SlideShare a Scribd company logo
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
Hexagonal based Clustering for Reducing
Rebroadcasts in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
S.Dinakar1
1
PG Scholar, Department of Information Technology,
SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore.
Dr.J.Shanthini2
2
Associate Professor, Department of Information
Technology, SNS College of Technology,
Coimbatore.
Abstract— In mobile ad hoc networks multihop routing is performed in order to communicate the
packets from the source to destination. The nodes within these networks are dynamic due which frequent
path change occurs which can cause frequent link breakages and induces route discoveries. These route
discoveries can introduce overhead in terms of contention, collision and rebroadcasts which are non-
negligible. Here, the paper discusses a hexagonal based clustering for reducing rebroadcasts thus
maximizing the lifetime of the networks and providing coverage area thus reducing the end – end
delays.
Index Terms— Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Link Breakages, Route Discoveries, Overhead,
Rebroadcasts.
——————————  ——————————
1 INTRODUCTION
he mobile ad hoc network consists of autonomous
nodes communicating among themselves. They do not
require any fixed infrastructure since, they are self –
configuring networks and does not require any central
administrator. Due to the dynamic nature of nodes the
major challenge occurs during routing a packet from the
source to destination. As mentioned earlier the nodes are
dynamic in nature so the path between the nodes changes
periodically. For initiating a path to transmit data it is
essential to identify (or) establish a path for transmission
starting from the source to the destination using route
discovery process. The mobile ad hoc network makes use
of broadcasting for route discovery process. It involves
flooding a message from one node to all other nodes within
the network. The broadcasting technique forms the
fundamental communication technique in MANET. The
route discovery process involves transmission of route
request (RREQ) packets from source to destination through
every outgoing links which is also known as blind flooding.
The transmitted RREQ packets are received by all the
surrounding nodes which try to find out whether these
packets are already contained (or) not. If the packets are not
contained already they are to be retransmitted and this is
performed till all the nodes have received and transmitted
the broadcast packets at least once.
IJTET©2015
2 Reasons For USING BROADCASTING
The uniqueness of broadcasting are discusses below but are
not limited to,
2.1 Unplanned
The broadcasting can be triggered by a node at any time.
Due to this spontaneous triggering it retards
synchronization and no prior information about the
connectivity is known.
2.2 Undependable
The broadcasting involves transmitting the messages to all
(or) some of the nodes within the network. It does not
provide any acknowledgement due to,
 The host becomes independent from the network.
 It causes redundant retransmissions around the
sender.
 Many applications do not need 100%
broadcasting techniques.
The route discovery process using broadcasting
introduces redundant retransmissions while sending route
request packet. It due to the fact that the source floods the
route request blindly to all nodes when the request are been
made without knowing the actual path to the destination.
When a node decides to rebroadcast a message to its
neighbors where it already holds that message introduces
broadcast storm problem.
1
T
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
3 RELATED WORK
Maminuus discussed that broadcasting play a vey important
role in mobile ad hoc network since it transmits messages
from a source node to every other nodes in the network.
The mobile ad hoc network makes use of flooding for
broadcasting during which every nodes retransmits the
received messages only once. This creates redundant
rebroadcasts thus causing contention and collision in the
network called as broadcast storm problem. The author
proposed pure probabilistic approaches to deal with
flooding where the mobile nodes tries to rebroadcast a
message based upon a fixed probability thus reducing the
number of rebroadcasts by considering reachability. The
counter based schemes were used to reduce broadcasting
based on the number of copies of broadcast packets
received by the node within a random access delay time.
The technique offer better reachability and throughput but
suffers a longer delay. The author made use of merits of
pure probabilistic and counter based schemes for
performance improvement.
Abdalla M. Hanashi described that the broadcasting
technique are used for route discovery. The flooding
algorithm increases the number of unnecessary packet
rebroadcasting thus causing contention and collision. For
reducing the number of rebroadcasts probabilistic method
were used to reduce the contention and collision within the
network. The author proposed a dynamic probabilistic
approach where the nodes make use of way point mobility,
simple flooding AODV and fixed probabilistic schemes.
The rebroadcasting probabilities were set dynamically
according to the number of neighboring nodes scattered in
the ad hoc network.
Wei Peng described about the flooding in mobile ad
hoc networks possess poor scalability thus causing
redundancy, contention and collisions. The author proposes
an approach for reducing the broadcast redundancy for
which local topological and the statistical information
related to the duplicate broadcasts were used for avoiding
unnecessary rebroadcasts.
Seungjoon Lee described the wireless ad hoc network
as a collection of mobile nodes without a fixed
infrastructure thus facilitating dynamic and distributed
environment. It requires collaboration among nodes.
During route discovery from source to destination the
intermediate node replies with the help of cached entries.
The author proposes a route discovery process where the
intermediate node requests its next hop for sending a
confirmation message to the source. Upon receiving both
the route reply and confirmation message, the validity of
the path is determined by the source. This method
discourages the malicious node and improves the
throughput.
IJTET©2015
4 EXISTING APPROACHES
The main aim was to reduce the number of rebroadcasts of
the route request packet (RREQ) and to improve the
performance during routing. The dynamic nature of nodes
in the mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) causes frequent
link breakages thus leading to frequent path failures and
route discoveries and reduces packet delivery ratio and
increases the end – to – end delay. This creates overhead in
terms of contention, collision and rebroadcasts during route
discovery process which is non negligible. The ultimate
aim is to reduce the overhead in route discovery process.
The broadcasting technique is used for route discovery
during which the mobile node blindly rebroadcasts the first
received route request packets without knowing the route to
the destination thus causing broadcast storm problem.
4.1 Techniques Used
The neighbor knowledge based probabilistic rebroadcast
protocols (Fig. 1) were employed in order to reduce the
overhead during routing in mobile ad hoc networks
(MANETs). The neighbor knowledge protocol is achieved
using the proposed rebroadcast delay and rebroadcast
probability which determines the packet forwarding order.
a) Delays for Rebroadcasts
The nodes which have more common neighbor with the
previous node will have lower delay. During packet
transmission the common node will know this fact first.
These rebroadcast delay enables the information, that these
nodes have transmitted the packets to more neighbors
which forms the key to success.
b) Calculating Probabilities for Rebroadcasts
The scheme considers the uncovered neighbors (UCN).
When a node receives a route request packet (RREQ) from
its previous node it makes use of the neighbor list in the
RREQ packet. This is done to estimate how many
neighbors have not been covered by the RREQ packet of
the previous node. In that case, the current node
rebroadcasts the RREQ packet so that it can reach more
additional coverage nodes. For calculating the rebroadcast
probability each node needs its 1 hop neighborhood
information.
2
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
Fig.1: System Architecture
4.2 Routing Protocol
The routing protocols like Ad hoc On – demand Distance
Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing
(DSR) were used since these protocols are on – demand
routing protocols. these protocols improves the scalability
of MANETs by reducing the routing overheads during new
route requests.
IJTET©2015
5 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The existing system made use of I hop neighborhood
information in order to attain additional coverage area.
Here, the node verify the neighbors covered by using the
neighbor list maintained at the RREQ packet. In case, if
there are any uncovered neighbors the broadcasting are
made for attaining additional coverage area. The problem
here is the scheme does not work well in all the situations.
This can also minimize the lifetime of the network since the
broadcasting to uncovered neighbors can induce
rebroadcasts thus consuming battery power of the nodes.
6 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
The evaluation of performance of the NCPR protocol was
evaluated by comparing it with AODV protocol using NS -
2 Simulator. The data dissemination mechanism in
MANETs makes use of broadcasting. Here, the analysis is
done for route request in route discovery. For comparing
the routing performance of NCPR protocol, a dynamic
probabilistic route discovery is used for reducing the
overhead of RREQ packet during route discovery.
6.1 Analysis for Collision Rate between AODV Vs.
NCPR
In AODV protocol due to huge redundant rebroadcast
introduces many collisions and interferences which lead to
excessive packet drop. It is severe when the number of nodes
increases. It is important to reduce redundant rebroadcasts and
packet drops caused by collisions to improve the routing
performance. Compared with AODV protocol, the NCPR
protocol reduces the rate of collisions.
Figure 2: Performance Analysis for Collision Rate between
AODV Vs. NCPR
3
.
Route Discovery by RREQ
Destination
Calculate Additional Coverage Ratio +
Connectivity Factor
Generation of Error Message during
Problem
Calculate Rebroadcast Delay
Route Discovery by RREQ
Source
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
.2 Analysis for Packet Delivery Ratio between
AODV Vs. NCPR
The NCPR protocol can increase the packet delivery ratio
due to the reduction in number of collisions and also in
parallel reduces the packet drops. On average the packet
delivery ratio in NCPR protocols is improved when
compared with the AODV protocol.
Figure 3: Performance Analysis for Packet Delivery Ratio
between AODV Vs. NCPR
6.3 Analysis for Average End – to – End Delivery
between AODV Vs. NCPR
The NCPR protocol reduces the average end – to – end delay
due to a decrease in number of redundant rebroadcasting
packets. The redundant rebroadcasts increases delay due to too
many collisions and interferences thus leading to excessive
packet drops and also increases the number of retransmissions.
Thus, reducing the redundant rebroadcasts the delay can be
decreased.
Figure 4: Performance Analysis for Average End – to – End
Delay between AODV Vs. NCPR
IJTET©2015
6.4 Analysis for Reducing Overhead between AODV
Vs. NCPR
The NCPR protocol significantly reduces the routing
overhead caused during the route discovery especially in
dense networks. Although the NCPR protocol increases the
packet size of RREQ packets, it reduces the number of
RREQ packets significantly. Thus reducing the RREQ
traffic.
Figure 5: Performance Analysis for Reducing
Overhead between ODV Vs. NCPR
7 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The main focus is to reduce the energy consumed by the
nodes thus increasing the lifetime of the network. This is
achieved by using a clustering technique which effectively
utilizes the bandwidth used in the network.
7.1 Hexagonal Clustering
The technique divides the network into group of nodes
which are closely located to each other. Here, the
hexagonal clustering is employed since the mobile ad hoc
network possesses bandwidth constraints. The bandwidth
occupied by the entire system is Cb times the bandwidth
occupied by a single cell where, Cb represents the
bandwidth occupied by every single cell. The cell follows
an orthogonal structure since it allows for frequency reuse
and a single cell is considered as cluster and any node
within the cell is able to communicate with other
orthogonal neighbors. Here, the clustering allows the node
within one cluster can cover one quarter of the adjacent
cluster thus providing additional coverage area. This allows
the node to obtain the information about the nodes present
inside the adjacent orthogonal clusters.
4
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303
8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
The main focus of the paper is to reduce the overhead
caused due to broadcasting during route discovery
process. Instead of 1 hop neighborhood information a
clustering technique is utilized to maximize the network
lifetime thus increasing end – to – end delivery and
packet delivery ratio. The work can be extended by
choosing a head within each clusters using which the
packets are transferred from the source to destination.
OLSR protocol can be used for routing since, they
discard all the possible routes to destination and use
only cluster heads to communicate packets from source
to destination.
REFERENCES
[1] S.Dinakar, Dr.J.Shanthini, ― Study on Characteristics of Ad
hoc Netwroks and TCP/IP Mode‖, International Journal of
Research in Information Technology‖, Vol. 2, Issue 7, July
2014.
[2] Yu-Chee Tseng, Sze-Yao Ni, Yuh-Shyan Chen, Jang-Ping
Sheu, ― The broadcast storm problem in MANET‖,
Wireless Networks, Vol.8, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2002.
[3] Justin Lipman, Hai Liu, Ivan Stojmenovic, ―Broadcast in
Ad hoc Networks‖.
[4] Hui Zeng, Minming Li, Hai Lu, Xiaohua Jia, ― Efficient
Flooding in MANET‖.
[5] Brad Williams, Tracy Camo, ― Comparison of
Broadcasting Techniques for MANET‖, March 2002.
[6] X.Wu, H.R.Sadjadpour, J.J.Garcia-Luna-Aceves, ―Routing
Overhead a Function of Node Mobility: Modeling
Framework and Implications on Proactive Routing‖, Proc.
Of IEEE MASS’07, pp.1-9, 2007.
[7] S.Dinakar, Dr.J.Shanthini, ―A Study on Various Features of
Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks‖,
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer
Science and Software Engineering‖, Vol. 4, Issue 7, July
2014.
[8] S.Dinakar, Dr.J.Shanthini, ―Study on Broadcastin
Techniques and Characteristics in Mobile Ad Hoc
Networks‖, International Journal of Computer Science
Engineering‖, Vol. 3, No. 5, September 2014.
[9] Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki, Eryk Dutkiewicz,
―A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile and Ad hoc
Networks‖, www.elsevier.com/locate/adhoc networks 2
(2004).
[10] B. Bellur, R.G. Ogier, F.L Templin, Topology broadcast
based on reverse-path forwarding routing protocol (tbrpf),
in: Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-tbrpf-06.txt, work in
progress, 2003.
[11] T.-W. Chen, M. Gerla, Global state routing: a new routing
scheme for ad-hoc wireless networks, in: Proceedings of
the IEEE ICC, 1998.
IJTET©2015
[12] Kamal Kant, Lalit K.Awasti, ―Unicast and Multicast
Routing Protocols for MANETS: A Comparitive Survey‖.
[13] Chen-Che Huang, Shou-Chih Lo, ― A Comprehensive
Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for MANET‖.
[14] Anju Gill, Chander Diwaker, ―Comparitive Analysis of
Routing in MANET’, International Journal of Advanced
Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering‖,
Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2012.
[15] Deepa.S, Dr.D.M.Kadhar Nawaz, ― A Study on the
Behaviour of MANET Routing Protocols with Varying
Densisites and Dynamic Mobility Patterns‖, IJCA Special
Issue on ―Mobile Ad hoc Networks‖, MANETs 2010.
[16] S.-J. Lee, W. Su, J. Hsu, M. Gerla, R. Bagrodia, ―A
Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless
Multicast Protocols‖, in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 2, pp.
565-574, Mar.2000.
[17] C. S. R. Murthy and B. S. Manoj, ―Ad Hoc Wireless
Networks: Architectures and Protocols‖, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 2004.
[18] L.-S. Ji and M. S. Corson, ―Explicit Multicasting for Ad
Hoc Networks‖, Mobile Networks and Applications‖, Vol.
8, No. 5, pp. 535-549, Oct.2003.
[19] S. K. Das, B. S. Manoj, and C. S. R. Murthy, ―A Dynamic
Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc
Wireless Networks‖, in Proc. ACM MOBIHOC, pp. 24-35,
Jun. 2002.
[20] S. Badarneh, Michel Kadoch,‖ Multicast Routing Protocols
in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Survey and
5

