck with a thick tube of polymer attached, which will form the body. The preform consists of a fully formed bottle/jar neck with a thick tube of polymer attached, which will form the body. The preform mold opens and the core rod is rotated and clamped into the hollow, chilled blow mold. The core rod opens and allows compressed air into the preform, which inflates it to the finished article shape.
  • 26. After a cooling period the blow mold opens and the core rod is rotated to the ejection position. The finished article is stripped off the core rod and leak-tested prior to packing. The preform and blow mold can have many cavities, typically three to sixteen depending on the article size and the required output. There are three sets of core rods, which allow concurrent preform injection, blow molding and ejection . These preforms are produced with the necks of the bottles, including threads (the "finish") on one end. These preforms are packaged, and fed later (after cooling) into an EBM blow molding machine. In the SBM process, the preforms are heated (typically using infrared heaters) above their glass transition temperature, then blown using high pressure air into bottles using metal blow molds. Usually the preform is stretched with a core rod as part of the process. The stretching of some polymers, such as PET (PolyEthylene Terepthalate) results in strain hardening of the resin, allowing the bottles to resist deforming under the pressures formed by carbonated beverages, which typically
  • 27. The main applications are bottles, jars and other containers. The Injection blow molding process produces bottles of superior visual and dimensional quality compared to extrusion blow molding. The process is ideal for both narrow and wide-mouthed containers and produces them fully finished with no flash. Stretch blow molding : These preforms are produced with the necks of the bottles, including threads (the "finish") on one end. These preforms are packaged, and fed later (after cooling) into an EBM blow molding machine. In the SBM process, the preforms are heated (typically using infrared heaters) above their glass transition temperature, then blown using high pressure air into bottles using metal blow molds. Usually the preform is stretched with a core rod as part of the process.
  • 28. Injection moulding : The plastic material is loaded heated and plastic is injected at high pressure into a mold, which is the inverse of the desired shape. The mold is made by a moldmaker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection moulding is very widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire body panels of cars. It is the most common method of production, with some commonly made items including bottle caps and outdoor furniture
  • 29.
  • 30. Extrusion Moulding is a manufacturing process used to make pipes, hoses, drinking straws, curtain tracks, rods, and fibres. The machine used to extrude materials is very similar to an injection moulding machine. A motor turns a screw which feeds granules of plastic through a heater. The granules melt into a liquid which is forced through a die, forming a long 'tube like' shape. The shape of the die determines the shape of the tube. The extrusion is then cooled and forms a solid shape. The tube may be printed apon, and cut at equal intervals. The pieces may be rolled for storage or packed together. Shapes that can result from extrusion include T-sections, U-sections, square sections, I-sections, L-sections and circular sections. One of most famous products of extrusion moulding is the fiber optic.
  • 31. EXTRUSION MOULDING IN THIS METHOD, THE RESIN POWDER IS LED THROUGH HOPPER AT INLET AT THE INLET END OF THE REVOLVING SCREW. AT THE OUTLET END , THE MATERIAL IS HEATED AND IT IS EXTRUDED OR FORCED THROUGH A NOZZLE . THE PLASTIC MATERIAL AS IT COMES OUT FROM NOZZLE IS RECEIVED IN MOULDS AND IT IS COOLED WITH AIR JETS OR WATER BATH.THIS MOULDING IS SIMPLE THEREFORE USED MOSTLY. JET MOULDING IN THIS METHOD , THE PLASTIC MATERIAL IS MODERATELY HEATED. IT IS THEN AKLLOWED TO PASS THROUGH NOZZLE, WHICH IS PREHEATED TO A HIGH TEMPERATURE.
  • 32. COMPRESSION MOULDING : IN THIS METHOD THEMOULDS TO RECEIVE THE PLASTIC MATERIAL ARE PREPARED. THE MOULD ARE HEATED AND THEN THE PLASTIC MATERIAL IS PLACED IN THE MOULDS THE MOULDS ARE CLOSED AND THEY ARE HEATED TO A TEMPERATURE OF 100-200 DEGREE CENTIGRADE UNDER PRESSURE OF 10 -50 NMM SQUARE. IN CASE OF THERMOPLSTICS, THE MOULDS ARE COOLED BEFORE THE ARTICLES ARE TAKEN OUT.. THUS MOULDS ARE HEATED AND COOLED ALTERNATIVELY IN PREPARATION OF THERMOPLASTICS ARTICLES.
