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Integumentary System Review Nurse Licensure Examination Review pinoynursing.webkotoh.com
Burns Definition: Cellular destruction of the layers of the skin and the resultant depletion of fluids and electrolytes. These are skin injuries resulting from various injurious factors.
 
Burns Burn injuries depend on: History of the injury Causative factor Temperature of the burning agent Duration of contact with the agent Thickness of the skin
Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 1. Thermal: most common type; caused by flame, flash, scalding, and contact (hot metals, grease)
Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 2. Smoke inhalation: occurs when smoke (particulate products of a fire, gases, and superheated air) causes respiratory tissue damage
Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 3. Chemical: caused by tissue contact, ingestion or inhalation of acids, alkalies, or vesicants
Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 4. Electrical: injury occurs from direct damage to nerves and vessels when an electric current passes through the body.
Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 5. Radiation Burns- This is caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays, x-rays and radioactive sources.
 
Burn classification as to depth  Superficial Partial thickness (1st degree) Outer layer of dermis Erythema, pain up to 48 hrs Healing 1-2 wks [sunburn]
Burn classification as to depth  Deep Partial thickness  (2nd degree) Epidermis & dermis involved Blisters & edema,  frequently quite painful Healing 14-21 days
Burn classification as to depth  Full thickness (3rd degree) Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat are involved Dry, pearly white or charred in appearance Not painful Eschar must be removed; may need grafting
 
ESTIMATION of BURNS Various methods are utilized for estimating the extent of burn injury 1. The Rule of Nines in adults Head and Neck-    9% Anterior trunk-  18% Posterior trunk-  18% Upper arms- 18% ( 9% each x 2) Lower ext-  36% ( 18% EACH X 2) Perineum-   1%
Burn estimation 2. LUND AND BROWDER or BERKOW method Modifies percentages for body segments according to age Provides a more accurate estimate of the burn size Uses a diagram of the body divided into sections, with the representative % of TBSA for all ages
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS Burns are caused by transfer of energy from a heat source to the body  Tissue destruction results from COAGULATION, Protein denaturation, or Ionization of cellular contents from a thermal, radiation or chemical source.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS Following burns, Vasoactive substances are released from the injured tissue and these substances cause an increase in the capillary permeability allowing the plasma to seep to the surrounding tissues
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The generalized edema, evaporation of fluids and capillary membrane permeability result to DECREASED circulating blood volume
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The decrease in blood volume results to decrease organ perfusion The blood volume decreases, BP and Cardiac output decrease and the body compensates by increasing heart rate The hematocrit level increases as a result of plasma loss
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The body mobilizes compensatory mechanisms- blood is shunted from the kidney, skin and GIT to the BRAIN. Oliguria is expected, as well as intestinal ileus and GI dysfunction The immune system is depressed, resulting in immunosuppression and increased risk for infection
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The pulmonary system may react by pulmonary vasoconstriction causing a decreased oxygen tension and pulmonary hypertension Tissue destruction initially causes HYPERKALEMIA  because injured tissues release K+ HYPONATREMIA may be expected because of PLASMA LOSS  (with Na+) into the interstitial space
Assessment Findings Superficial Partial Thickness Burns (1 st ) Local erythema No Blister formation Mild local pain Rapid healing WITHOUT scarring
Assessment Findings Deep Partial Thickness (2 ND ) Tissue destruction of epidermis-dermis Skin appears red to ivory, moist Wet, large and thin blisters Intact tactile and pain sensation,  moderate to severe pain Healing is variable and with scarring
Assessment Findings Full Thickness Burns (THIRD DEGREE) Injury appears  WHITE, or black, with thrombosed veins Dry, leathery appearance due to loss of epidermal elasticity Marked EDEMA Painless to touch due to destruction of superficial nerves