More Related Content

What's hot

Reduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax Network
Reduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax NetworkReduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax Network
Reduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax Network
inventionjournals
 
A2546035115
A2546035115A2546035115
A2546035115
Prafull Maktedar
 
Paper id 311201512
Paper id 311201512Paper id 311201512
Paper id 311201512
IJRAT
 
Power control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulator
Power control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulatorPower control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulator
Power control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulator
IRJET Journal
 
Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318
Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318
Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318
Editor IJARCET
 
IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...
IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...
IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...
IRJET Journal
 
rupali published paper
rupali published paperrupali published paper
rupali published paper
Roopali Singh
 
A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...
A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...
A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...
ijasuc
 
[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma
[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma
[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma
IJET - International Journal of Engineering and Techniques
 
40520130101003
4052013010100340520130101003
40520130101003
IAEME Publication
 
A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...
A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...
A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...
IOSR Journals
 
QOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPT
QOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPTQOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPT
QOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPT
AAKASH S
 
Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...
Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...
Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...
IJCNCJournal
 
Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...
Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...
Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...
IJECEIAES
 
iaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmission
iaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmissioniaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmission
iaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmission
Iaetsd Iaetsd
 
Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...
Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...
Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...
ijfcstjournal
 
A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...
A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...
A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...
AAKASH S
 
Analysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
Analysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor NetworkAnalysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
Analysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
IJMER
 
FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...
FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...
FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...
cscpconf
 

What's hot (19)

Reduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax Network
Reduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax NetworkReduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax Network
Reduce Handover Delay Using the HSBCC Based Buffer Over Flow In Wimax Network
 
A2546035115
A2546035115A2546035115
A2546035115
 
Paper id 311201512
Paper id 311201512Paper id 311201512
Paper id 311201512
 
Power control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulator
Power control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulatorPower control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulator
Power control in mobile ad hoc network using NS2 simulator
 
Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318
Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318
Ijarcet vol-2-issue-7-2311-2318
 
IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...
IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...
IRJET- Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust-Aware Rout...
 
rupali published paper
rupali published paperrupali published paper
rupali published paper
 
A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...
A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...
A QUALITY OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR RESOURCE PROVISIONING AND RATE CONTROL ...
 
[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma
[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma
[IJCT-V3I2P22] Authors: Shraddha Dabhade, Shilpa Verma
 
40520130101003
4052013010100340520130101003
40520130101003
 
A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...
A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...
A Novel Rebroadcast Technique for Reducing Routing Overhead In Mobile Ad Hoc ...
 
QOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPT
QOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPTQOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPT
QOD PHASE-1 FINAL PPT
 
Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...
Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...
Self-Pruning based Probabilistic Approach to Minimize Redundancy Overhead for...
 
Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...
Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...
Evaluation of Energy Consumption using Receiver–Centric MAC Protocol in Wirel...
 
iaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmission
iaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmissioniaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmission
iaetsd Survey on cooperative relay based data transmission
 
Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...
Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...
Improving data transmission in the vanet using multi criteria decision making...
 
A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...
A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...
A QoS oriented distributed routing protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network :Firs...
 
Analysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
Analysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor NetworkAnalysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
Analysis of Cluster Based Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
 
FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...
FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...
FUZZY-CONTROLLED POWER-AWARE PROACTIVE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BASED BROADCASTING (FP...
 

Viewers also liked

ICICCE011
ICICCE011ICICCE011
ICICCE011
IJTET Journal
 
Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...
Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...
Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...
IJTET Journal
 
Mitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADE
Mitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADEMitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADE
Mitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADE
IJTET Journal
 
Analysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFET
Analysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFETAnalysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFET
Analysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFET
IJTET Journal
 
Medical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapy
Medical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapyMedical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapy
Medical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapy
IJTET Journal
 
An Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc Codes
An Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc CodesAn Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc Codes
An Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc Codes
IJTET Journal
 
A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...
A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...
A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...
IJTET Journal
 
Free-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible Light
Free-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible LightFree-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible Light
Free-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible Light
IJTET Journal
 
Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...
Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...
Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...
IJTET Journal
 
Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...
Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...
Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...
IJTET Journal
 
Scene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow Method
Scene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow MethodScene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow Method
Scene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow Method
IJTET Journal
 
Product Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by Users
Product Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by UsersProduct Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by Users
Product Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by Users
IJTET Journal
 
A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...
A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...
A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...
IJTET Journal
 
A Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud Database
A Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud DatabaseA Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud Database
A Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud Database
IJTET Journal
 
Authentication Using Hand Vein Pattern
Authentication Using Hand Vein PatternAuthentication Using Hand Vein Pattern
Authentication Using Hand Vein Pattern
IJTET Journal
 
Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...
Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...
Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...
IJTET Journal
 
Enhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDF
Enhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDFEnhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDF
Enhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDF
IJTET Journal
 
Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...
Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...
Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...
IJTET Journal
 

Viewers also liked (18)

ICICCE011
ICICCE011ICICCE011
ICICCE011
 
Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...
Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...
Design and Implementation of Low Cost Smart Web Sensors for Electric Power Qu...
 
Mitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADE
Mitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADEMitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADE
Mitigation of Colluding Selective Forwarding Attack in WMNs using FADE
 
Analysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFET
Analysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFETAnalysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFET
Analysis of leakage current calculation for nanoscale MOSFET and FinFET
 
Medical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapy
Medical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapyMedical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapy
Medical Algorithm for Hepatitis-B Identification Using Photo therapy
 
An Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc Codes
An Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc CodesAn Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc Codes
An Efficient Decoding Algorithm for Concatenated Turbo-Crc Codes
 
A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...
A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...
A Classification of Cancer Diagnostics based on Microarray Gene Expression Pr...
 
Free-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible Light
Free-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible LightFree-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible Light
Free-Space Optical Networking Using the Spectrum of Visible Light
 
Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...
Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...
Successful interference cancellation with Blind Equalization method for MC-CD...
 
Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...
Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...
Weibull Distribution Based Channel Prototype For Decrease of Rain Attenuation...
 
Scene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow Method
Scene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow MethodScene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow Method
Scene Text Detection of Curved Text Using Gradiant Vector Flow Method
 
Product Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by Users
Product Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by UsersProduct Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by Users
Product Feature Ranking Based On Product Reviews by Users
 
A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...
A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...
A Secure Cloud Storage System with Data Forwarding using Proxy Re-encryption ...
 
A Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud Database
A Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud DatabaseA Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud Database
A Security and Privacy Measure for Encrypted Cloud Database
 
Authentication Using Hand Vein Pattern
Authentication Using Hand Vein PatternAuthentication Using Hand Vein Pattern
Authentication Using Hand Vein Pattern
 
Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...
Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...
Reduction of False Acceptance Rate Using Cross Validation for Fingerprint Rec...
 
Enhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDF
Enhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDFEnhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDF
Enhancing the Privacy Protection of the User Personalized Web Search Using RDF
 
Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...
Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...
Supervised Blood Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Gray level and M...
 

Similar to Hexagonal based Clustering for Reducing Rebroadcasts in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...
Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...
Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...
IJTET Journal
 
IRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANET
IRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANETIRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANET
IRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANET
IRJET Journal
 
A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for Reducing Routing Ove...
A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for  Reducing Routing Ove...A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for  Reducing Routing Ove...
A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for Reducing Routing Ove...
IJMER
 
Investigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless Connectivity
Investigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless ConnectivityInvestigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless Connectivity
Investigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless Connectivity
paperpublications3
 
IMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANET
IMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANETIMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANET
IMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANET
ijcsa
 
Paper id 252014122
Paper id 252014122Paper id 252014122
Paper id 252014122
IJRAT
 
Prediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection Breaks
Prediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection BreaksPrediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection Breaks
Prediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection Breaks
IJCNCJournal
 
BROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
BROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKSBROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
BROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
IJCNCJournal
 
Broadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Broadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc NetworksBroadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Broadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks
IJCNCJournal
 
Secured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing Protocol
Secured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing ProtocolSecured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing Protocol
Secured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing Protocol
Ahmad Sharifi
 
F41023946
F41023946F41023946
F41023946
IJERA Editor
 
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in ManetOpportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
IJTET Journal
 