  • 33. MOULDING COMPOUNDS : TO GIVE DSIRED SHAPES TO FINISHED PLASTIC ARTICLES, CERTAIN MOULDING COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TI THE PLASTICS.FOLLOWING ARE MOULDING COMPOUNDS : 1. CATALYSTS 2. FILLIERS 3. HARDENERS 4. LUBRICANTS 5. PIGMENTS 6. PLASTICIZERS 7. SOLVENTS
  • 34. CATALYST THESE COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TO ASSIST AND ACCELARATE THE HARDENING OF RESINS. FOR INSTANCE, THE ESTER ACTS AS CATALYSTFOR UREA FORMALDEHYDE. THEY ARE USED FOR QUIC AND COMPLETE POLYMERIZATION. FILLERS THESE ARE INERT MATERIAL AND THEY IMPART STRENTH, HARDNESS AND OTHER PROPERTIES TO THE PLASTICS.THE CHOICE OF A FILLER SHOULD BE CAREFULLY MADE. IT SHOULD BE CONFIRMED THAT THE ADDITION OF A FILLER DOES NOT HAVE DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON OTHER PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS.FILLERS CAN BE USED IN FOLLOWING FORMS : (i) FIBROUS FILLERS (ii) LAMINATED FILLERS (iii) POWDER FILLERS
  • 35. HARDENERS THESE COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TO INCREASE THE HARDNESS OF RESIN.FOR INSTANCE, THE HEXAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE ACTS AS HARDENER FOR PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE. LUBRICANTS THESE ARE APPLIED ON THE SURFACE OF MOULDS SO THAT THE ARTICLES OF PLASTICS DO NOT STICK TO THE MOULDS. THE APPLICATION OF LUBRICANTS ON SURFACEE OF MOULDS ALLOW EASY REMOVAL OF ATRTICLES OF PLASTICS FROM MOULDS. THE COMMONLY USED LUBRICANTS ARE GRAPHITE, PARAFINE, WAX , ETC PIGMENTS THE ADDITION OF DYES AND PIGMENTS HELPS IN TWO WAYS , THEY ACT AS FILLERS AND THEY IMPART DESIRED COLOURS TO PLASTICS. THEY SHOULD BE DURABLE AND ADEQUATELY FAST TO LIGHT. THE COMMONLY USED PIGMENTS ARE ZINC OXIDE, BARYTES , ETC
  • 36. PLASTICIZERS THE PLSTICIZERS ARE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WHICH ARE OILY IN NATURE AND OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT .THEY ARE USED TO SEPARATE THE POLYMER CHAIN BY A GREATER DISTANCE TO MAKE THE CRYSTALIZATION DIFFICULT. A NON CRYSTALINE SOLID IS THEREBY PRODUCED FROM A POLYMER THAT NORMALLY CRSTALLIZES. THESE COMPOUND ARE ADDED TO IMPROVE PLASTICITY AND TO IMPART SOFTNESS TO PLASTICS. THEY SHOULD BE CHEMICALLY INERT, POORLY VOLATILE AND NON TOXIC.CAMPHOR,TRIACETAIN,TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE ETC ARE SOME OF COMMONLY USED PLASTICIZERS. SOLVENTS THESE COMPOUNDS ARE ADDED TO DISSOLVE THE PLASTICIZERS. FOR INSTANCE, THE ALCOHOL IS ADDED IN CELLULOSE NITRATE PLASTICS TO DISSOLVE CAMPHOR.
  • 37. GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYESTER The standard matrix material for glass –fibre reinforced plastics is polyester resin, although other thermosetting resins, including phenolic, epoxy and polyurethane, may be used. The polyester, which has a low modulus of elasticity, when reinforce with glass fibres produces a material which is rigid enough for use as a cladding material. The proportion of glass fibres ranges widely from 20%-80% by weight depending upon the strength required. Enhance performance can be achieved by using the more expensive S-grade high strength and modulus glass fibres used mainly in aero-space industry.
  • 38. FABRICATION PROCESS The moulds for producing GRP is usually made from timber, but steel or GRP itself may also be used. Moulds are reused, sometimes with minor variations. In the fabrication process, the moulds is coated with a release agent to prevent bonding. A gel coat, which ultimately will be the weathering surface, is applied to a finished thickness of 0.25 -0.4 mm. the subsequent fabrication involves the laying- up of layers of glass fibres and polyester resin to the required thickness, usually with either sprayed rovings or chopped strand mat. Reinforcement and fixings are usually done in aluminium due to same coefficient- of- thermal expansion. Plastic foam insulation may be encapsulated to give the required thermal properties.
  • 39. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GRP • The high strength to weight ratio of GRP allows for the use of large panel units. Curved edges to panels and openings are preferred to reduce stress –raising points at very sharp corners. • the high thermal expansion co- efficient of GRP demands careful detailing of movement joints and their appropriate sealing. •Colour fading and yellowing of GRP panels has been a problem. Recent products with UV light protection are more colour fast. Slightly textured finishes are generally more durable than smooth. • it can be made fire- resistant by the some additives like- phenolic resins at the time of manufacturing. •GRP is vandal resistant and can be laminated sufficiently to be bullet resistant.
  • 40. USES OF GLASS- FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTICS •The light weight properties of GRP make it eminently suitable for the manufacture of large cladding panels and custom moulded structures. •
  • 41.