Burn Management 1.EMERGENT PHASE Begins at the time of injury and ends with the restoration of the capillary permeability ( with 48-72 hours) The GOAL is to PREVENT hypovolemic shock and preserve the vital body organ function Emergency and pre-hospital care
Burn Management 2.RESUSCITATIVE PHASE Begins with the initiation of fluids and ENDS when capillary integrity returns to near-normal and large fluid shifts have decreased The GOAL is to prevent shock by maintaining adequate circulating blood volume to maintain vital organ perfusion
Burn Management 3.ACUTE PHASE Begins when the client is HEMODYNAMICALLY stable, capillary permeability is restored and DIURESIS has begun Emphasis is placed on restorative therapy and the phase continues until wound closure is achieved The FOCUS is on infection control, wound care, wound closure, nutritional support, pain management and physical therapy
Burn Management 4.REHABILITATIVE PHASE The final phase of Burn care, restoration of functions, cosmetic surgery Goals of this phase – patient independence and restoration of maximal function
Medical Management Medical management 1. Supportive therapy: fluid management (lVFs), catheterization 2. Wound care: hydrotherapy, debridement (enzymatic or surgical)
Medical Management 3. Drug therapy a. Topical antibiotics: mafenide (Sulfamylon), silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), silver nitrate, povidone-iodine (Betadine) solution b. Systemic antibiotics: gentamicin c. Tetanus toxoid or hyperimmune human tetanus globulin (burn wound good medium for anaerobic growth) d. Analgesics 4. Surgery: excision and grafting
Nursing Management 1. Emergent phase (time of injury) Remove person from source of burn. 1) Thermal: smother burn beginning with the head. 2) Smoke inhalation: ensure patent airway. 3) Chemical: remove clothing that contains chemical; lavage area with copious amounts of water. 4) Electrical: note victim position, identify entry/exit routes, maintain airway.
Nursing Management 1. Emergent phase (time of injury) Cool the burn for several minutes.  DON’T USE ICE!! Wrap in dry, clean sheet or blanket to prevent further contamination of wound and provide warmth and conserve body heat. Assess how and when burn occurred.
Nursing Management 1. Emergent phase (time of injury) Remove constricting clothes and jewelry Cover the wound with a sterile dressing or clean, dry cloth Provide IV route only if possible Transport immediately to a hospital or burn facility
Nursing Management 2. Resuscitative and Shock phase (first 24—48 hours) Provide appropriate fluid resuscitation based on the Parkland formula 4 mL Plain LR x %TBSA of burns  x kg body weight
Nursing Management 3.  Fluid remobilization or diuretic phase (2—5 days post burn) Monitor and treat potential complications like acute renal failure, paralytic ileus, Curling’s ulcer and hypokalemia
Nursing Management 4. Convalescent phase a. Starts when diuresis is completed and wound healing and coverage begin.
GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 1. Provide relief/control of pain. a. Administer morphine sulfate IV and monitor vital signs closely. b. Administer analgesics/narcotics 30 minutes before wound care. c. Position burned areas in proper alignment
GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 2. Monitor alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance. a. Assess for fluid shifts and electrolyte alterations  b. Monitor Foley catheter output hourly  (30 cc per hour desired). c. Weigh daily. d. Monitor circulation status regularly. e. Administer/monitor crystálloids/colloids
GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 3. Promote maximal nutritional status. a. Monitor tube feedings if Peripheral Nutrition is ordered. NPO immediately after injury!!! ONLY when oral intake permitted, provide high-calorie, high-protein, high- carbohydrate diet with vitamin and mineral supplements . c. Serve small portions. d. Schedule wound care and other treatments at least 1 hour before meals.
GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 4. Prevent wound infection. a. Place client in controlled sterile environment. b. Use hydrotherapy for no more than 30 minutes to prevent electrolyte loss. Observe wound for separation of eschar and cellulitis.
 
GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 5. Prevent GI complications. a. Assess for signs and symptoms of paralytic ileus. b. Assist with insertion of NG tube to prevent/control Curling’s/stress ulcer; monitor patency/drainage.
GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 5. Prevent GI complications. c. Administer prophylactic antacids through NG tube and/or IV cimetidine (Tagamet) or ranitidine (Zantac) (to prevent stress ulcer). d. Monitor bowel sounds. e. Test stools for occult blood.
Rehabilitation Methods of coping and re-socialization Ensure optimum nutrition Initiate physical therapy to regain and maintain optimal range of motion and achieve wound coverage Provide psychosocial support to promote mental health
Rehabilitation Provide family-centered care to promote integrity of the family as a unit Encourage post-discharge follow-up for several years Ensure appropriate referral to cosmetic surgeon, psychiatrist, occupational therapist, nutritionist and physical therapist
Drugs for Burns Mafenide (Sulfamylon) 1) Administer analgesics 30 minutes before application. 2) Monitor acid-base status and renal function studies.  SIDE EFFECT: LACTIC ACIDOSIS 3) Provide daily BATH for removal of previously applied cream.
Drugs for Burns Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene ) 1) Administer analgesics 30 minutes before application. 2) Observe for and report hypersensitivity reactions (rash, itching, burning sensation in unburned areas). 3) Store drug away from heat
Drugs for Burns Silver nitrate 1) Handle carefully; solution leaves a gray or black stain on skin, clothing, and utensils. 2) Administer analgesic before application. 3) Keep dressings wet with solution; dryness increases the concentration and causes precipitation of silver salts in the wound.
Drugs for Burns Povidone-iodine (Betadine) Administer analgesics before application. Assess for metabolic acidosis/renal function Gentamicin  Assess vestibular/auditory and renal functions at regular intervals. Cimetidine   Given to prevent Curling’s ulcer
 
End of burns

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Integumentary System

  • 1. Integumentary System Review Nurse Licensure Examination Review pinoynursing.webkotoh.com
  • 2. Burns Definition: Cellular destruction of the layers of the skin and the resultant depletion of fluids and electrolytes. These are skin injuries resulting from various injurious factors.
  • 3.  
  • 4. Burns Burn injuries depend on: History of the injury Causative factor Temperature of the burning agent Duration of contact with the agent Thickness of the skin
  • 5. Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 1. Thermal: most common type; caused by flame, flash, scalding, and contact (hot metals, grease)
  • 6. Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 2. Smoke inhalation: occurs when smoke (particulate products of a fire, gases, and superheated air) causes respiratory tissue damage
  • 7. Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 3. Chemical: caused by tissue contact, ingestion or inhalation of acids, alkalies, or vesicants
  • 8. Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 4. Electrical: injury occurs from direct damage to nerves and vessels when an electric current passes through the body.
  • 9. Types of Burns according to ETIOLOGY 5. Radiation Burns- This is caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays, x-rays and radioactive sources.
  • 10.  
  • 11. Burn classification as to depth Superficial Partial thickness (1st degree) Outer layer of dermis Erythema, pain up to 48 hrs Healing 1-2 wks [sunburn]
  • 12. Burn classification as to depth Deep Partial thickness (2nd degree) Epidermis & dermis involved Blisters & edema, frequently quite painful Healing 14-21 days
  • 13. Burn classification as to depth Full thickness (3rd degree) Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat are involved Dry, pearly white or charred in appearance Not painful Eschar must be removed; may need grafting
  • 14.  
  • 15. ESTIMATION of BURNS Various methods are utilized for estimating the extent of burn injury 1. The Rule of Nines in adults Head and Neck- 9% Anterior trunk- 18% Posterior trunk- 18% Upper arms- 18% ( 9% each x 2) Lower ext- 36% ( 18% EACH X 2) Perineum- 1%
  • 16. Burn estimation 2. LUND AND BROWDER or BERKOW method Modifies percentages for body segments according to age Provides a more accurate estimate of the burn size Uses a diagram of the body divided into sections, with the representative % of TBSA for all ages
  • 17. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS Burns are caused by transfer of energy from a heat source to the body Tissue destruction results from COAGULATION, Protein denaturation, or Ionization of cellular contents from a thermal, radiation or chemical source.
