SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Industrial fungal metabolites
Enzymes-Proteases
V.S.Patil
Associate Professor, Department of Botany
Shri Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce,& Science
Akola
•A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is
an enzyme that catalyzes (increases the rate of) proteolysis,
the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or
single amino acids. They do this by cleaving the peptide
bonds within proteins by hydrolysis, a reaction where water
breaks bonds.
•Proteases are involved in many biological functions,
including digestion of ingested proteins, protein
catabolism (breakdown of old proteins), and cell signaling.
•Proteases can be found in all forms of life and viruses.
•Without additional helping mechanisms, proteolysis would be
very slow, taking hundreds of years.
Structure
Classification-
1.Serine proteases - (using a serine alcohol)- Serine proteases (or serine
endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in
which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site. They
are found ubiquitously in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Serine proteases fall into
two broad categories based on their structure: chymotrypsin-like (trypsin-like)
or subtilisin-like.
Uses-1.Coagulation factor levels may be required in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic or
thrombotic conditions.2.Fecal elastase is employed to determine the exocrine activity of
the pancreas, e.g., in cystic fibrosis or chronic pancreatitis.3.Serum prostate-specific
antigen is used in prostate cancer screening, risk stratification, and post-treatment
monitoring.4.Serine protease, as released by mast cells, is an important diagnostic
marker for type 1 hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis). More useful than
e.g. histamine due to the longer half-life, meaning it remains in the system for a
clinically useful length of time.
2.Cysteine proteases - (using a cysteine thiol) It is also known as thiol
proteases. They are enzymes that degrade proteins.
These proteases share a common catalytic mechanism that involves
a nucleophilic cysteine thiol in a catalytic triad or dyad. They are found
in fruits including the papaya, pineapple, fig and kiwifruit. The
proportion of protease tends to be higher when the fruit is unripe.
Cysteine proteases are used as an ingredient in meat tenderizers.
This protease classification system counts 14 superfamilies.
Uses- 1.In plants they are important in growth and development and in
accumulation and mobilization of storage proteins such as in seeds.
2. they are involved in signalling pathways and in the response
to biotic and abiotic stresses.
3. They are responsible for senescence and apoptosis (programmed cell
death), MHC class II immune responses, prohormone processing,
and extracellular matrix remodeling important to bone development.
4. They may also lead to accelerated collagen and elast in degradation at
sites of inflammation in diseases such as atherosclerosis and emphysema.
5. They are resistance to acid digestion, allowing possible oral
administration.
6. They are used as a feed additives for livestock to improve the
digestibility of proteins and nucleic acids.
7. In several traditional medicines, the fruits or latex of the papaya,
pineapple and fig are widely used for treatment of intestinal
worm infections both in humans and livestock.
3.Threonine proteases - (using a threonine secondary alcohol)-
Threonine proteases are a family of proteolytic enzymes harbouring
a threonine (Thr) residue within the active site. The prototype members
of this class of enzymes are the catalytic subunits of the proteasome,
however the acyltransferases convergently evolved the same active
site geometry and mechanism.
Five families belonging to two separate superfamilies are currently
recognised.
4.Aspartic proteases - (using an aspartate carboxylic acid)
Aspartic proteases are a catalytic type
of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule
bound to one or more aspartate residues for catalysis of their
peptide substrates. Eukaryotic aspartic proteases
include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins.
Five superfamilies (clans) of aspartic proteases are known,
each representing an independent evolution of the same active
site and mechanisms.
5.Glutamic proteases - (using a glutamate carboxylic acid)
Glutamic proteases are a group
of proteolytic enzymes containing a glutamic acid residue
within the active site. This group of proteases are found
primarily in pathogenic fungi affecting plant and human.
Structure contain the active site of a catalytic dyad, glutamic
acid (E) and glutamine (Q), which give rise to the
name eqolisin. There are two independent families of glutamic
proteases (G1 and G2).
6.Metalloproteases - (using a metal, usually zinc)
A metalloproteinase, or metalloprotease, is
any protease enzyme whose catalytic mechanism involves
a metal. It plays a significant role in the fusion of muscle cells
during embryo development, in a process known
as myogenesis.
Their are two types
1.Exopeptidases, metalloexopeptidases.
2. Endopeptidases, metalloendopeptidases
7.Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform
an elimination reaction (not requiring water)
Asparagine peptide lyase are one of the seven groups in
which proteases, also termed proteolytic enzymes, peptidases,
or proteinases, are classified according to their catalytic
residue.
Types- Viral coat proteins
Autotransporter proteins
Intein-containing proteins
Classification based on optimal pH.
Alternatively, proteases may be classified by the optimal pH in
which they are active:
1.Acid proteases
2.Neutral proteases involved in type 1 hypersensitivity. Here,
it is released by mast cells and causes activation.
of complement and kinins. This group includes the calpains.
3.Basic proteases (or alkaline proteases)
Mechanisms:
1.Aspartic, glutamic and metallo- proteases activate a water
molecule which performs a nucleophilic attack on the peptide
bond to hydrolyse it.
2.Serine, threonine and cysteine proteases use a nucleophilic
residue (usually in a catalytic triad). That residue performs a
nucleophilic attack to covalently link the protease to the
substrate protein, releasing the first half of the product. This
covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate is then hydrolysed by
activated water to complete catalysis by releasing the second
half of the product and regenerating the free enzyme.
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases
Uses
1.Proteases are involved in digesting long protein chains into shorter
fragments by splitting the peptide bonds that link amino acid residues.
Some detach the terminal amino acids from the protein chain
(exopeptidases, such as aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidase A); others
attack internal peptide bonds of a protein (endopeptidases, such
as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, papain, elastase).
2. laundry detergents.
3. in the bread industry in bread improver. for quicker preparation of
dough, its gluten is partially hydrolyzed by a heat-labile fungal protease
because of its early inactivation in subsequent baking.
4. A variety of proteases are used medically both for their native
function (e.g. controlling blood clotting) or for completely artificial
functions (e.g. for the targeted degradation of pathogenic proteins).
5. Highly specific proteases such as TEV protease and thrombin are
commonly used to cleave fusion proteins and affinity tags in a controlled
fashion.
ation
6. In the food industry, proteases are utilized for modification,
palatability, and storage life of all available sources of proteins.
7. In meat tenderiz
8.Food and Feed Industry-During cheese production from
milk, proteases are added to hydrolyze kappa casein to prevent
coagulation by stabilizing micelle formation.
9. pharmaceutical drug formations.
10. fortification of soft drinks and juices
11. Waste Management
12. Leather Industry-in the soaking, bating, and dehairing phase of
preparing skin and hides.
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases

More Related Content

What's hot

Enzymes
Enzymes Enzymes
Enzymes
Waqas Ch
 
Serine proteases
Serine proteasesSerine proteases
Serine proteases
Diksha Jain
 
Enzyme regulation zymogen
Enzyme regulation zymogenEnzyme regulation zymogen
Enzyme regulation zymogen
Mahendrakar M D
 
General applications of enzymes ppt
General applications of enzymes pptGeneral applications of enzymes ppt
General applications of enzymes ppt
Ibad khan
 
العوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيمية
العوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيميةالعوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيمية
العوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيمية
Mohamed Hassanien
 
Enzymes b.pharm
Enzymes b.pharmEnzymes b.pharm
Enzymes b.pharm
Kamlesh Yadav
 
Bioactive peptides
Bioactive peptidesBioactive peptides
Bioactive peptides
Sushant Balasaheb Jadhav
 
Heat shock proteins presentation
Heat shock proteins presentationHeat shock proteins presentation
Heat shock proteins presentation
Pooja Chaudhary
 
Definitions and types of coenzymes
Definitions and types of coenzymesDefinitions and types of coenzymes
Definitions and types of coenzymes
JasmineJuliet
 
Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes
Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to EnzymesChapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes
Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes
j3di79
 
Enzymes principles and applications Likhith K
Enzymes principles and applications  Likhith KEnzymes principles and applications  Likhith K
Enzymes principles and applications Likhith K
LIKHITHK1
 
تطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائى
تطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائىتطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائى
تطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائى
Mohamed Hassanien
 
Enzymes 2.1
Enzymes 2.1Enzymes 2.1
Zz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowres
Zz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowresZz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowres
Zz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowres
Andrea José Fuentes Bisbal
 
Heat shock proteins final presentation
Heat shock proteins final presentationHeat shock proteins final presentation
Heat shock proteins final presentation
Dr shahar bano khan(zoya khan)
 
Heat shock proteins
Heat shock proteinsHeat shock proteins
Heat shock proteins
purvi gosrani
 
PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions
PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions
PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions
Dr-Jitendra Patel
 
Enzyme ppt
Enzyme pptEnzyme ppt
Enzyme ppt
Ibad khan
 
Enzyme.ppt
Enzyme.pptEnzyme.ppt
Enzyme.ppt
Touheed Ovi
 
Enzyme
EnzymeEnzyme

What's hot (20)

