SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Important fungal diseases on vegetables-
BRINJAL(Egg plant)
Solanum melongena Family- Solanaceae
Vaishali S.Patil
Professor, Department of Botany
Shri Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce & Science Akola
1.Fungi constitute the largest number of plant
pathogens and are responsible for a range of serious
plant diseases. Most vegetable diseases are caused by
fungi. They damage plants by killing cells and/or
causing plant stress.
2. Sources of fungal infections are infected seed, soil,
crop debris, nearby crops and weeds. Fungi are
spread by wind and water splash, and through the
movement of contaminated soil, animals, workers,
machinery, tools, seedlings and other plant material.
3.They enter plants through natural openings such as
stomata and through wounds caused by pruning,
harvesting, hail, insects, other diseases, and
mechanical damage.
IMPORTANT DISEASES OF BRINJAL(Egg plant)
Solanum melongena Family- Solanaceae
Disease -1. Cercospora beticola Sacc
Symptoms –This fungus produces large, irregular or circular brown
or grey spots on leaves and also causes fruit rot. The central grey
portion shows the presence of fungal fruiting bodies as black dots.
The disease is primarily soil borne and seed borne when fruit rot
occurs. Severely affected leaves wither and die from coalescing
lesions. A diagnostic feature is the presence of tiny black dots
(pseudostromata) that form in leaf substomatal cavities within the
grayish-tan lesions. The pseudostromata produce conidiophores borne
in clusters that serve as conidia-bearing structures.
.
Structure of fungus: Mycelium is well-developed, branched, septate,
slender, intercellular and brown coloured. Conidiophores septate , dark-
coloured structures coming out in tufts from stomata. Conidia , hyaline
or pale yellow, obclavate, needle-shaped , colorless, septate .
Control measure: Removal and destruction of affected plant parts and
spraying the affected plants with Bavistin (0.1%) or Chlorothalonil (2
g/litre of water) is useful for disease control.
2.Damping Off -Sclerotinia spp.-
Symptoms: It Infect seedlings at ground level and then the
plants fall over ground. Fungi infect the germinating seeds at
the initial stages and later spread to basal stem and developing
roots. The diseased seedlings become pale green and brownish
lesions are found at the collar region, resulting in bottling and
topple over of seedlings.
Structure of fungus: Hyphae hyaline, septate, branched and
multinucleate. Mycelium white to tan, sclerotium; a
pigmented,. Sclerotia can germinate to produce mycelia or
apothecia depending on environmental conditions. Apothecia
produce ascospores,.
Control measure: : Making the crop microclimate less conducive for
infection, utilization of effective fungicides to protect susceptible plants,
elimination of sources of inoculum, and selection of resistant plants.
Successful disease control commonly requires implementation and
integration of multiple techniques.
3.Damping Off -Pythium spp..-
Symptoms: This fungus is the most common cause of pre-emergence
Damping-Off. Typical symptoms include dark-brown to black, water-
soaked lesions that rapidly spread over the entire seedling. Brown, water-
soaked lesions that start on the roots and later extend up the hypocotyl
characterize post-emergence Damping-Off. Eventually, the lesions girdle
the hypocotyl, causing seedlings to wilt and die. The root cortex becomes
macerated and easily sloughs off.
Structure of fungus -Main hyphae broad, Sporangia is filamentous or
non-inflated, sometimes branched. Zoospores formed ,vesicles are
varying from very small containing 2 zoospores to big containing many
zoospores. Oogonia were globose, to subglobose and sometimes ovoid,
smooth, mostly terminal or subterminal, occasionally intercalary;
Antheridia, typically diclinous, 1-2 per oogonium. Antheridial stalks not
branched. Oospores were single, aplerotic.
Control measure: Damping-off can be avoided by starting seed in light, well-drained, well-
prepared soil or sterile mix (containing perlite, peat moss, or vermiculite); treating soil with
steam, dry heat or a fumigant; avoiding overcrowding, excessive shade, overwatering, too deep
planting, and over fertilizing; and sowing crack-free, healthy seed dusted with fungicide seed
protectant. An early outbreak can be controlled by applying a fungicide solution.
4.Damping Off -Rhizoctonia solani: Symptoms: Pre-emergence
symptoms include reddish-brown lesions on hypocotyls and death of
growing tips. Post-emergence Damping-Off is characterized by reddish-
brown to black lesions that develop on roots and hypocotyls at or below
the soil line. Later, hypocotyls collapse and seedlings wilt and die.
.
Structure of fungus -The vegetative mycelium are colorless when young
but become brown colored as they grow and mature. The mycelium
consists of hyphae partitioned into individual cells by a septum
containing a dough-nut shaped pore. The hyphae often branch at a
90o angles and usually possess more than three nuclei per hyphal cell.
Mycelium buff-colored to dark brown, sclerotia (if present) irregular
shape, light to dark brown.
Control measure: Biological control using Trichoderma spp.
and Gliocladium spp. or bacteria such as Pseudomonas spp.
and Bacillus spp. Chemical control by benomyl and
thiophanate methyl.
5Damping Off -Fusarium spp. Symptoms: Dark-brown lesions on
hypocotyls characterize pre-emergence Damping-Off. Post emergence
Damping-Off is characterized by dark-brown lesions on roots and
hypocotyls at or near the crown. Lesions eventually girdle hypocotyls,
killing the seedlings.
Structure of fungus- Hyaline septate, hyphae, hialides are cylindrical, with a small
collarets, solitary or produced as a component of a complex branching system.
Monophialides and polyphialides (in heads or in chains) may be observed.
Macroconidia are produced from phialides on unbranched or branched conidiophores.
They are 2- or more celled, thick-walled, smooth, and cylindrical or sickle- (canoe-
)shaped. Macroconidia have a distinct basal foot cell and pointed distal ends. They tend
to accumulate in balls or rafts. Microconidia (on the other hand, are formed on long or
short simple conidiophores. They are 1-celled (occasionally 2- or 3-celled), smooth,
hyaline, ovoid to cylindrical, and arranged in balls (occasionally occurring in chains).
Chlamydospores, when present, are sparse, in pairs, clumps or chains. They are thick-
walled, hyaline, intercalary or terminal.
Control measure- The disease can be controlled by seed treatment with agrosan or
ceresin @2gm/kg of seed.
6.Alternaria Rot -Alternaria leaf spot caused by
Alternaria melongenae
Symptoms -The disease causes characteristic leaf
spots with concentric rings. The spots are mostly
irregular and coalesce to cover large areas of the leaf
blade. Severely affected leaves drop off. The
symptoms on the affected fruits are in the form of
large deep-seated spots. The infected fruits turn yellow
and drop off prematurely.
Structure of fungus -Septate, brown hyphae. Conidiophores are also
septate and brown in color, occasionally producing a zigzag appearance.