  • 18. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS Following burns, Vasoactive substances are released from the injured tissue and these substances cause an increase in the capillary permeability allowing the plasma to seep to the surrounding tissues
  • 19. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The generalized edema, evaporation of fluids and capillary membrane permeability result to DECREASED circulating blood volume
  • 20. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The decrease in blood volume results to decrease organ perfusion The blood volume decreases, BP and Cardiac output decrease and the body compensates by increasing heart rate The hematocrit level increases as a result of plasma loss
  • 21. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The body mobilizes compensatory mechanisms- blood is shunted from the kidney, skin and GIT to the BRAIN. Oliguria is expected, as well as intestinal ileus and GI dysfunction The immune system is depressed, resulting in immunosuppression and increased risk for infection
  • 22. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BURNS The pulmonary system may react by pulmonary vasoconstriction causing a decreased oxygen tension and pulmonary hypertension Tissue destruction initially causes HYPERKALEMIA because injured tissues release K+ HYPONATREMIA may be expected because of PLASMA LOSS (with Na+) into the interstitial space
  • 23. Assessment Findings Superficial Partial Thickness Burns (1 st ) Local erythema No Blister formation Mild local pain Rapid healing WITHOUT scarring
  • 24. Assessment Findings Deep Partial Thickness (2 ND ) Tissue destruction of epidermis-dermis Skin appears red to ivory, moist Wet, large and thin blisters Intact tactile and pain sensation, moderate to severe pain Healing is variable and with scarring
  • 25. Assessment Findings Full Thickness Burns (THIRD DEGREE) Injury appears WHITE, or black, with thrombosed veins Dry, leathery appearance due to loss of epidermal elasticity Marked EDEMA Painless to touch due to destruction of superficial nerves
  • 26. Burn Management 1.EMERGENT PHASE Begins at the time of injury and ends with the restoration of the capillary permeability ( with 48-72 hours) The GOAL is to PREVENT hypovolemic shock and preserve the vital body organ function Emergency and pre-hospital care
  • 27. Burn Management 2.RESUSCITATIVE PHASE Begins with the initiation of fluids and ENDS when capillary integrity returns to near-normal and large fluid shifts have decreased The GOAL is to prevent shock by maintaining adequate circulating blood volume to maintain vital organ perfusion
  • 28. Burn Management 3.ACUTE PHASE Begins when the client is HEMODYNAMICALLY stable, capillary permeability is restored and DIURESIS has begun Emphasis is placed on restorative therapy and the phase continues until wound closure is achieved The FOCUS is on infection control, wound care, wound closure, nutritional support, pain management and physical therapy
  • 29. Burn Management 4.REHABILITATIVE PHASE The final phase of Burn care, restoration of functions, cosmetic surgery Goals of this phase – patient independence and restoration of maximal function
  • 30. Medical Management Medical management 1. Supportive therapy: fluid management (lVFs), catheterization 2. Wound care: hydrotherapy, debridement (enzymatic or surgical)
  • 31. Medical Management 3. Drug therapy a. Topical antibiotics: mafenide (Sulfamylon), silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), silver nitrate, povidone-iodine (Betadine) solution b. Systemic antibiotics: gentamicin c. Tetanus toxoid or hyperimmune human tetanus globulin (burn wound good medium for anaerobic growth) d. Analgesics 4. Surgery: excision and grafting
  • 32. Nursing Management 1. Emergent phase (time of injury) Remove person from source of burn. 1) Thermal: smother burn beginning with the head. 2) Smoke inhalation: ensure patent airway. 3) Chemical: remove clothing that contains chemical; lavage area with copious amounts of water. 4) Electrical: note victim position, identify entry/exit routes, maintain airway.
  • 33. Nursing Management 1. Emergent phase (time of injury) Cool the burn for several minutes. DON’T USE ICE!! Wrap in dry, clean sheet or blanket to prevent further contamination of wound and provide warmth and conserve body heat. Assess how and when burn occurred.
