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Signs and symptoms of plant disease:
Is it fungal, viral, bacterial or
phytoplasmal ?
Vaishali S.Patil
Professor, Department of Botany
Shri Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce & Science Akola
1.Most plant diseases – around 85 % – are caused by fungal or
fungal-like organisms. 200 types of bacteria that cause diseases in
plants.
2.Abiotic,” or diseases that are non-infectious
a) damage from air pollution
b) nutritional deficiencies or toxicities
c) grow under less than optimal conditions.
3. Diseases caused by the three main pathogenic microbes:
A)fungus B)bacteria C) virus.
A)Fungal diseases-
i) Fungal fruiting bodies are a sign of disease.
Fungal disease signs: rotting or dead roots, or large swelling on roots
below ground, leaf spots and wilts.
1.Leaf rust
2.Stem rust
3.Sclerotinia (white mold) produce black
resting structures known as sclerotia and
white fuzzy growths of mycelium on the
plant it infects.
4.Powdery mildew mildews (white or gray
powdery patches on foliage)
Fungal disease symptoms:
•Birds-eye spot on berries (anthracnose)
•Damping off of seedlings (phytophthora)
•Leaf spot (septoria brown spot)
•Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves)
1.Anthracnose-
It causes dark, sunken lesions on leaves, stems,
flowers, and fruits. It also attacks developing shoots
and expanding leaves.
2.Black knot-
hard, uneven, black galls that seem to enwrap twigs
and branches.
3.Blight -chestnut blight-a small orange-brown area
on the tree bark. A sunken canker then
forms as the mycelial fan spreads under
the bark. As the hyphae spread, they
produce several toxic compounds.
4.late blight-Leaves have large, dark brown blotches with a green
gray edge; Firm, dark brown, circular spots grow to cover large
parts of fruits.
5.canker-round-to-irregular sunken, swollen, flattened, cracked,
discoloured, or dead areas on the stems (canes), twigs, limbs, or trunk.
6.clubroot-enlarged roots that make them look club-like and reduced
feeder roots.
7.damping-off-the rotting of stem and root tissues
at and below the soil surface
8.Dutch elm disease-dark brown or purple longitudinal streaks in the
outer wood indicate disease.
9.ergot- purple-black sclerotium developed.
10.Fusarium wilt-plants are usually stunted; their leaves
turn pale green to golden yellow and later wilt, wither,
die,and drop off progressively upward from the stem
base.
11.Panama disease-Spread occurs through vascular
bundles, which become discoloured brown or dark
red, and finally purplish or black. The outer edges of
older leaves turn yellow. Within a month or two, all
but the youngest leaves turn yellow, wilt, collapse,
and hang downward, covering the trunk
(pseudostem) with dead brown leaves.
12.leaf blister-Circular, raised areas are scattered over
the upper leaf surface.
13.Mildew- downy mildew- yellow to white patches
on the upper surfaces of older leaves. On the
undersides, these areas are covered with white to
grayish, cotton-like fungi.
14.powdery mildew-a powdery growth on the
surface of leaves, buds, young shoots, fruits, and
flowers.
15.oak wilt-Leaves become chlorotic beginning at
the leaf tip and leaf edges. An abrupt demarcation of
chlorotic veins nand green tissue is often a
Distinguishing characteristic in live oak infections.
The foliage may droop, curl lengthwise, wilt, and
begin to fall.
16.Rot -basal rot-Fungi that not only grow on
wood but permeate its fibrous structure and
actually cause decay.
17.gray mold rot-tan to brown soft spots or
blotches that become covered with a dusty mold
and can cause seedlings, young shoots, and leaves
to wither and collapse and buds, flowers, and
fruits to become flecked and rotten.
18.heart rot-rot in the center of tree trunks and
branches.
19.rust-blister rust-small yellow or
red spots on leaves, cankers can be
found on thebranches. These cankers
will generallyappear as a swollen
area that may havea greenish –
yellow to orange margin.