T HE I MPACT OF TCP C ONGESTION W INDOW S IZE ON THE P ERFORMANCE E VA...
T HE  I MPACT OF  TCP C ONGESTION  W INDOW  S IZE  ON THE  P ERFORMANCE  E VA...T HE  I MPACT OF  TCP C ONGESTION  W INDOW  S IZE  ON THE  P ERFORMANCE  E VA...
T HE I MPACT OF TCP C ONGESTION W INDOW S IZE ON THE P ERFORMANCE E VA...
ijwmn
 
I017616468
I017616468I017616468
I017616468
IOSR Journals
 
Inspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight Connectivity
Inspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight ConnectivityInspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight Connectivity
Inspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight Connectivity
iosrjce
 
A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...
A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...
A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...
Editor IJCATR
 
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
IRJET Journal
 
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
IRJET Journal
 
Improved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratio
Improved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratioImproved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratio
Improved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratio
IJLT EMAS
 
Bn25384390
Bn25384390Bn25384390
Bn25384390
IJERA Editor
 

Similar to Hexagonal based Clustering for Reducing Rebroadcasts in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (20)

Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...
Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...
Energy Saving DSR and Probabilistic Rebroadcast Mechanism are used to Increas...
 
IRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANET
IRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANETIRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANET
IRJET-Mobility Aware Refined Counter Based Broadcasting Model of MANET
 
A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for Reducing Routing Ove...
A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for  Reducing Routing Ove...A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for  Reducing Routing Ove...
A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for Reducing Routing Ove...
 
Investigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless Connectivity
Investigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless ConnectivityInvestigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless Connectivity
Investigating VANET for Unwavering Ways with Flawless Connectivity
 
IMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANET
IMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANETIMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANET
IMPROVING PACKET DELIVERY RATIO WITH ENHANCED CONFIDENTIALITY IN MANET
 
Paper id 252014122
Paper id 252014122Paper id 252014122
Paper id 252014122
 
Prediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection Breaks
Prediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection BreaksPrediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection Breaks
Prediction Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Connection Breaks
 
BROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
BROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKSBROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
BROADCAST SCHEDULING PROTOCOLS IN MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
 
Broadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Broadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc NetworksBroadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Broadcast Scheduling Protocols in Multi-Hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks
 
Secured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing Protocol
Secured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing ProtocolSecured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing Protocol
Secured-Bandwidth Reservation Distance Vector routing Protocol
 
F41023946
F41023946F41023946
F41023946
 
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in ManetOpportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
Opportunistic Data Forwarding in Manet
 
T HE I MPACT OF TCP C ONGESTION W INDOW S IZE ON THE P ERFORMANCE E VA...
T HE  I MPACT OF  TCP C ONGESTION  W INDOW  S IZE  ON THE  P ERFORMANCE  E VA...T HE  I MPACT OF  TCP C ONGESTION  W INDOW  S IZE  ON THE  P ERFORMANCE  E VA...
T HE I MPACT OF TCP C ONGESTION W INDOW S IZE ON THE P ERFORMANCE E VA...
 
I017616468
I017616468I017616468
I017616468
 
Inspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight Connectivity
Inspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight ConnectivityInspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight Connectivity
Inspecting Vanet for Determined Ways with Watertight Connectivity
 
A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...
A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...
A Multiparametric Reliable AODV Protocol using Alternate Routing in MANET’s u...
 
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
 
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
Network Surveillance Based Data Transference in Cognitive Radio Network with ...
 
Improved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratio
Improved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratioImproved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratio
Improved aodv based on energy strength and dropping ratio
 
Bn25384390
Bn25384390Bn25384390
Bn25384390
 

More from IJTET Journal

Beaglebone Black Webcam Server For Security
Beaglebone Black Webcam Server For SecurityBeaglebone Black Webcam Server For Security
Beaglebone Black Webcam Server For Security
IJTET Journal
 
Biometrics Authentication Using Raspberry Pi
Biometrics Authentication Using Raspberry PiBiometrics Authentication Using Raspberry Pi
Biometrics Authentication Using Raspberry Pi
IJTET Journal
 
Conceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc Networks
Conceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc NetworksConceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc Networks
Conceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc Networks
IJTET Journal
 
Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...
Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...
Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...
IJTET Journal
 
Prevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy Method
Prevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy MethodPrevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy Method
Prevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy Method
IJTET Journal
 
Effective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor Networks
Effective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor NetworksEffective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor Networks
Effective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor Networks
IJTET Journal
 
Raspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRS
Raspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRSRaspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRS
Raspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRS
IJTET Journal
 
ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...
ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...
ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...
IJTET Journal
 
Improved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile Application
Improved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile ApplicationImproved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile Application
Improved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile Application
IJTET Journal
 
Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...
Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...
Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...
IJTET Journal
 
Comprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Comprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor NetworksComprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Comprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks
IJTET Journal
 
Optimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query Services
Optimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query ServicesOptimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query Services
Optimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query Services
IJTET Journal
 
Foliage Measurement Using Image Processing Techniques
Foliage Measurement Using Image Processing TechniquesFoliage Measurement Using Image Processing Techniques
Foliage Measurement Using Image Processing Techniques
IJTET Journal
 
Harmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase System
Harmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase SystemHarmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase System
Harmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase System
IJTET Journal
 
Comparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting Structures
Comparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting StructuresComparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting Structures
Comparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting Structures
IJTET Journal
 
Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...
Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...
Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...
IJTET Journal
 
A Five – Level Integrated AC – DC Converter
A Five – Level Integrated AC – DC ConverterA Five – Level Integrated AC – DC Converter
A Five – Level Integrated AC – DC Converter
IJTET Journal
 
A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...
A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...
A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...
IJTET Journal
 
Study of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic Exitation
Study of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic ExitationStudy of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic Exitation
Study of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic Exitation
IJTET Journal
 
Enhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level Fusion
Enhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level FusionEnhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level Fusion
Enhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level Fusion
IJTET Journal
 

More from IJTET Journal (20)

Beaglebone Black Webcam Server For Security
Beaglebone Black Webcam Server For SecurityBeaglebone Black Webcam Server For Security
Beaglebone Black Webcam Server For Security
 
Biometrics Authentication Using Raspberry Pi
Biometrics Authentication Using Raspberry PiBiometrics Authentication Using Raspberry Pi
Biometrics Authentication Using Raspberry Pi
 
Conceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc Networks
Conceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc NetworksConceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc Networks
Conceal Traffic Pattern Discovery from Revealing Form of Ad Hoc Networks
 
Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...
Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...
Node Failure Prevention by Using Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor ...
 
Prevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy Method
Prevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy MethodPrevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy Method
Prevention of Malicious Nodes and Attacks in Manets Using Trust worthy Method
 
Effective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor Networks
Effective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor NetworksEffective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor Networks
Effective Pipeline Monitoring Technology in Wireless Sensor Networks
 
Raspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRS
Raspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRSRaspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRS
Raspberry Pi Based Client-Server Synchronization Using GPRS
 
ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...
ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...
ECG Steganography and Hash Function Based Privacy Protection of Patients Medi...
 
Improved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile Application
Improved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile ApplicationImproved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile Application
Improved Trans-Z-source Inverter for Automobile Application
 
Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...
Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...
Wind Energy Conversion System Using PMSG with T-Source Three Phase Matrix Con...
 
Comprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Comprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor NetworksComprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Comprehensive Path Quality Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks
 
Optimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query Services
Optimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query ServicesOptimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query Services
Optimizing Data Confidentiality using Integrated Multi Query Services
 
Foliage Measurement Using Image Processing Techniques
Foliage Measurement Using Image Processing TechniquesFoliage Measurement Using Image Processing Techniques
Foliage Measurement Using Image Processing Techniques
 
Harmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase System
Harmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase SystemHarmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase System
Harmonic Mitigation Method for the DC-AC Converter in a Single Phase System
 
Comparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting Structures
Comparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting StructuresComparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting Structures
Comparative Study on NDCT with Different Shell Supporting Structures
 
Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...
Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...
Experimental Investigation of Lateral Pressure on Vertical Formwork Systems u...
 
A Five – Level Integrated AC – DC Converter
A Five – Level Integrated AC – DC ConverterA Five – Level Integrated AC – DC Converter
A Five – Level Integrated AC – DC Converter
 
A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...
A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...
A Comprehensive Approach for Multi Biometric Recognition Using Sclera Vein an...
 
Study of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic Exitation
Study of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic ExitationStudy of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic Exitation
Study of Eccentrically Braced Outrigger Frame under Seismic Exitation
 
Enhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level Fusion
Enhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level FusionEnhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level Fusion
Enhanced Hashing Approach For Image Forgery Detection With Feature Level Fusion
 

Recently uploaded

Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India QuizIndependence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Kashyap J
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
lakitawilson
 
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEWRDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptxBRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
kambal1234567890
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
PhngThLmHnh
 
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Celine George
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
thanhluan21
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
KlettWorldLanguages
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
DrRavindrakshirsagar1
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
AnneMarieJacildo
 
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDFCTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
hammadmughal76316
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cátedra Banco Santander
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India QuizIndependence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
 
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEWRDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW
 
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptxBRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
 
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
 
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
 
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDFCTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
 

Hexagonal based Clustering for Reducing Rebroadcasts in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