They bear simple or branched large conidia which have both transverse
and longitudinal septations. These conidia may be observed singly or in
acropetal chains and may produce germ tubes. They are ovoid to
obclavate, darkly pigmented, muriform, smooth or roughened. The end
of the conidium nearest the conidiophore is round while it tapers towards
the apex. This gives the typical beak or club-like appearance of the
conidia.
Control measure: Removal and destruction of affected plant parts and
spraying the affected plants with Bavistin (0.1%).
7.Anthracnose Fruit Rot (Colletotrichum spp.)-
Symptoms -Small lesions occur on the skin of the
fruit. These are usually smaller than a pencil eraser
and circular to angular. Tissue is sunken around the
lesion and the interior is tan with fleshy ooze which is
the spore of the fungus. When fruits are extremely
diseased, they will drop from the stem. The fruit
becomes dry and black. The entire fruit is inedible and
the spores spread rapidly from rain splash or even
wind.
Control measure-Careful seed selection, removal of the
previous season’s plant debris, crop rotation ,application of
fungicides early in the season can help to prevent many
outbreaks. Some growers also recommend a post-harvest
fungicide dip or a hot water bath.
Structure of fungus –Conidia cylindrical, hyaline and
aseptate , formed on cylindrical conidiophores.
Acervuli on the roots are rounded with septate setae on
the surface. Appressoria are ovate to elliptical in
shape. Mycelium are dark inpigmentation.
8.Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
melongenae)
Symptoms- It appear as a slight yellowing of foliage
and wilting of upper leaves. As wilting progresses,
leaves may turn dull-green to brown and remain
attached to the plant. When the stem and roots are cut
diagonally, reddish-brown streaks are visible in the
vascular tissues.
Structure of fungus- Hyphae are septate and hyaline.
Conidiophores are simple (non-branched) or branched
monophialides (phialides with a single opening).
Macroconidia are moderately curved, stout, thick-walled,
usually 3-5 septate and are borne on short conidiophores that
soon form sporodochia. Microconidia are borne from long
monophialides, are one to three-celled and occur in false heads
only (in clusters of conidia at the tip of the phialide).
Chlamydoconidia are present (sometimes profuse) and occur
both singly and in pairs.
Control measure-use of the bacterial complex Burkholderia cepacia,
planting during warm/dry weather, 3 plus years of crop rotation of non
host species, and avoiding dense seed planting.
9.Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium spp.)-
Symptoms-It include yellowing and drooping of
leaves on a few branches or on the entire plant. The
edges of the leaves roll inward on infected plants, and
foliar wilting ensues. The foliage of severely infected
plants turns brown and dry.
Structure of fungus- The vegetative mycelium is hyaline,
septate, and multinucleate. The nuclei are haploid. Conidia are
ovoid or ellipsoid and usually single-celled.
Control measure-Water the plant regularly, and when possible,
provide afternoon shade. Fertilize on schedule, using a low-
nitrogen, high-phosphorus fertilizer. Prune off dead and dying
branches. Solarisation of the soil.
10.Phytophthora Blight (Phytophthora spp.)
Symptoms- The disease starts within infected soil, the first
symptoms come above ground, often when seemingly healthy,
fruit-forming plants suddenly wilt and die midseason.Stem
cankers develop, often at the soil line, and stems begin to rot
inside. Leaves show dark spots that enlarge until foliage looks
bleached and scorched. Infected fruits stay attached to the
plant but develop dark, water-soaked blotches that become
covered in cottony white mold.
Control measure: Avoiding favorable conditions (soil saturated with
water), applying fungicides Presidio, Revus, Forum, and phosphorous
acid starting before disease onset (preventive schedule), and promptly
destroying affected plants at the start of an outbreak to limit spread.
Structure of fungus- the mycelium , white and fluffy Sporangia ellipsoid
to lemon shaped with a small pedicel. Sporangia germinate either
directly to form a germ tube or indirectly via zoospores. Zoospores (ca 7-
12 per sporangium) have two flagella, one forward-directed tinsel type
and a backward-directed whiplash type (heterokont). Zoospores are
usually uninucleate, but binucleate zoospores have been detected.
Oogonia tapering at base. Antheridia amphigynous, elongated
cylindrical,. Oospores aplerotic.
11.Southern Blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)- It attacks stems,
roots, leaves, and fruit . The watery, soft, decayed tissue tends
to remain on the ground when an infected fruit is picked up.
Yellowing and wilting of the lateral branches, main stem, or
the entire plan. Brown lesions at the stem base. Diagnostic
signs of the fungus include characteristic white mycelial fans
and brown sclerotia extending from infected tissues.
Control measure: Deep plowing serves as a cultural control tactic by
burying sclerotia deep in the soil. High soil moisture, dense planting, and
frequent irrigation promote infection.
Structure of fungus- At least two types of hyphae are produced (1)
Coarse, straight, large cells have two clamp connection at each
septation, but may exhibit branching in place of one of the clamps.
Branching is common in the slender hyphae which tend to grow
irregularly and lack clamp connections. Slender hyphae are often
observed penetrating the substrate. Sclerotia initially a felty white
appearance, to a dark brown coloration, contain viable hyphae.
12.Phomopsis blight or fruit rot caused by Phomopsis
vexans-
Symptoms -Occurs at seedling stage as well as in
transplanted crop. Small circular spots develops in
leaves, later turn grey with light coloured centre. Pale
to light brown sunken spots develop on the old fruits.
Individual spots expand and coalesce to cover entire
fruit or most part of the fruits.
Structure of fungus-
Conidiomata pycnidial, subepidermal, erumpent, dark, thick-walled,
flattened to globose, varying in size,, with or without a beak;. Phialides
hyaline, simple or branched, sometimes septate, arising from the
innermost layer of cells lining the cavity. Alpha conidia hyaline, aseptate,
sub-cylindrical Beta conidia filiform, curved, hyaline, septate,, non-
germinating. Hyphae hyaline, septate, Ascomata perithecial, in culture
usually in clusters, beaked; beaks sinuous, carbonaceous, irregular,. Asci
clavate, sessile, eight-spored. Ascospores biseriate, hyaline, narrowly
ellipsoid to bluntly fusoid, one-septate, constricted at the septum,
Control measures:
•Use healthy seeds collected from healthy fruits and healthy
field.
•Grow resistant varieties like Pusa Bhairav and Florida
market.
•Give hot water treatment to seeds at 500 C for 30 minutes.
•Seed treatment with carbendazim @ 0.25%
•At least three-year crop rotation is required with any non-host
crop.
•Burn infected crop residue.
•Bavistin: Seed treatment (1g/kg) + seedling treatment for 30
minutes(0.05% solution)+ (0.05% solution spray at 10-15 days
interval.
Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal

More Related Content

What's hot

Blast of rice
Blast of riceBlast of rice
Blast of rice
Dr. Rajbir Singh
 
Ergot of bajra or pearl millet
Ergot of bajra or pearl milletErgot of bajra or pearl millet
Ergot of bajra or pearl millet
Dr. Rajbir Singh
 
Tomato Early Blight disease
Tomato Early Blight diseaseTomato Early Blight disease
Tomato Early Blight disease
BooapthiN
 
White rust of crucifers
White rust of crucifersWhite rust of crucifers
White rust of crucifers
Dr. Rajbir Singh
 
Diseases of coriander
Diseases of corianderDiseases of coriander
Diseases of coriander
Moni Bala
 
Diseases of Gram
Diseases of GramDiseases of Gram
Diseases of Gram
abhayrathod23
 
Loose smut and flag smut of wheat
Loose smut and flag smut of wheatLoose smut and flag smut of wheat
Loose smut and flag smut of wheat
rishi0
 
PEACH LEAF CURL
PEACH LEAF CURLPEACH LEAF CURL
PEACH LEAF CURL
Jaga Jj
 
Late blight of potato
Late blight of potatoLate blight of potato
Late blight of potato
Ramya S
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomatoFungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
vaishalidandge3
 
diseases of aloe vera
diseases of aloe veradiseases of aloe vera
diseases of aloe vera
rishi0
 
Diseases of Cucurbits
Diseases of Cucurbits Diseases of Cucurbits
Diseases of Cucurbits
abhayrathod23
 
Chilli leaf curl virus
Chilli leaf curl virusChilli leaf curl virus
Chilli leaf curl virus
Jay Khaniya
 
Downy mildew of grapes
Downy mildew of grapesDowny mildew of grapes
Downy mildew of grapes
Saugat Bhattacharjee
 