Enzymes
Enzymes Enzymes
Enzymes
 
Serine proteases
Serine proteasesSerine proteases
Serine proteases
 
Enzyme regulation zymogen
Enzyme regulation zymogenEnzyme regulation zymogen
Enzyme regulation zymogen
 
General applications of enzymes ppt
General applications of enzymes pptGeneral applications of enzymes ppt
General applications of enzymes ppt
 
العوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيمية
العوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيميةالعوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيمية
العوامل المؤثرة على التفاعلات الانزيمية
 
Enzymes b.pharm
Enzymes b.pharmEnzymes b.pharm
Enzymes b.pharm
 
Bioactive peptides
Bioactive peptidesBioactive peptides
Bioactive peptides
 
Heat shock proteins presentation
Heat shock proteins presentationHeat shock proteins presentation
Heat shock proteins presentation
 
Definitions and types of coenzymes
Definitions and types of coenzymesDefinitions and types of coenzymes
Definitions and types of coenzymes
 
Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes
Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to EnzymesChapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes
Chapter 5 Enzymes Lesson 1 - Introduction to Enzymes
 
Enzymes principles and applications Likhith K
Enzymes principles and applications  Likhith KEnzymes principles and applications  Likhith K
Enzymes principles and applications Likhith K
 
تطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائى
تطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائىتطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائى
تطبيقات الانزيمات فى التصنيع الغذائى
 
Enzymes 2.1
Enzymes 2.1Enzymes 2.1
Enzymes 2.1
 
Zz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowres
Zz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowresZz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowres
Zz c0210-1002 hsp-us_lowres
 
Heat shock proteins final presentation
Heat shock proteins final presentationHeat shock proteins final presentation
Heat shock proteins final presentation
 
Heat shock proteins
Heat shock proteinsHeat shock proteins
Heat shock proteins
 
PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions
PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions
PEPSIN Enzyme - An enzyme for protein digestions
 
Enzyme ppt
Enzyme pptEnzyme ppt
Enzyme ppt
 
Enzyme.ppt
Enzyme.pptEnzyme.ppt
Enzyme.ppt
 
Enzyme
EnzymeEnzyme
Enzyme
 

Similar to Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases

F0552935
F0552935F0552935
F0552935
IOSR Journals
 
Proteins (2)
Proteins (2)Proteins (2)
Proteins (2)
DrShagufta Akmal
 
proteins and its classification
proteins and its classificationproteins and its classification
proteins and its classification
Amit Kumar
 
Digestion & absorption of proteins
Digestion & absorption of proteinsDigestion & absorption of proteins
Digestion & absorption of proteins
Ansil P N
 
Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.
Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.
Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.
Dmitri Popov
 
Protein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein Folding
Protein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein FoldingProtein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein Folding
Protein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein Folding
Suresh Antre
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
vaishalidandge3
 
PROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptx
PROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptxPROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptx
PROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptx
MominaTahir12
 
Protein and its different aspects.
Protein and its different aspects.Protein and its different aspects.
Protein and its different aspects.
muhammad aleem ijaz
 
Post translational modifications
Post translational modificationsPost translational modifications
Post translational modifications
Tejaswini Petkar
 
Protein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdf
Protein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdfProtein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdf
Protein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdf
eedroseprintingshirt
 
Barrier to protein & peptited delivery
Barrier to protein & peptited deliveryBarrier to protein & peptited delivery
Barrier to protein & peptited delivery
aishwaryaPatil86
 
BIOCATALYST
BIOCATALYSTBIOCATALYST
BIOCATALYST
Bali Pandhare
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Enzymes
EnzymesEnzymes
Enzymes
Majid Ali
 
Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing
Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing
Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing
Mohan Naik
 
Digestion and absorption of proteins
Digestion and absorption of proteinsDigestion and absorption of proteins
Digestion and absorption of proteins
Shraddhabharath
 
Saliva
SalivaSaliva
Saliva
WAlid Salem
 
Introduction to Food Proteins
 Introduction to Food Proteins  Introduction to Food Proteins
Introduction to Food Proteins
Mohamed Hassanien
 
Applications of enzymes
Applications of enzymesApplications of enzymes
Applications of enzymes
Kalavati Prajapati
 

Similar to Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases (20)

F0552935
F0552935F0552935
F0552935
 
Proteins (2)
Proteins (2)Proteins (2)
Proteins (2)
 
proteins and its classification
proteins and its classificationproteins and its classification
proteins and its classification
 
Digestion & absorption of proteins
Digestion & absorption of proteinsDigestion & absorption of proteins
Digestion & absorption of proteins
 
Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.
Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.
Guillian-Barre.Therapy.Experimental.
 