  • 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 Hexagonal based Clustering for Reducing Rebroadcasts in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks S.Dinakar1 1 PG Scholar, Department of Information Technology, SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore. Dr.J.Shanthini2 2 Associate Professor, Department of Information Technology, SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore. Abstract— In mobile ad hoc networks multihop routing is performed in order to communicate the packets from the source to destination. The nodes within these networks are dynamic due which frequent path change occurs which can cause frequent link breakages and induces route discoveries. These route discoveries can introduce overhead in terms of contention, collision and rebroadcasts which are non- negligible. Here, the paper discusses a hexagonal based clustering for reducing rebroadcasts thus maximizing the lifetime of the networks and providing coverage area thus reducing the end – end delays. Index Terms— Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Link Breakages, Route Discoveries, Overhead, Rebroadcasts. ——————————  —————————— 1 INTRODUCTION he mobile ad hoc network consists of autonomous nodes communicating among themselves. They do not require any fixed infrastructure since, they are self – configuring networks and does not require any central administrator. Due to the dynamic nature of nodes the major challenge occurs during routing a packet from the source to destination. As mentioned earlier the nodes are dynamic in nature so the path between the nodes changes periodically. For initiating a path to transmit data it is essential to identify (or) establish a path for transmission starting from the source to the destination using route discovery process. The mobile ad hoc network makes use of broadcasting for route discovery process. It involves flooding a message from one node to all other nodes within the network. The broadcasting technique forms the fundamental communication technique in MANET. The route discovery process involves transmission of route request (RREQ) packets from source to destination through every outgoing links which is also known as blind flooding. The transmitted RREQ packets are received by all the surrounding nodes which try to find out whether these packets are already contained (or) not. If the packets are not contained already they are to be retransmitted and this is performed till all the nodes have received and transmitted the broadcast packets at least once. IJTET©2015 2 Reasons For USING BROADCASTING The uniqueness of broadcasting are discusses below but are not limited to, 2.1 Unplanned The broadcasting can be triggered by a node at any time. Due to this spontaneous triggering it retards synchronization and no prior information about the connectivity is known. 2.2 Undependable The broadcasting involves transmitting the messages to all (or) some of the nodes within the network. It does not provide any acknowledgement due to,  The host becomes independent from the network.  It causes redundant retransmissions around the sender.  Many applications do not need 100% broadcasting techniques. The route discovery process using broadcasting introduces redundant retransmissions while sending route request packet. It due to the fact that the source floods the route request blindly to all nodes when the request are been made without knowing the actual path to the destination. When a node decides to rebroadcast a message to its neighbors where it already holds that message introduces broadcast storm problem. 1 T
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 3 RELATED WORK Maminuus discussed that broadcasting play a vey important role in mobile ad hoc network since it transmits messages from a source node to every other nodes in the network. The mobile ad hoc network makes use of flooding for broadcasting during which every nodes retransmits the received messages only once. This creates redundant rebroadcasts thus causing contention and collision in the network called as broadcast storm problem. The author proposed pure probabilistic approaches to deal with flooding where the mobile nodes tries to rebroadcast a message based upon a fixed probability thus reducing the number of rebroadcasts by considering reachability. The counter based schemes were used to reduce broadcasting based on the number of copies of broadcast packets received by the node within a random access delay time. The technique offer better reachability and throughput but suffers a longer delay. The author made use of merits of pure probabilistic and counter based schemes for performance improvement. Abdalla M. Hanashi described that the broadcasting technique are used for route discovery. The flooding algorithm increases the number of unnecessary packet rebroadcasting thus causing contention and collision. For reducing the number of rebroadcasts probabilistic method were used to reduce the contention and collision within the network. The author proposed a dynamic probabilistic approach where the nodes make use of way point mobility, simple flooding AODV and fixed probabilistic schemes. The rebroadcasting probabilities were set dynamically according to the number of neighboring nodes scattered in the ad hoc network. Wei Peng described about the flooding in mobile ad hoc networks possess poor scalability thus causing redundancy, contention and collisions. The author proposes an approach for reducing the broadcast redundancy for which local topological and the statistical information related to the duplicate broadcasts were used for avoiding unnecessary rebroadcasts. Seungjoon Lee described the wireless ad hoc network as a collection of mobile nodes without a fixed infrastructure thus facilitating dynamic and distributed environment. It requires collaboration among nodes. During route discovery from source to destination the intermediate node replies with the help of cached entries. The author proposes a route discovery process where the intermediate node requests its next hop for sending a confirmation message to the source. Upon receiving both the route reply and confirmation message, the validity of the path is determined by the source. This method discourages the malicious node and improves the throughput. IJTET©2015 4 EXISTING APPROACHES The main aim was to reduce the number of rebroadcasts of the route request packet (RREQ) and to improve the performance during routing. The dynamic nature of nodes in the mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) causes frequent link breakages thus leading to frequent path failures and route discoveries and reduces packet delivery ratio and increases the end – to – end delay. This creates overhead in terms of contention, collision and rebroadcasts during route discovery process which is non negligible. The ultimate aim is to reduce the overhead in route discovery process. The broadcasting technique is used for route discovery during which the mobile node blindly rebroadcasts the first received route request packets without knowing the route to the destination thus causing broadcast storm problem. 4.1 Techniques Used The neighbor knowledge based probabilistic rebroadcast protocols (Fig. 1) were employed in order to reduce the overhead during routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The neighbor knowledge protocol is achieved using the proposed rebroadcast delay and rebroadcast probability which determines the packet forwarding order. a) Delays for Rebroadcasts The nodes which have more common neighbor with the previous node will have lower delay. During packet transmission the common node will know this fact first. These rebroadcast delay enables the information, that these nodes have transmitted the packets to more neighbors which forms the key to success. b) Calculating Probabilities for Rebroadcasts The scheme considers the uncovered neighbors (UCN). When a node receives a route request packet (RREQ) from its previous node it makes use of the neighbor list in the RREQ packet. This is done to estimate how many neighbors have not been covered by the RREQ packet of the previous node. In that case, the current node rebroadcasts the RREQ packet so that it can reach more additional coverage nodes. For calculating the rebroadcast probability each node needs its 1 hop neighborhood information. 2