MANGO ANTHRACNOSE
MANGO ANTHRACNOSE MANGO ANTHRACNOSE
MANGO ANTHRACNOSE
ABIRAMIC3
 
ERGOT OF BAJRA
ERGOT OF BAJRAERGOT OF BAJRA
ERGOT OF BAJRA
Nugurusaichandan
 
6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)
6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)
6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)
AvinashDarsimbe1
 
Diseases of Papaya
Diseases of PapayaDiseases of Papaya
Diseases of Papaya
AnurAg Kerketta
 
Sugarcane diseases
Sugarcane diseasesSugarcane diseases
Sugarcane diseases
Syed Zahid Hasan
 
Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)
Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)
Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)
HARISH J
 

What's hot (20)

Blast of rice
Blast of riceBlast of rice
Blast of rice
 
Ergot of bajra or pearl millet
Ergot of bajra or pearl milletErgot of bajra or pearl millet
Ergot of bajra or pearl millet
 
Tomato Early Blight disease
Tomato Early Blight diseaseTomato Early Blight disease
Tomato Early Blight disease
 
White rust of crucifers
White rust of crucifersWhite rust of crucifers
White rust of crucifers
 
Diseases of coriander
Diseases of corianderDiseases of coriander
Diseases of coriander
 
Diseases of Gram
Diseases of GramDiseases of Gram
Diseases of Gram
 
Loose smut and flag smut of wheat
Loose smut and flag smut of wheatLoose smut and flag smut of wheat
Loose smut and flag smut of wheat
 
PEACH LEAF CURL
PEACH LEAF CURLPEACH LEAF CURL
PEACH LEAF CURL
 
Late blight of potato
Late blight of potatoLate blight of potato
Late blight of potato
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomatoFungal diseases of vegetables tomato
Fungal diseases of vegetables tomato
 
diseases of aloe vera
diseases of aloe veradiseases of aloe vera
diseases of aloe vera
 
Diseases of Cucurbits
Diseases of Cucurbits Diseases of Cucurbits
Diseases of Cucurbits
 
Chilli leaf curl virus
Chilli leaf curl virusChilli leaf curl virus
Chilli leaf curl virus
 
Downy mildew of grapes
Downy mildew of grapesDowny mildew of grapes
Downy mildew of grapes
 
MANGO ANTHRACNOSE
MANGO ANTHRACNOSE MANGO ANTHRACNOSE
MANGO ANTHRACNOSE
 
ERGOT OF BAJRA
ERGOT OF BAJRAERGOT OF BAJRA
ERGOT OF BAJRA
 
6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)
6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)
6.4.2. bacteria – black arm of cotton (xanthomonos malvacearum)
 
Diseases of Papaya
Diseases of PapayaDiseases of Papaya
Diseases of Papaya
 
Sugarcane diseases
Sugarcane diseasesSugarcane diseases
Sugarcane diseases
 
Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)
Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)
Major diseases of Lentil (Lens culinaris)
 

Similar to Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal

fungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdffungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdf
dawitg2
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindiFungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
vaishalidandge3
 
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdffungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdf
dawitg2
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potatoFungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops banana
Fungal diseases of fruit crops bananaFungal diseases of fruit crops banana
Fungal diseases of fruit crops banana
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables -chili
Fungal diseases of vegetables -chiliFungal diseases of vegetables -chili
Fungal diseases of vegetables -chili
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-CabbageFungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops- papaya
Fungal diseases of fruit crops- papayaFungal diseases of fruit crops- papaya
Fungal diseases of fruit crops- papaya
vaishalidandge3
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapesFungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
vaishalidandge3
 
himanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapees
himanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapeeshimanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapees
himanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapees
SainiKaulapuria
 
Diseases of maize
Diseases of maizeDiseases of maize
Diseases of maize
Aminul Haque
 
Diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.ppt
Diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.pptDiseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.ppt
Diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.ppt
Akash486765
 
Major diseases of chilli
Major diseases of chilliMajor diseases of chilli
Major diseases of chilli
csapramod
 
lec15.pdf
lec15.pdflec15.pdf
lec15.pdf
DawitGetahun6
 
Diseases of Mango
Diseases of MangoDiseases of Mango
Diseases of Mango
abhayrathod23
 
Diseases of Potato
Diseases of PotatoDiseases of Potato
Diseases of Potato
abhayrathod23
 
Diseases of banana
Diseases of bananaDiseases of banana
Diseases of banana
KHUSHBOODUBEY12
 
pptno-14potato-210427070740.pdf
pptno-14potato-210427070740.pdfpptno-14potato-210427070740.pdf
pptno-14potato-210427070740.pdf
DawitGetahun6
 
Diseases of crossandra
Diseases of crossandraDiseases of crossandra
Diseases of crossandra
srimathip1
 
Diseases of cotton
Diseases of cottonDiseases of cotton
Diseases of cotton
abhayrathod23
 

Similar to Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal (20)

fungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdffungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-tomato-211210061001.pdf
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindiFungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
Fungal diseases of vegetables bhindi
 
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdffungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdf
fungaldiseasesofvegetables-potato-211210060451.pdf
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potatoFungal diseases of vegetables potato
Fungal diseases of vegetables potato
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops banana
Fungal diseases of fruit crops bananaFungal diseases of fruit crops banana
Fungal diseases of fruit crops banana
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables -chili
Fungal diseases of vegetables -chiliFungal diseases of vegetables -chili
Fungal diseases of vegetables -chili
 