20.cedar-apple rust-a reddish-brown
gall on young twigs these galls swell
and bright orange masses of spores
are blown by the wind
21.coffee rust-small, yellowish, oily spots on the upper leaf surface that
expand into larger round spots that turn bright orange to red and finally
brown with a yellow border. The rust pustules are powdery and orange-
yellow on the underleaf surface.Later the
pustules turn black. Rustedleaves drop so
that affected trees are virtually denuded;
such trees have significantly lower coffee
yields and usually die within a few years.
22.scab-apple scab-pale yellow or olive-green
spots on the upper surface of leaves. Dark, velvety
spots may appear on the lower surface. Severely
infected leaves become twisted and puckered.
On fruit Scabby spots are sunken and tan and may
have velvety spores in the center. As these spots
mature, they become larger and turn brown and corky.
23.smut-bunt-“smut balls” containing powdery
masses of brownish black spores characterized by
a dead-fish odour.
24.corn smut-whitish galls that later rupture to
release dark spores.
25.snow mold- irregularly circular tan to reddish
brown patches. When wet, leaves are covered with
dense whitish to pink threads (mycelium)
26.sooty mold-splotchy black stains or coatings on
leaves, stems, and fruit. The black residue of sooty
mold is composed of dark fungal threads.
27.Verticillium wilt-Premature foliar chlorosis and necrosis and vascular
discoloration in stems and roots.
B) BacteriaL diseases causes
i) gummosis- a bacterial exudate emerging from the cankers. The thick,
liquid exudate is primarily composed of bacteria and is a sign of the
disease
ii) Canker It causes sunken patches of dead bark and small holes in
leaves, called 'shothole'.
iii) brown, necrotic lesions surrounded by a bright yellow halo at the leaf
margin or interior of the leaf.
Bacterial disease signs (difficult to observe, but can include):
•bacteria that attacks the plants, produces a toxic chemical that kills the
surrounding plant cells. These dead cell areas drop out, creating what
looks like “shot holes” in the leaves.
•Wilt, abnormal growth i.e. galls
•Bacterial ooze
•Water-soaked lesions
•Bacterial streaming in water from a cut stem
Bacterial disease symptoms:
Leaf spot with yellow halo
Fruit spot
Canker
Crown gall
Sheperd’s crook stem ends on woody plants
Bacterial diseases-
1.aster yellows- yellowing (chlorosis) of
young shoots, stiff and erect bunchy growth,
greenish and distorted or dwarfed flowers,
and general stunting or dwarfing
2.bacterial wilt- caused by Corynebacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas,
and Xanthomonas. stunting, wilting, and withering, starting usually with
younger leaves. Stems, which often shrivel and wither, show discoloured
water-conducting tissue. dark green, water-soaked areas or streaks may
develop first in leaves.
3.blightfire blight- a sudden brown to black withering and dying
of blossoms, fruit spurs, leaves, twigs, and branches.
4.rice bacterial blightwater-soaked streaks that
spread from the leaf tips and margins, becoming
larger and eventually releasing a milky ooze that
dries into yellow droplets. Grayish white lesions
appear on the leaves in the late stages of
infection, then leaves dry out and die.
5.canker
6.crown gall
7.Rot -basal rot- degrade pectate molecules that bind plant cells
together, causing plant structure to eventually fall apart
8.Scab-crustaceous lesions on fruits, tubers, leaves, or stems.
Viral disease signs:
None – the viruses themselves can’t be seen
Viral disease symptoms:
1.Mosaic leaf pattern of yellow, light green, or white
2.Crinkled leaves , may be rolled, or swollen or
puckered, or they may be abnormally narrow.
3.Yellowed leaves
4.Plant stunting
5.misshapen or malformed.(formation of abnormal
structure)
Viral diseases-
1.Curly top or beet curly top virus- stunted or dwarfed and have
thickened, yellowed, and bunched or curled leaves that frequently die
early
2.Mosaic- irregular leaf mottling (light and dark green or yellow patches
or streaks). Leaves are commonly stunted, curled, or puckered; veins
may be lighter than normal or banded with dark green or yellow. Plants
are often dwarfed, with fruit and flowers fewer than usual, deformed, and
stunted.