Protein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein Folding
Protein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein FoldingProtein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein Folding
Protein Structure, Post Translational Modifications and Protein Folding
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
 
PROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptx
PROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptxPROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptx
PROTEIN&AMINOACIDMETABOLISM-F.pptx
 
Protein and its different aspects.
Protein and its different aspects.Protein and its different aspects.
Protein and its different aspects.
 
Post translational modifications
Post translational modificationsPost translational modifications
Post translational modifications
 
Protein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdf
Protein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdfProtein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdf
Protein-2 IN OUT BODY THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.pdf
 
Barrier to protein & peptited delivery
Barrier to protein & peptited deliveryBarrier to protein & peptited delivery
Barrier to protein & peptited delivery
 
BIOCATALYST
BIOCATALYSTBIOCATALYST
BIOCATALYST
 
Proteins
ProteinsProteins
Proteins
 
Enzymes
EnzymesEnzymes
Enzymes
 
Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing
Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing
Protease Enzyme Application in Food Processing
 
Digestion and absorption of proteins
Digestion and absorption of proteinsDigestion and absorption of proteins
Digestion and absorption of proteins
 
Saliva
SalivaSaliva
Saliva
 
Introduction to Food Proteins
 Introduction to Food Proteins  Introduction to Food Proteins
Introduction to Food Proteins
 
Applications of enzymes
Applications of enzymesApplications of enzymes
Applications of enzymes
 

More from vaishalidandge3

Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism ofHost parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
vaishalidandge3
 
Zygomycotina
ZygomycotinaZygomycotina
Zygomycotina
vaishalidandge3
 
Plasmodiophoromycetes
PlasmodiophoromycetesPlasmodiophoromycetes
Plasmodiophoromycetes
vaishalidandge3
 
Oomycetes
OomycetesOomycetes
Oomycetes
vaishalidandge3
 
Mastigomycotina
MastigomycotinaMastigomycotina
Mastigomycotina
vaishalidandge3
 
Myxomycotina
MyxomycotinaMyxomycotina
Myxomycotina
vaishalidandge3
 
Economic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungiEconomic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungi
vaishalidandge3
 
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant diseaseSigns and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
vaishalidandge3
 
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetablesGeneral account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
vaishalidandge3
 
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
vaishalidandge3
 
Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal
Important fungal disease on vegetables-BrinjalImportant fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal
Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal
vaishalidandge3
 
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathologyHistory,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
vaishalidandge3
 
Koch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & methodKoch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & method
vaishalidandge3
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomatoFungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potatoFungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindiFungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-CabbageFungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapesFungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
vaishalidandge3
 
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & AscomycetesFruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
vaishalidandge3
 

More from vaishalidandge3 (20)

Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism ofHost parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
 
Zygomycotina
ZygomycotinaZygomycotina
Zygomycotina
 
Plasmodiophoromycetes
PlasmodiophoromycetesPlasmodiophoromycetes
Plasmodiophoromycetes
 
Oomycetes
OomycetesOomycetes
Oomycetes
 
Mastigomycotina
MastigomycotinaMastigomycotina
Mastigomycotina
 
Myxomycotina
MyxomycotinaMyxomycotina
Myxomycotina
 
Economic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungiEconomic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungi
 
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant diseaseSigns and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
 
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetablesGeneral account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
 
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
 
Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal
Important fungal disease on vegetables-BrinjalImportant fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal
Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal
 
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathologyHistory,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
 
Koch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & methodKoch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & method
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomatoFungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potatoFungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindiFungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-CabbageFungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapesFungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
 
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & AscomycetesFruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
 

Recently uploaded

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
Sérgio Sacani
 
Adjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyer
Adjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyerAdjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyer
Adjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyer
pablovgd
 
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
Sérgio Sacani
 
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptxPancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
muralinath2
 
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with PhytoremediationPhytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Gurjant Singh
 
Post RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) Metabolism
Post RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) MetabolismPost RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) Metabolism
Post RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) Metabolism
Areesha Ahmad
 
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra IonBiochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
GENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene Therapy
GENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene TherapyGENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene Therapy
GENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene Therapy
shubhamve111yadav
 