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-CabbageFungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
Fungal diseases of vegetables-Cabbage
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops- papaya
Fungal diseases of fruit crops- papayaFungal diseases of fruit crops- papaya
Fungal diseases of fruit crops- papaya
 
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapesFungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
Fungal diseases of fruit crops grapes
 
himanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapees
himanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapeeshimanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapees
himanshu Walia 2.pptx disease of grapees
 
Diseases of maize
Diseases of maizeDiseases of maize
Diseases of maize
 
Diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.ppt
Diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.pptDiseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.ppt
Diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet.ppt
 
Major diseases of chilli
Major diseases of chilliMajor diseases of chilli
Major diseases of chilli
 
lec15.pdf
lec15.pdflec15.pdf
lec15.pdf
 
Diseases of Mango
Diseases of MangoDiseases of Mango
Diseases of Mango
 
Diseases of Potato
Diseases of PotatoDiseases of Potato
Diseases of Potato
 
Diseases of banana
Diseases of bananaDiseases of banana
Diseases of banana
 
pptno-14potato-210427070740.pdf
pptno-14potato-210427070740.pdfpptno-14potato-210427070740.pdf
pptno-14potato-210427070740.pdf
 
Diseases of crossandra
Diseases of crossandraDiseases of crossandra
Diseases of crossandra
 
Diseases of cotton
Diseases of cottonDiseases of cotton
Diseases of cotton
 

More from vaishalidandge3

Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism ofHost parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
vaishalidandge3
 
Zygomycotina
ZygomycotinaZygomycotina
Zygomycotina
vaishalidandge3
 
Plasmodiophoromycetes
PlasmodiophoromycetesPlasmodiophoromycetes
Plasmodiophoromycetes
vaishalidandge3
 
Oomycetes
OomycetesOomycetes
Oomycetes
vaishalidandge3
 
Mastigomycotina
MastigomycotinaMastigomycotina
Mastigomycotina
vaishalidandge3
 
Myxomycotina
MyxomycotinaMyxomycotina
Myxomycotina
vaishalidandge3
 
Economic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungiEconomic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungi
vaishalidandge3
 
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant diseaseSigns and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
vaishalidandge3
 
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetablesGeneral account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
vaishalidandge3
 
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
vaishalidandge3
 
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathologyHistory,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
vaishalidandge3
 
Koch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & methodKoch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & method
vaishalidandge3
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
vaishalidandge3
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
vaishalidandge3
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases
vaishalidandge3
 
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & AscomycetesFruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
vaishalidandge3
 
Enzymes cellulases
Enzymes cellulasesEnzymes cellulases
Enzymes cellulases
vaishalidandge3
 
Enzyme amylases
Enzyme amylasesEnzyme amylases
Enzyme amylases
vaishalidandge3
 
Aflatoxins general account, types & importance
Aflatoxins  general account, types & importanceAflatoxins  general account, types & importance
Aflatoxins general account, types & importance
vaishalidandge3
 
Defence mechanism in plants
Defence mechanism in plantsDefence mechanism in plants
Defence mechanism in plants
vaishalidandge3
 

More from vaishalidandge3 (20)

Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism ofHost parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
Host parasite relationship ,interaction & mechanism of
 
Zygomycotina
ZygomycotinaZygomycotina
Zygomycotina
 
Plasmodiophoromycetes
PlasmodiophoromycetesPlasmodiophoromycetes
Plasmodiophoromycetes
 
Oomycetes
OomycetesOomycetes
Oomycetes
 
Mastigomycotina
MastigomycotinaMastigomycotina
Mastigomycotina
 
Myxomycotina
MyxomycotinaMyxomycotina
Myxomycotina
 
Economic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungiEconomic importance of fungi
Economic importance of fungi
 
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant diseaseSigns and symptoms of plant disease
Signs and symptoms of plant disease
 
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetablesGeneral account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
General account of post harvest diseases of vegetables
 
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
Classification of fungi proposed by Ainsworth (1971)
 
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathologyHistory,classification & importance of plant pathology
History,classification & importance of plant pathology
 
Koch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & methodKoch's postulate –principals & method
Koch's postulate –principals & method
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  pectinases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes pectinases
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes  lipases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes lipases
 
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteasesIndustrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases
Industrial fungal metabolites enzymes proteases
 
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & AscomycetesFruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
Fruiting bodies of Deauteromycetes & Ascomycetes
 
Enzymes cellulases
Enzymes cellulasesEnzymes cellulases
Enzymes cellulases
 
Enzyme amylases
Enzyme amylasesEnzyme amylases
Enzyme amylases
 
Aflatoxins general account, types & importance
Aflatoxins  general account, types & importanceAflatoxins  general account, types & importance
Aflatoxins general account, types & importance
 
Defence mechanism in plants
Defence mechanism in plantsDefence mechanism in plants
Defence mechanism in plants
 

Recently uploaded

Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
anushkakharat13
 
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina PârvulescuMARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
bellared2
 
BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx
BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptxBIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx
BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx
alishyt102010
 
Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation - ...
Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation -  ...Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation -  ...
Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation - ...
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptxPancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
muralinath2
 
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physicsTHE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
Dr. sreeremya S
 
Structure of Sperm / Spermatozoon .pdf
Structure of  Sperm / Spermatozoon  .pdfStructure of  Sperm / Spermatozoon  .pdf
Structure of Sperm / Spermatozoon .pdf
SELF-EXPLANATORY
 
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary TrackThe Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
Sérgio Sacani
 
A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715
A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715
A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715
Sérgio Sacani
 
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - ArtemisLunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Sérgio Sacani
 
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdfConcept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
SELF-EXPLANATORY
 
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra IonBiochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
PANDURANGLAWATE1
 
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic SpecimenSynopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Sérgio Sacani
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
Sharon Liu
 
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.netBuy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
ludasams003
 
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina BujorAnalytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotailComplementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
Plant Kingdom BioHack class 11 neet ....
 
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina PârvulescuMARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
 
Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
Celebrity Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl S...
 
BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx
BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptxBIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx
BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx
 
Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation - ...
Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation -  ...Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation -  ...
Traditional, current and future use of fish and seaweed for fertilisation - ...
 
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptxPancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
Pancreas_functional anatomy_enzymes.pptx
 
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physicsTHE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
 
Structure of Sperm / Spermatozoon .pdf
Structure of  Sperm / Spermatozoon  .pdfStructure of  Sperm / Spermatozoon  .pdf
Structure of Sperm / Spermatozoon .pdf
 
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary TrackThe Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track
 
A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715
A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715
A NICER VIEW OF THE NEAREST AND BRIGHTEST MILLISECOND PULSAR: PSR J0437−4715
 
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
AlgaeBrew project - Unlocking the potential of microalgae for the valorisatio...
 
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - ArtemisLunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis
 
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdfConcept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
Concept of Balanced Diet & Nutrients.pdf
 
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra IonBiochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
Biochar impregnation as slow release fertilizer - Violeta Alexandra Ion
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
 
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic SpecimenSynopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
 
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.netBuy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
 
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina BujorAnalytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
Analytical methods for blue residues characterization - Oana Crina Bujor
 
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotailComplementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
 