3.psorosis- young leaves of elongated, white to yellow-green flecks,
spots, rings, or large translucent areas. Rings bordered by sunken
grooves may form on the fruit. The outer bark in localized areas
commonly becomes scaly, or small irregular pustules and gumlike
deposits develop, with the wood being stained underneath. Variously
sized cavities or narrow grooves may develop in the large limbs and
trunk.
4.spotted wilt- water loss in leaves and stems. Affected parts lose
their turgidity and droop.
Phytoplasma-
yellowing leaves, stunted and rolled foliage and unripened shoots and
fruits. Stunted plants looks a “witches' broom” in appearance on
terminal new bud growth, stunted roots, aerial tubers and even die back
of entire portions of the plant are also seen.They are insect‐transmitted
plant pathogens.
1.Aster yellows- phyllody, virescence, chlorosis,
stunting, and sterility of flowers.
2. Grapevine yellows- discoloration and necrosis of leaf veins and leaf
blades, downward curling of leaves, lack or incomplete lignification of
shoots, stunting and necrosis of shoots, abortion of inflorescences and
shrivelling of berries.
3.Sugarcane grassy shoot disease-
proliferation of tillers, which give it typical
grassy appearance, leaf chlorosis, mainly
at the central leaf whorl.
4. Soybean Phytoplasma –
yellowing leaves, stunted and rolled foliage and
unripened shoots and fruits. Stunted plants look like
a “witches' broom” appearance on terminal new
bud growth, stunted roots, aerial tubers and even
die back of entire portions of the plant.
5. Little leaf of brinjal-
include leaf yellowing, growth reduction, virescence,
and witches' broom, shortening of internodes,
small leaves, phyllody, floral malformation and
plant death.
6.Bamboo Phytoplasma-
stunting, virescence, shortened internodes, big
bud, little leaf, witches' broom, phyllody,
giant calyx, floral malformation, and vascular
discoloration.
7. Lethal yellowing- nearly died out .
8.Witches'-Broom,of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia)
small chlorotic leaves, highly proliferated shoots,
and shortened internodes. Leaves dropped
prematurely and infected twigs were distorted.
In advanced stages, infected branches had
dieback symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of plant disease

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Signs and symptoms of plant disease

  • 1. Signs and symptoms of plant disease: Is it fungal, viral, bacterial or phytoplasmal ? Vaishali S.Patil Professor, Department of Botany Shri Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce & Science Akola
  • 2. 1.Most plant diseases – around 85 % – are caused by fungal or fungal-like organisms. 200 types of bacteria that cause diseases in plants. 2.Abiotic,” or diseases that are non-infectious a) damage from air pollution b) nutritional deficiencies or toxicities c) grow under less than optimal conditions. 3. Diseases caused by the three main pathogenic microbes: A)fungus B)bacteria C) virus. A)Fungal diseases- i) Fungal fruiting bodies are a sign of disease.
  • 3. Fungal disease signs: rotting or dead roots, or large swelling on roots below ground, leaf spots and wilts. 1.Leaf rust 2.Stem rust 3.Sclerotinia (white mold) produce black resting structures known as sclerotia and white fuzzy growths of mycelium on the plant it infects. 4.Powdery mildew mildews (white or gray powdery patches on foliage) Fungal disease symptoms: •Birds-eye spot on berries (anthracnose) •Damping off of seedlings (phytophthora) •Leaf spot (septoria brown spot) •Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves)
  • 4. 1.Anthracnose- It causes dark, sunken lesions on leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. It also attacks developing shoots and expanding leaves. 2.Black knot- hard, uneven, black galls that seem to enwrap twigs and branches. 3.Blight -chestnut blight-a small orange-brown area on the tree bark. A sunken canker then forms as the mycelial fan spreads under the bark. As the hyphae spread, they produce several toxic compounds.
  • 5. 4.late blight-Leaves have large, dark brown blotches with a green gray edge; Firm, dark brown, circular spots grow to cover large parts of fruits. 5.canker-round-to-irregular sunken, swollen, flattened, cracked, discoloured, or dead areas on the stems (canes), twigs, limbs, or trunk. 6.clubroot-enlarged roots that make them look club-like and reduced feeder roots.