  • 3. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 Fig.1: System Architecture 4.2 Routing Protocol The routing protocols like Ad hoc On – demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) were used since these protocols are on – demand routing protocols. these protocols improves the scalability of MANETs by reducing the routing overheads during new route requests. IJTET©2015 5 PROBLEM STATEMENT The existing system made use of I hop neighborhood information in order to attain additional coverage area. Here, the node verify the neighbors covered by using the neighbor list maintained at the RREQ packet. In case, if there are any uncovered neighbors the broadcasting are made for attaining additional coverage area. The problem here is the scheme does not work well in all the situations. This can also minimize the lifetime of the network since the broadcasting to uncovered neighbors can induce rebroadcasts thus consuming battery power of the nodes. 6 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION The evaluation of performance of the NCPR protocol was evaluated by comparing it with AODV protocol using NS - 2 Simulator. The data dissemination mechanism in MANETs makes use of broadcasting. Here, the analysis is done for route request in route discovery. For comparing the routing performance of NCPR protocol, a dynamic probabilistic route discovery is used for reducing the overhead of RREQ packet during route discovery. 6.1 Analysis for Collision Rate between AODV Vs. NCPR In AODV protocol due to huge redundant rebroadcast introduces many collisions and interferences which lead to excessive packet drop. It is severe when the number of nodes increases. It is important to reduce redundant rebroadcasts and packet drops caused by collisions to improve the routing performance. Compared with AODV protocol, the NCPR protocol reduces the rate of collisions. Figure 2: Performance Analysis for Collision Rate between AODV Vs. NCPR 3 . Route Discovery by RREQ Destination Calculate Additional Coverage Ratio + Connectivity Factor Generation of Error Message during Problem Calculate Rebroadcast Delay Route Discovery by RREQ Source
  • 4. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 .2 Analysis for Packet Delivery Ratio between AODV Vs. NCPR The NCPR protocol can increase the packet delivery ratio due to the reduction in number of collisions and also in parallel reduces the packet drops. On average the packet delivery ratio in NCPR protocols is improved when compared with the AODV protocol. Figure 3: Performance Analysis for Packet Delivery Ratio between AODV Vs. NCPR 6.3 Analysis for Average End – to – End Delivery between AODV Vs. NCPR The NCPR protocol reduces the average end – to – end delay due to a decrease in number of redundant rebroadcasting packets. The redundant rebroadcasts increases delay due to too many collisions and interferences thus leading to excessive packet drops and also increases the number of retransmissions. Thus, reducing the redundant rebroadcasts the delay can be decreased. Figure 4: Performance Analysis for Average End – to – End Delay between AODV Vs. NCPR IJTET©2015 6.4 Analysis for Reducing Overhead between AODV Vs. NCPR The NCPR protocol significantly reduces the routing overhead caused during the route discovery especially in dense networks. Although the NCPR protocol increases the packet size of RREQ packets, it reduces the number of RREQ packets significantly. Thus reducing the RREQ traffic. Figure 5: Performance Analysis for Reducing Overhead between ODV Vs. NCPR 7 PROPOSED SYSTEM The main focus is to reduce the energy consumed by the nodes thus increasing the lifetime of the network. This is achieved by using a clustering technique which effectively utilizes the bandwidth used in the network. 7.1 Hexagonal Clustering The technique divides the network into group of nodes which are closely located to each other. Here, the hexagonal clustering is employed since the mobile ad hoc network possesses bandwidth constraints. The bandwidth occupied by the entire system is Cb times the bandwidth occupied by a single cell where, Cb represents the bandwidth occupied by every single cell. The cell follows an orthogonal structure since it allows for frequency reuse and a single cell is considered as cluster and any node within the cell is able to communicate with other orthogonal neighbors. Here, the clustering allows the node within one cluster can cover one quarter of the adjacent cluster thus providing additional coverage area. This allows the node to obtain the information about the nodes present inside the adjacent orthogonal clusters. 4
  • 5. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1 –JANUARY 2015 - ISSN: 2349 - 9303 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The main focus of the paper is to reduce the overhead caused due to broadcasting during route discovery process. Instead of 1 hop neighborhood information a clustering technique is utilized to maximize the network lifetime thus increasing end – to – end delivery and packet delivery ratio. The work can be extended by choosing a head within each clusters using which the packets are transferred from the source to destination. OLSR protocol can be used for routing since, they discard all the possible routes to destination and use only cluster heads to communicate packets from source to destination. REFERENCES [1] S.Dinakar, Dr.J.Shanthini, ― Study on Characteristics of Ad hoc Netwroks and TCP/IP Mode‖, International Journal of Research in Information Technology‖, Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2014. [2] Yu-Chee Tseng, Sze-Yao Ni, Yuh-Shyan Chen, Jang-Ping Sheu, ― The broadcast storm problem in MANET‖, Wireless Networks, Vol.8, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. [3] Justin Lipman, Hai Liu, Ivan Stojmenovic, ―Broadcast in Ad hoc Networks‖. [4] Hui Zeng, Minming Li, Hai Lu, Xiaohua Jia, ― Efficient Flooding in MANET‖. [5] Brad Williams, Tracy Camo, ― Comparison of Broadcasting Techniques for MANET‖, March 2002. [6] X.Wu, H.R.Sadjadpour, J.J.Garcia-Luna-Aceves, ―Routing Overhead a Function of Node Mobility: Modeling Framework and Implications on Proactive Routing‖, Proc. Of IEEE MASS’07, pp.1-9, 2007. [7] S.Dinakar, Dr.J.Shanthini, ―A Study on Various Features of Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks‖, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering‖, Vol. 4, Issue 7, July 2014. [8] S.Dinakar, Dr.J.Shanthini, ―Study on Broadcastin Techniques and Characteristics in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks‖, International Journal of Computer Science Engineering‖, Vol. 3, No. 5, September 2014. [9] Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki, Eryk Dutkiewicz, ―A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile and Ad hoc Networks‖, www.elsevier.com/locate/adhoc networks 2 (2004). [10] B. Bellur, R.G. Ogier, F.L Templin, Topology broadcast based on reverse-path forwarding routing protocol (tbrpf), in: Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-tbrpf-06.txt, work in progress, 2003. [11] T.-W. Chen, M. Gerla, Global state routing: a new routing scheme for ad-hoc wireless networks, in: Proceedings of the IEEE ICC, 1998. IJTET©2015 [12] Kamal Kant, Lalit K.Awasti, ―Unicast and Multicast Routing Protocols for MANETS: A Comparitive Survey‖. [13] Chen-Che Huang, Shou-Chih Lo, ― A Comprehensive Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for MANET‖. [14] Anju Gill, Chander Diwaker, ―Comparitive Analysis of Routing in MANET’, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering‖, Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2012. [15] Deepa.S, Dr.D.M.Kadhar Nawaz, ― A Study on the Behaviour of MANET Routing Protocols with Varying Densisites and Dynamic Mobility Patterns‖, IJCA Special Issue on ―Mobile Ad hoc Networks‖, MANETs 2010. [16] S.-J. Lee, W. Su, J. Hsu, M. Gerla, R. Bagrodia, ―A Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless Multicast Protocols‖, in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 2, pp. 565-574, Mar.2000. [17] C. S. R. Murthy and B. S. Manoj, ―Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols‖, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2004. [18] L.-S. Ji and M. S. Corson, ―Explicit Multicasting for Ad Hoc Networks‖, Mobile Networks and Applications‖, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 535-549, Oct.2003. [19] S. K. Das, B. S. Manoj, and C. S. R. Murthy, ―A Dynamic Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks‖, in Proc. ACM MOBIHOC, pp. 24-35, Jun. 2002. [20] S. Badarneh, Michel Kadoch,‖ Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Survey and 5