Important fungal disease on vegetables-Brinjal

  • 1. Important fungal diseases on vegetables- BRINJAL(Egg plant) Solanum melongena Family- Solanaceae Vaishali S.Patil Professor, Department of Botany Shri Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce & Science Akola
  • 2. 1.Fungi constitute the largest number of plant pathogens and are responsible for a range of serious plant diseases. Most vegetable diseases are caused by fungi. They damage plants by killing cells and/or causing plant stress. 2. Sources of fungal infections are infected seed, soil, crop debris, nearby crops and weeds. Fungi are spread by wind and water splash, and through the movement of contaminated soil, animals, workers, machinery, tools, seedlings and other plant material. 3.They enter plants through natural openings such as stomata and through wounds caused by pruning, harvesting, hail, insects, other diseases, and mechanical damage.
  • 3. IMPORTANT DISEASES OF BRINJAL(Egg plant) Solanum melongena Family- Solanaceae
  • 4. Disease -1. Cercospora beticola Sacc Symptoms –This fungus produces large, irregular or circular brown or grey spots on leaves and also causes fruit rot. The central grey portion shows the presence of fungal fruiting bodies as black dots. The disease is primarily soil borne and seed borne when fruit rot occurs. Severely affected leaves wither and die from coalescing lesions. A diagnostic feature is the presence of tiny black dots (pseudostromata) that form in leaf substomatal cavities within the grayish-tan lesions. The pseudostromata produce conidiophores borne in clusters that serve as conidia-bearing structures.
  • 5. . Structure of fungus: Mycelium is well-developed, branched, septate, slender, intercellular and brown coloured. Conidiophores septate , dark- coloured structures coming out in tufts from stomata. Conidia , hyaline or pale yellow, obclavate, needle-shaped , colorless, septate . Control measure: Removal and destruction of affected plant parts and spraying the affected plants with Bavistin (0.1%) or Chlorothalonil (2 g/litre of water) is useful for disease control.
  • 6. 2.Damping Off -Sclerotinia spp.- Symptoms: It Infect seedlings at ground level and then the plants fall over ground. Fungi infect the germinating seeds at the initial stages and later spread to basal stem and developing roots. The diseased seedlings become pale green and brownish lesions are found at the collar region, resulting in bottling and topple over of seedlings.
  • 7. Structure of fungus: Hyphae hyaline, septate, branched and multinucleate. Mycelium white to tan, sclerotium; a pigmented,. Sclerotia can germinate to produce mycelia or apothecia depending on environmental conditions. Apothecia produce ascospores,. Control measure: : Making the crop microclimate less conducive for infection, utilization of effective fungicides to protect susceptible plants, elimination of sources of inoculum, and selection of resistant plants. Successful disease control commonly requires implementation and integration of multiple techniques.
  • 8. 3.Damping Off -Pythium spp..- Symptoms: This fungus is the most common cause of pre-emergence Damping-Off. Typical symptoms include dark-brown to black, water- soaked lesions that rapidly spread over the entire seedling. Brown, water- soaked lesions that start on the roots and later extend up the hypocotyl characterize post-emergence Damping-Off. Eventually, the lesions girdle the hypocotyl, causing seedlings to wilt and die. The root cortex becomes macerated and easily sloughs off.
  • 9. Structure of fungus -Main hyphae broad, Sporangia is filamentous or non-inflated, sometimes branched. Zoospores formed ,vesicles are varying from very small containing 2 zoospores to big containing many zoospores. Oogonia were globose, to subglobose and sometimes ovoid, smooth, mostly terminal or subterminal, occasionally intercalary; Antheridia, typically diclinous, 1-2 per oogonium. Antheridial stalks not branched. Oospores were single, aplerotic. Control measure: Damping-off can be avoided by starting seed in light, well-drained, well- prepared soil or sterile mix (containing perlite, peat moss, or vermiculite); treating soil with steam, dry heat or a fumigant; avoiding overcrowding, excessive shade, overwatering, too deep planting, and over fertilizing; and sowing crack-free, healthy seed dusted with fungicide seed protectant. An early outbreak can be controlled by applying a fungicide solution.
  • 10. 4.Damping Off -Rhizoctonia solani: Symptoms: Pre-emergence symptoms include reddish-brown lesions on hypocotyls and death of growing tips. Post-emergence Damping-Off is characterized by reddish- brown to black lesions that develop on roots and hypocotyls at or below the soil line. Later, hypocotyls collapse and seedlings wilt and die. .
  • 11. Structure of fungus -The vegetative mycelium are colorless when young but become brown colored as they grow and mature. The mycelium consists of hyphae partitioned into individual cells by a septum containing a dough-nut shaped pore. The hyphae often branch at a 90o angles and usually possess more than three nuclei per hyphal cell. Mycelium buff-colored to dark brown, sclerotia (if present) irregular shape, light to dark brown. Control measure: Biological control using Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. or bacteria such as Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. Chemical control by benomyl and thiophanate methyl.
  • 12. 5Damping Off -Fusarium spp. Symptoms: Dark-brown lesions on hypocotyls characterize pre-emergence Damping-Off. Post emergence Damping-Off is characterized by dark-brown lesions on roots and hypocotyls at or near the crown. Lesions eventually girdle hypocotyls, killing the seedlings.
  • 13. Structure of fungus- Hyaline septate, hyphae, hialides are cylindrical, with a small collarets, solitary or produced as a component of a complex branching system. Monophialides and polyphialides (in heads or in chains) may be observed. Macroconidia are produced from phialides on unbranched or branched conidiophores. They are 2- or more celled, thick-walled, smooth, and cylindrical or sickle- (canoe- )shaped. Macroconidia have a distinct basal foot cell and pointed distal ends. They tend to accumulate in balls or rafts. Microconidia (on the other hand, are formed on long or short simple conidiophores. They are 1-celled (occasionally 2- or 3-celled), smooth, hyaline, ovoid to cylindrical, and arranged in balls (occasionally occurring in chains). Chlamydospores, when present, are sparse, in pairs, clumps or chains. They are thick- walled, hyaline, intercalary or terminal. Control measure- The disease can be controlled by seed treatment with agrosan or ceresin @2gm/kg of seed.
  • 14. 6.Alternaria Rot -Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria melongenae Symptoms -The disease causes characteristic leaf spots with concentric rings. The spots are mostly irregular and coalesce to cover large areas of the leaf blade. Severely affected leaves drop off. The symptoms on the affected fruits are in the form of large deep-seated spots. The infected fruits turn yellow and drop off prematurely.