  • 34. Nursing Management 1. Emergent phase (time of injury) Remove constricting clothes and jewelry Cover the wound with a sterile dressing or clean, dry cloth Provide IV route only if possible Transport immediately to a hospital or burn facility
  • 35. Nursing Management 2. Resuscitative and Shock phase (first 24—48 hours) Provide appropriate fluid resuscitation based on the Parkland formula 4 mL Plain LR x %TBSA of burns x kg body weight
  • 36. Nursing Management 3. Fluid remobilization or diuretic phase (2—5 days post burn) Monitor and treat potential complications like acute renal failure, paralytic ileus, Curling’s ulcer and hypokalemia
  • 37. Nursing Management 4. Convalescent phase a. Starts when diuresis is completed and wound healing and coverage begin.
  • 38. GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 1. Provide relief/control of pain. a. Administer morphine sulfate IV and monitor vital signs closely. b. Administer analgesics/narcotics 30 minutes before wound care. c. Position burned areas in proper alignment
  • 39. GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 2. Monitor alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance. a. Assess for fluid shifts and electrolyte alterations b. Monitor Foley catheter output hourly (30 cc per hour desired). c. Weigh daily. d. Monitor circulation status regularly. e. Administer/monitor crystálloids/colloids
  • 40. GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 3. Promote maximal nutritional status. a. Monitor tube feedings if Peripheral Nutrition is ordered. NPO immediately after injury!!! ONLY when oral intake permitted, provide high-calorie, high-protein, high- carbohydrate diet with vitamin and mineral supplements . c. Serve small portions. d. Schedule wound care and other treatments at least 1 hour before meals.
  • 41. GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 4. Prevent wound infection. a. Place client in controlled sterile environment. b. Use hydrotherapy for no more than 30 minutes to prevent electrolyte loss. Observe wound for separation of eschar and cellulitis.
  • 42.  
  • 43. GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 5. Prevent GI complications. a. Assess for signs and symptoms of paralytic ileus. b. Assist with insertion of NG tube to prevent/control Curling’s/stress ulcer; monitor patency/drainage.
  • 44. GENERAL NURSING INTERVENTIONS IN THE HOSPITAL 5. Prevent GI complications. c. Administer prophylactic antacids through NG tube and/or IV cimetidine (Tagamet) or ranitidine (Zantac) (to prevent stress ulcer). d. Monitor bowel sounds. e. Test stools for occult blood.
  • 45. Rehabilitation Methods of coping and re-socialization Ensure optimum nutrition Initiate physical therapy to regain and maintain optimal range of motion and achieve wound coverage Provide psychosocial support to promote mental health
  • 46. Rehabilitation Provide family-centered care to promote integrity of the family as a unit Encourage post-discharge follow-up for several years Ensure appropriate referral to cosmetic surgeon, psychiatrist, occupational therapist, nutritionist and physical therapist
  • 47. Drugs for Burns Mafenide (Sulfamylon) 1) Administer analgesics 30 minutes before application. 2) Monitor acid-base status and renal function studies. SIDE EFFECT: LACTIC ACIDOSIS 3) Provide daily BATH for removal of previously applied cream.
  • 48. Drugs for Burns Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene ) 1) Administer analgesics 30 minutes before application. 2) Observe for and report hypersensitivity reactions (rash, itching, burning sensation in unburned areas). 3) Store drug away from heat
  • 49. Drugs for Burns Silver nitrate 1) Handle carefully; solution leaves a gray or black stain on skin, clothing, and utensils. 2) Administer analgesic before application. 3) Keep dressings wet with solution; dryness increases the concentration and causes precipitation of silver salts in the wound.
  • 50. Drugs for Burns Povidone-iodine (Betadine) Administer analgesics before application. Assess for metabolic acidosis/renal function Gentamicin Assess vestibular/auditory and renal functions at regular intervals. Cimetidine Given to prevent Curling’s ulcer
  • 51.