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina BujorAnalytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
atom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptx
atom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptxatom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptx
atom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptx
ManjulaVani3
 
VIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdf
VIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdfVIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdf
VIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdf
poorvarajgolkar
 
17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf
17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf
17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf
marigreenproject
 
Data Visualization Workshop for Summer Interns
Data Visualization Workshop for Summer InternsData Visualization Workshop for Summer Interns
Data Visualization Workshop for Summer Interns
Zachary Labe
 
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdfNuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdf
pablovgd
 
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptxPotential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
J. Bovas Joel BFSc
 
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptxellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
muralinath2
 
Rice Genome Project a complete saga .(1).pptx
Rice Genome  Project a complete saga .(1).pptxRice Genome  Project a complete saga .(1).pptx
Rice Genome Project a complete saga .(1).pptx
SoumyaDixit11
 
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdfConcept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
SELF-EXPLANATORY
 

Recently uploaded (20)

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
 
Adjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyer
Adjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyerAdjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyer
Adjusted NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme flyer
 
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
 
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
End of pipe treatment: Unlocking the potential of RAS waste - Carlos Octavio ...
 
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptxPancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
 
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with PhytoremediationPhytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
 
Post RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) Metabolism
Post RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) MetabolismPost RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) Metabolism
Post RN - Biochemistry (Unit 7) Metabolism
 
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra IonBiochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
 
GENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene Therapy
GENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene TherapyGENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene Therapy
GENE THERAPY [Autosaved].pptx A brief explanation about Gene Therapy
 
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
 
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina BujorAnalytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
 
atom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptx
atom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptxatom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptx
atom, elements, molecule and compounds in telugu.pptx
 
VIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdf
VIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdfVIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdf
VIII-Geography FOR CBSE CLASS 8 INDIA.pdf
 
17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf
17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf
17. 20240529_Ingrid Olesen_MariGreen summer school.pdf
 
Data Visualization Workshop for Summer Interns
Data Visualization Workshop for Summer InternsData Visualization Workshop for Summer Interns
Data Visualization Workshop for Summer Interns
 
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdfNuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 Ghent programme__flyer.pdf
 
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptxPotential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
Potential of Marine renewable and Non renewable energy.pptx
 
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptxellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
ellipticytescausesprognosistreatment-240622051139-23d50b05.pptx
 
Rice Genome Project a complete saga .(1).pptx
Rice Genome  Project a complete saga .(1).pptxRice Genome  Project a complete saga .(1).pptx
Rice Genome Project a complete saga .(1).pptx
 
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdfConcept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
 

Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases

  • 1. Industrial fungal metabolites Enzymes-Proteases V.S.Patil Associate Professor, Department of Botany Shri Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce,& Science Akola
  • 2. •A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that catalyzes (increases the rate of) proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or single amino acids. They do this by cleaving the peptide bonds within proteins by hydrolysis, a reaction where water breaks bonds. •Proteases are involved in many biological functions, including digestion of ingested proteins, protein catabolism (breakdown of old proteins), and cell signaling. •Proteases can be found in all forms of life and viruses. •Without additional helping mechanisms, proteolysis would be very slow, taking hundreds of years.
  • 4. Classification- 1.Serine proteases - (using a serine alcohol)- Serine proteases (or serine endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site. They are found ubiquitously in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Serine proteases fall into two broad categories based on their structure: chymotrypsin-like (trypsin-like) or subtilisin-like. Uses-1.Coagulation factor levels may be required in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic or thrombotic conditions.2.Fecal elastase is employed to determine the exocrine activity of the pancreas, e.g., in cystic fibrosis or chronic pancreatitis.3.Serum prostate-specific antigen is used in prostate cancer screening, risk stratification, and post-treatment monitoring.4.Serine protease, as released by mast cells, is an important diagnostic marker for type 1 hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis). More useful than e.g. histamine due to the longer half-life, meaning it remains in the system for a clinically useful length of time.
  • 5. 2.Cysteine proteases - (using a cysteine thiol) It is also known as thiol proteases. They are enzymes that degrade proteins. These proteases share a common catalytic mechanism that involves a nucleophilic cysteine thiol in a catalytic triad or dyad. They are found in fruits including the papaya, pineapple, fig and kiwifruit. The proportion of protease tends to be higher when the fruit is unripe. Cysteine proteases are used as an ingredient in meat tenderizers. This protease classification system counts 14 superfamilies. Uses- 1.In plants they are important in growth and development and in accumulation and mobilization of storage proteins such as in seeds. 2. they are involved in signalling pathways and in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. 3. They are responsible for senescence and apoptosis (programmed cell death), MHC class II immune responses, prohormone processing, and extracellular matrix remodeling important to bone development. 4. They may also lead to accelerated collagen and elast in degradation at sites of inflammation in diseases such as atherosclerosis and emphysema.
  • 6. 5. They are resistance to acid digestion, allowing possible oral administration. 6. They are used as a feed additives for livestock to improve the digestibility of proteins and nucleic acids. 7. In several traditional medicines, the fruits or latex of the papaya, pineapple and fig are widely used for treatment of intestinal worm infections both in humans and livestock.
  • 7. 3.Threonine proteases - (using a threonine secondary alcohol)- Threonine proteases are a family of proteolytic enzymes harbouring a threonine (Thr) residue within the active site. The prototype members of this class of enzymes are the catalytic subunits of the proteasome, however the acyltransferases convergently evolved the same active site geometry and mechanism. Five families belonging to two separate superfamilies are currently recognised.
  • 8. 4.Aspartic proteases - (using an aspartate carboxylic acid) Aspartic proteases are a catalytic type of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule bound to one or more aspartate residues for catalysis of their peptide substrates. Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. Five superfamilies (clans) of aspartic proteases are known, each representing an independent evolution of the same active site and mechanisms.
  • 9. 5.Glutamic proteases - (using a glutamate carboxylic acid) Glutamic proteases are a group of proteolytic enzymes containing a glutamic acid residue within the active site. This group of proteases are found primarily in pathogenic fungi affecting plant and human. Structure contain the active site of a catalytic dyad, glutamic acid (E) and glutamine (Q), which give rise to the name eqolisin. There are two independent families of glutamic proteases (G1 and G2).
  • 10. 6.Metalloproteases - (using a metal, usually zinc) A metalloproteinase, or metalloprotease, is any protease enzyme whose catalytic mechanism involves a metal. It plays a significant role in the fusion of muscle cells during embryo development, in a process known as myogenesis. Their are two types 1.Exopeptidases, metalloexopeptidases. 2. Endopeptidases, metalloendopeptidases
  • 11. 7.Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform an elimination reaction (not requiring water) Asparagine peptide lyase are one of the seven groups in which proteases, also termed proteolytic enzymes, peptidases, or proteinases, are classified according to their catalytic residue. Types- Viral coat proteins Autotransporter proteins Intein-containing proteins
  • 12. Classification based on optimal pH. Alternatively, proteases may be classified by the optimal pH in which they are active: 1.Acid proteases 2.Neutral proteases involved in type 1 hypersensitivity. Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation. of complement and kinins. This group includes the calpains. 3.Basic proteases (or alkaline proteases)
  • 13. Mechanisms: 1.Aspartic, glutamic and metallo- proteases activate a water molecule which performs a nucleophilic attack on the peptide bond to hydrolyse it. 2.Serine, threonine and cysteine proteases use a nucleophilic residue (usually in a catalytic triad). That residue performs a nucleophilic attack to covalently link the protease to the substrate protein, releasing the first half of the product. This covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate is then hydrolysed by activated water to complete catalysis by releasing the second half of the product and regenerating the free enzyme.
  • 15. Uses 1.Proteases are involved in digesting long protein chains into shorter fragments by splitting the peptide bonds that link amino acid residues. Some detach the terminal amino acids from the protein chain (exopeptidases, such as aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidase A); others attack internal peptide bonds of a protein (endopeptidases, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, papain, elastase). 2. laundry detergents. 3. in the bread industry in bread improver. for quicker preparation of dough, its gluten is partially hydrolyzed by a heat-labile fungal protease because of its early inactivation in subsequent baking. 4. A variety of proteases are used medically both for their native function (e.g. controlling blood clotting) or for completely artificial functions (e.g. for the targeted degradation of pathogenic proteins). 5. Highly specific proteases such as TEV protease and thrombin are commonly used to cleave fusion proteins and affinity tags in a controlled fashion. ation
  • 16. 6. In the food industry, proteases are utilized for modification, palatability, and storage life of all available sources of proteins. 7. In meat tenderiz 8.Food and Feed Industry-During cheese production from milk, proteases are added to hydrolyze kappa casein to prevent coagulation by stabilizing micelle formation. 9. pharmaceutical drug formations. 10. fortification of soft drinks and juices 11. Waste Management 12. Leather Industry-in the soaking, bating, and dehairing phase of preparing skin and hides.