  • 15. Structure of fungus -Septate, brown hyphae. Conidiophores are also septate and brown in color, occasionally producing a zigzag appearance. They bear simple or branched large conidia which have both transverse and longitudinal septations. These conidia may be observed singly or in acropetal chains and may produce germ tubes. They are ovoid to obclavate, darkly pigmented, muriform, smooth or roughened. The end of the conidium nearest the conidiophore is round while it tapers towards the apex. This gives the typical beak or club-like appearance of the conidia. Control measure: Removal and destruction of affected plant parts and spraying the affected plants with Bavistin (0.1%).
  • 16. 7.Anthracnose Fruit Rot (Colletotrichum spp.)- Symptoms -Small lesions occur on the skin of the fruit. These are usually smaller than a pencil eraser and circular to angular. Tissue is sunken around the lesion and the interior is tan with fleshy ooze which is the spore of the fungus. When fruits are extremely diseased, they will drop from the stem. The fruit becomes dry and black. The entire fruit is inedible and the spores spread rapidly from rain splash or even wind.
  • 17. Control measure-Careful seed selection, removal of the previous season’s plant debris, crop rotation ,application of fungicides early in the season can help to prevent many outbreaks. Some growers also recommend a post-harvest fungicide dip or a hot water bath. Structure of fungus –Conidia cylindrical, hyaline and aseptate , formed on cylindrical conidiophores. Acervuli on the roots are rounded with septate setae on the surface. Appressoria are ovate to elliptical in shape. Mycelium are dark inpigmentation.
  • 18. 8.Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae) Symptoms- It appear as a slight yellowing of foliage and wilting of upper leaves. As wilting progresses, leaves may turn dull-green to brown and remain attached to the plant. When the stem and roots are cut diagonally, reddish-brown streaks are visible in the vascular tissues.
  • 19. Structure of fungus- Hyphae are septate and hyaline. Conidiophores are simple (non-branched) or branched monophialides (phialides with a single opening). Macroconidia are moderately curved, stout, thick-walled, usually 3-5 septate and are borne on short conidiophores that soon form sporodochia. Microconidia are borne from long monophialides, are one to three-celled and occur in false heads only (in clusters of conidia at the tip of the phialide). Chlamydoconidia are present (sometimes profuse) and occur both singly and in pairs. Control measure-use of the bacterial complex Burkholderia cepacia, planting during warm/dry weather, 3 plus years of crop rotation of non host species, and avoiding dense seed planting.
  • 20. 9.Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium spp.)- Symptoms-It include yellowing and drooping of leaves on a few branches or on the entire plant. The edges of the leaves roll inward on infected plants, and foliar wilting ensues. The foliage of severely infected plants turns brown and dry.
  • 21. Structure of fungus- The vegetative mycelium is hyaline, septate, and multinucleate. The nuclei are haploid. Conidia are ovoid or ellipsoid and usually single-celled. Control measure-Water the plant regularly, and when possible, provide afternoon shade. Fertilize on schedule, using a low- nitrogen, high-phosphorus fertilizer. Prune off dead and dying branches. Solarisation of the soil.
  • 22. 10.Phytophthora Blight (Phytophthora spp.) Symptoms- The disease starts within infected soil, the first symptoms come above ground, often when seemingly healthy, fruit-forming plants suddenly wilt and die midseason.Stem cankers develop, often at the soil line, and stems begin to rot inside. Leaves show dark spots that enlarge until foliage looks bleached and scorched. Infected fruits stay attached to the plant but develop dark, water-soaked blotches that become covered in cottony white mold.
  • 23. Control measure: Avoiding favorable conditions (soil saturated with water), applying fungicides Presidio, Revus, Forum, and phosphorous acid starting before disease onset (preventive schedule), and promptly destroying affected plants at the start of an outbreak to limit spread. Structure of fungus- the mycelium , white and fluffy Sporangia ellipsoid to lemon shaped with a small pedicel. Sporangia germinate either directly to form a germ tube or indirectly via zoospores. Zoospores (ca 7- 12 per sporangium) have two flagella, one forward-directed tinsel type and a backward-directed whiplash type (heterokont). Zoospores are usually uninucleate, but binucleate zoospores have been detected. Oogonia tapering at base. Antheridia amphigynous, elongated cylindrical,. Oospores aplerotic.
  • 24. 11.Southern Blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)- It attacks stems, roots, leaves, and fruit . The watery, soft, decayed tissue tends to remain on the ground when an infected fruit is picked up. Yellowing and wilting of the lateral branches, main stem, or the entire plan. Brown lesions at the stem base. Diagnostic signs of the fungus include characteristic white mycelial fans and brown sclerotia extending from infected tissues.
  • 25. Control measure: Deep plowing serves as a cultural control tactic by burying sclerotia deep in the soil. High soil moisture, dense planting, and frequent irrigation promote infection. Structure of fungus- At least two types of hyphae are produced (1) Coarse, straight, large cells have two clamp connection at each septation, but may exhibit branching in place of one of the clamps. Branching is common in the slender hyphae which tend to grow irregularly and lack clamp connections. Slender hyphae are often observed penetrating the substrate. Sclerotia initially a felty white appearance, to a dark brown coloration, contain viable hyphae.
  • 26. 12.Phomopsis blight or fruit rot caused by Phomopsis vexans- Symptoms -Occurs at seedling stage as well as in transplanted crop. Small circular spots develops in leaves, later turn grey with light coloured centre. Pale to light brown sunken spots develop on the old fruits. Individual spots expand and coalesce to cover entire fruit or most part of the fruits.
  • 27. Structure of fungus- Conidiomata pycnidial, subepidermal, erumpent, dark, thick-walled, flattened to globose, varying in size,, with or without a beak;. Phialides hyaline, simple or branched, sometimes septate, arising from the innermost layer of cells lining the cavity. Alpha conidia hyaline, aseptate, sub-cylindrical Beta conidia filiform, curved, hyaline, septate,, non- germinating. Hyphae hyaline, septate, Ascomata perithecial, in culture usually in clusters, beaked; beaks sinuous, carbonaceous, irregular,. Asci clavate, sessile, eight-spored. Ascospores biseriate, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to bluntly fusoid, one-septate, constricted at the septum,
  • 28. Control measures: •Use healthy seeds collected from healthy fruits and healthy field. •Grow resistant varieties like Pusa Bhairav and Florida market. •Give hot water treatment to seeds at 500 C for 30 minutes. •Seed treatment with carbendazim @ 0.25% •At least three-year crop rotation is required with any non-host crop. •Burn infected crop residue. •Bavistin: Seed treatment (1g/kg) + seedling treatment for 30 minutes(0.05% solution)+ (0.05% solution spray at 10-15 days interval.