  • 6. 7.damping-off-the rotting of stem and root tissues at and below the soil surface 8.Dutch elm disease-dark brown or purple longitudinal streaks in the outer wood indicate disease. 9.ergot- purple-black sclerotium developed.
  • 7. 10.Fusarium wilt-plants are usually stunted; their leaves turn pale green to golden yellow and later wilt, wither, die,and drop off progressively upward from the stem base. 11.Panama disease-Spread occurs through vascular bundles, which become discoloured brown or dark red, and finally purplish or black. The outer edges of older leaves turn yellow. Within a month or two, all but the youngest leaves turn yellow, wilt, collapse, and hang downward, covering the trunk (pseudostem) with dead brown leaves. 12.leaf blister-Circular, raised areas are scattered over the upper leaf surface.
  • 8. 13.Mildew- downy mildew- yellow to white patches on the upper surfaces of older leaves. On the undersides, these areas are covered with white to grayish, cotton-like fungi. 14.powdery mildew-a powdery growth on the surface of leaves, buds, young shoots, fruits, and flowers. 15.oak wilt-Leaves become chlorotic beginning at the leaf tip and leaf edges. An abrupt demarcation of chlorotic veins nand green tissue is often a Distinguishing characteristic in live oak infections. The foliage may droop, curl lengthwise, wilt, and begin to fall.
  • 9. 16.Rot -basal rot-Fungi that not only grow on wood but permeate its fibrous structure and actually cause decay. 17.gray mold rot-tan to brown soft spots or blotches that become covered with a dusty mold and can cause seedlings, young shoots, and leaves to wither and collapse and buds, flowers, and fruits to become flecked and rotten. 18.heart rot-rot in the center of tree trunks and branches.
  • 10. 19.rust-blister rust-small yellow or red spots on leaves, cankers can be found on thebranches. These cankers will generallyappear as a swollen area that may havea greenish – yellow to orange margin. 20.cedar-apple rust-a reddish-brown gall on young twigs these galls swell and bright orange masses of spores are blown by the wind 21.coffee rust-small, yellowish, oily spots on the upper leaf surface that expand into larger round spots that turn bright orange to red and finally brown with a yellow border. The rust pustules are powdery and orange- yellow on the underleaf surface.Later the pustules turn black. Rustedleaves drop so that affected trees are virtually denuded; such trees have significantly lower coffee yields and usually die within a few years.
  • 11. 22.scab-apple scab-pale yellow or olive-green spots on the upper surface of leaves. Dark, velvety spots may appear on the lower surface. Severely infected leaves become twisted and puckered. On fruit Scabby spots are sunken and tan and may have velvety spores in the center. As these spots mature, they become larger and turn brown and corky. 23.smut-bunt-“smut balls” containing powdery masses of brownish black spores characterized by a dead-fish odour. 24.corn smut-whitish galls that later rupture to release dark spores.
  • 12. 25.snow mold- irregularly circular tan to reddish brown patches. When wet, leaves are covered with dense whitish to pink threads (mycelium) 26.sooty mold-splotchy black stains or coatings on leaves, stems, and fruit. The black residue of sooty mold is composed of dark fungal threads. 27.Verticillium wilt-Premature foliar chlorosis and necrosis and vascular discoloration in stems and roots.
  • 13. B) BacteriaL diseases causes i) gummosis- a bacterial exudate emerging from the cankers. The thick, liquid exudate is primarily composed of bacteria and is a sign of the disease ii) Canker It causes sunken patches of dead bark and small holes in leaves, called 'shothole'. iii) brown, necrotic lesions surrounded by a bright yellow halo at the leaf margin or interior of the leaf.