  • 43. RUBBER The rubber are of following types:  Natural rubber  Synthetic rubber 1. NATURAL RUBBER This variety of rubber is obtained from latex or a viscous milky juice tapped from rubber trees. The process of obtaining natural rubber is:  Plantation  Tapping latex  Purification  coagulation
  • 44. Synthetic rubber The term synthetic or artificial rubber was conceived through research and development as a polymer which can be used to replace natural rubber. The important forms of rubber are as follows: 1. Crepe rubber This variety is one form of crude rubber. this rubber has irregular rough surfaces and hence it is called crepe rubber. 2. Foam rubber In the liquid latex the chemicals producing gases are added and the mixture is well stirred till foam is formed.
  • 45. 3. Guayule rubber this type of rubber is a variety of natural rubber it is prepared from the branches of guayule.it contains 70% of hydrocarbons,20% of resins ,10% of insoluble materials. 4. Gutta percha rubber This type of rubber is a variety of natural rubber.it is best material for preparing rope of submarines and as a insulating material in electrical works. 5. poly-butadiene rubber this is a type of synthetic rubber which is used where high abrassion resistance and strength is required.the main area of application are automotive moulded goods,melting,engineering,floor tiles,footwears etc.
  • 46. 6. Smoked rubber this variety is one form of crude rubber .After coagulation the rubber pieces are dried in room filled with smoke at a temperature of about 40 deg. To 50 deg. C. 7. Sponge rubber this rubber is prepared by adding sodium bicarbonate during the process of vulcanization.it is good insulating material for heat and sound.s
  • 47. Properties of rubber  It can absorb due to an impact.  It can contain liquid and gasses.  It creeps or extent in length when forces are appliedover it.  It is bad conductor of heat.  It is plastic in nature and hence moulded in any desired shape.  It is possible to alter its properties by the process of vulcanization and compounding.  It posses the quality of flexibility.  It resist abrasion in a better way.
  • 48. Uses of rubber  This is used to make gaskets for doors and windows. Airtight in case of refrigerator,vehicles,air-conditioned rooms etc.  It is used for a lining material for parts of machines subjected to heavy friction and for tanks to be used for heavy processes.  It is used for preparing tires and machines.  It is used to prepare rubber threads which are useful as wires , ropes etc.  It is widely used for absorbing shocks and reducing vibrations in machines.  It may be used as hose pipes to carry petrol and kerosene oils,gaskets,insulation for high tention wires etc.
  • 49.  The natural rubber should be protected from sunlight.  The outstanding property of rubber is that it is capable to undergo great deformation without being structurally damaged.  The synthetic rubber offers great resistance to acids, petroleum products etc.
  • 51. .  Wire and Cable  Silastic high consistency silicone rubber  is the right coating for insulated wire &  insulated cable such as:   UL wire  Power and control cable  Communication cable  These are demanding applications requiring materials to insulate the electrical or control cables from the environment in which they are situated. Silastic silicone rubber is ideal for these uses, because of its high temperature resistances, good dielectrics and fire resistances. (Our high consistency silicone rubber conforms to Low Smoke Low Toxicity requirements.) Silicone rubber also offers good abrasion resistance and oil resistance for those applications that demand
  • 52. Air and Water Gaskets and Seals Silastic® high consistency silicone rubber is the premier gasket material to use in manufacturing a wide array of products including: •Intake manifold gaskets •Electrical terminal boxes •Telephone exchange boxes •Lighting •Air conditioning equipment •Cable blocks In these applications one needs a high integrity rubber seal that performs over an extended life, to provide an environment free of surprises or trouble. Our silicone rubber gasket material offers temperature resistance, weather (uv and ozone) resistance, and fire resistance (our materials conform to Low Smoke Low Toxicity requirements). Silicone rubber has very good compression set resistance allowing it to maintain a proper seal over a lifespan of many years.
  • 53.  OTHER TYPES OF ADHESIVES  Heat Activated Adhesives  These are mainly natural rubbers, which when activated by temperature, provide high adhesion and shear strength. These adhesives have limited resistance against temperatures and solvents.  Electrically Conductive/ Anti-Static Adhesives  A layer of conductive particles embedded within the adhesive provide a pathway for electrical current to flow between substrates. This layer will also dissipate static charge, preventing a build-up in static sensitive applications.  Thermally Conductive Adhesives  A layer of thermally conductive particles in the adhesive allow heat to pass through the adhesive. They are mainly used in the attachment of heat sinks to PCB's.
  • 55. Stair treads withstand heavy-duty wear, reduce noise, are highly slip-retardant, require no waxing, feature fracture-free nosings STAIR TREADS
  • 61. The modular tiles were designed for rooftops, patios, walkways, pool surrounds, playgrounds and more. Footed tiles allow excellent drainage and slip-resistance for outdoor applications, while indoors, they offer an alternative to raised access flooring by allowing cable transport beneath the tiles. MODULAR TILES
  • 62. •Outstanding for abuse oriented spaces •Extra-heavy-duty use indoors and outdoors •Unaffected by ice, water and extreme temperatures •Safe and slip-resistant •Indoor and outdoor "dogbone" Paver Embossed Tile Rectangular Tile RUBBER PAVERS