  • 14. Bacterial disease signs (difficult to observe, but can include): •bacteria that attacks the plants, produces a toxic chemical that kills the surrounding plant cells. These dead cell areas drop out, creating what looks like “shot holes” in the leaves. •Wilt, abnormal growth i.e. galls •Bacterial ooze •Water-soaked lesions •Bacterial streaming in water from a cut stem
  • 15. Bacterial disease symptoms: Leaf spot with yellow halo Fruit spot Canker Crown gall Sheperd’s crook stem ends on woody plants Bacterial diseases- 1.aster yellows- yellowing (chlorosis) of young shoots, stiff and erect bunchy growth, greenish and distorted or dwarfed flowers, and general stunting or dwarfing 2.bacterial wilt- caused by Corynebacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. stunting, wilting, and withering, starting usually with younger leaves. Stems, which often shrivel and wither, show discoloured
  • 16. water-conducting tissue. dark green, water-soaked areas or streaks may develop first in leaves. 3.blightfire blight- a sudden brown to black withering and dying of blossoms, fruit spurs, leaves, twigs, and branches. 4.rice bacterial blightwater-soaked streaks that spread from the leaf tips and margins, becoming larger and eventually releasing a milky ooze that dries into yellow droplets. Grayish white lesions appear on the leaves in the late stages of infection, then leaves dry out and die.
  • 17. 5.canker 6.crown gall 7.Rot -basal rot- degrade pectate molecules that bind plant cells together, causing plant structure to eventually fall apart 8.Scab-crustaceous lesions on fruits, tubers, leaves, or stems.
  • 18. Viral disease signs: None – the viruses themselves can’t be seen Viral disease symptoms: 1.Mosaic leaf pattern of yellow, light green, or white 2.Crinkled leaves , may be rolled, or swollen or puckered, or they may be abnormally narrow. 3.Yellowed leaves 4.Plant stunting 5.misshapen or malformed.(formation of abnormal structure)
  • 19. Viral diseases- 1.Curly top or beet curly top virus- stunted or dwarfed and have thickened, yellowed, and bunched or curled leaves that frequently die early 2.Mosaic- irregular leaf mottling (light and dark green or yellow patches or streaks). Leaves are commonly stunted, curled, or puckered; veins may be lighter than normal or banded with dark green or yellow. Plants are often dwarfed, with fruit and flowers fewer than usual, deformed, and stunted.
  • 20. 3.psorosis- young leaves of elongated, white to yellow-green flecks, spots, rings, or large translucent areas. Rings bordered by sunken grooves may form on the fruit. The outer bark in localized areas commonly becomes scaly, or small irregular pustules and gumlike deposits develop, with the wood being stained underneath. Variously sized cavities or narrow grooves may develop in the large limbs and trunk. 4.spotted wilt- water loss in leaves and stems. Affected parts lose their turgidity and droop.
  • 21. Phytoplasma- yellowing leaves, stunted and rolled foliage and unripened shoots and fruits. Stunted plants looks a “witches' broom” in appearance on terminal new bud growth, stunted roots, aerial tubers and even die back of entire portions of the plant are also seen.They are insect‐transmitted plant pathogens. 1.Aster yellows- phyllody, virescence, chlorosis, stunting, and sterility of flowers. 2. Grapevine yellows- discoloration and necrosis of leaf veins and leaf blades, downward curling of leaves, lack or incomplete lignification of shoots, stunting and necrosis of shoots, abortion of inflorescences and shrivelling of berries.
  • 22. 3.Sugarcane grassy shoot disease- proliferation of tillers, which give it typical grassy appearance, leaf chlorosis, mainly at the central leaf whorl. 4. Soybean Phytoplasma – yellowing leaves, stunted and rolled foliage and unripened shoots and fruits. Stunted plants look like a “witches' broom” appearance on terminal new bud growth, stunted roots, aerial tubers and even die back of entire portions of the plant. 5. Little leaf of brinjal- include leaf yellowing, growth reduction, virescence, and witches' broom, shortening of internodes, small leaves, phyllody, floral malformation and plant death.
  • 23. 6.Bamboo Phytoplasma- stunting, virescence, shortened internodes, big bud, little leaf, witches' broom, phyllody, giant calyx, floral malformation, and vascular discoloration. 7. Lethal yellowing- nearly died out . 8.Witches'-Broom,of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) small chlorotic leaves, highly proliferated shoots, and shortened internodes. Leaves dropped prematurely and infected twigs were distorted. In advanced stages, infected branches had dieback symptoms.