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FUNDAMENTALS OF
HUMAN COMUPTER INTERACTION
Tamizharasi A
Assistant Professor
/CSE
RMD Engineering
College
What is HCI ?
 Point of communication between the
user and the computer
 Studies the design and use of
computer technology focused on the
interface between the user and the
system
Overview
 Interaction with world
◦ Occurs through information
 Interaction with computer
◦ Input and output channels
 Then the information is stored in the
memory
 Finally the information is processed and
applied.
 Reasoning
 Problem solving
 Skill acquistion
 Error
Input-Output Channels
 Human interacts by sending and
receiving information
 Human Input
◦ Through Senses
 Human Output
◦ Through Effectors
Input via Senses
 Vision
 Hearing
 Touch
 Taste
 Smell
Output via Effectors
(Responders)
 Limbs
 Fingers
 Eyes
 Head
 Vocal system
Interaction with PC Using Input-
Output Channels
 Using a GUI-based computer
 Information received by sight
 Beeps received by ear
 Feel keyboard and mouse with fingers
3 Major elements of
Interaction
 Vision
 Hearing
 Touch
Vision
◦ Human Eye
◦ Visual Perception
◦ Reading
Vision
 Highly complex activity
 Physical and perceptual limitations
 2 stages of visual perception:
◦ Physical reception of the stimulus
◦ Interpretation/processing of stimulus
 Processing allows construction of
images from incomplete information
Human Eye
Human Eye
Image Formation
 Cornea and lens
◦ Focuses light into a
sharp image on retina
◦ An upside down image
is formed on the
retina.
Photoreceptors
 Rods
 Cones
Rods
 Situated towards the edges of
retina
◦ Dominate peripheral vision
 Highly Sensitive to light
◦ Allow us to see under low level of
illumination
 Unable to resolve fine detail and
are subject to light saturation
◦ Cause of temporary blindness
when moving from dark areas to
very bright ones
 120 million rods per eye
Cones
 Less sensitive to light
◦ Can tolerate more light than
Rods
 Basic function is color vision
 Situated in Fovea
◦ Small area on retina where
image is fixated
 Three types of cones
◦ Each sensitive to a different
wavelength
Blind Spot
 Area where optic nerve enters
 No rods or cones in this area
 Visual system compensates
for lack of rods and cones
Nerve Cells
 A.k.a. Ganglion Cells
 Types
◦ X-cells
 concentrated in fovea
 detection of patterns
◦ Y-cells
 widely distributed in retina
 early detection of movement
 can not detect change in patterns
Notions of Size and Distance
 You are standing on a hill
 Rocks, sheep and small tree on
summit
 Farmhouse on hillside
 Person walking on track
Perceiving Size and Depth
 Size specified by visual angle
 Affected by both
◦ Size of object
◦ Distance from eye
Perceiving Size and Depth
 Visual angle
◦ Indicates how much of the field of view is taken by the object
◦ Measured in degree or minutes of arc
Visual Angle and Perception
 Visual Acuity
◦ Visual Acuity is the ability of a person to perceive fine detail
 Law of size constancy
◦ Perception of the object size remains constant even if it visual
angle changes
◦ Perception depends on factors other than visual angle
Factors Affecting Visual
Perception
 Perception of depth
◦ Cues to determine relative positions of objects
 Size and height of object
◦ Provides cue for distance
 Familiarity
◦ Certain size helps to judge the distance accordingly
Example
A B C D E F . H I J K
Perceiving Brightness
 Brightness
◦ Is subjective reaction to levels of light
◦ affected by luminance of object
 Luminance
◦ Depends on
 Amount of light falling on object
 Reflective properties of object
◦ Measured by photometer
 Contrast
◦ Function of the luminance of an object and the luminance of its
background
Perceiving Brightness
 Measured by just noticeable difference
caused by luminance
 Visual acuity increases with luminance
Perceiving Color
 3 components
◦ Hue
 Determined by the spectral wavelength
 Blue (short)
 Green (medium)
 Red (long)
 150 hues determined by eye
◦ Intensity
 Brightness of color
◦ Saturation
 Amount of whiteness in the color
 7 million colors can be perceived
Perceiving Color
 Color perception best in fovea, worst
at periphery where rods are
predominate
 3-4% cones in fovea sensitive to blue
light
Capabilities and Limitations of
Visual Processing
 Visual processing allows
transformation and interpretation of a
complete image
 Visual processing compensates image
movement
◦ Image moves on retina, but we see it stable
 Color and brightness perceived
constant (hue, intensity, saturation)
 Provides information about
environment :
 distances, directions, objects etc.
Hearing
Human Ear has 3 components:
 outer ear
protects inner and
amplifies sound
 middle ear
transmits sound waves
as vibrations to inner
ear
 inner ear
chemical transmitters
are released and
cause impulses in
auditory nerve
outer ear
 two parts:
◦ Pinna - attached to the sides of the head
◦ auditory canal - passes the sound waves
to the middle ear.
 auditory canal contains wax which
prevents dust, dirt and over-inquisitive
insects reaching the middle ear
Middle Ear
 Passes the Sound waves
along the auditory canal
and vibrate the ear drum
which in turn vibrates the
ossicles, which transmit
the vibrations to the
cochlea, and so into the
inner ear.
Inner Ear
 The waves are passed into the liquid-
filled cochlea
 The delicate hair cells or cilia bends
because of the vibrations in the
cochlean liquid and release a
chemical transmitter which causes
impulses in the auditory nerve.
Processing sound
 Characteristics of Sound:
◦ Pitch - frequency of the sound
◦ Loudness - amplitude of the sound
◦ Timbre - type of the sound
 Humans can hear frequencies from 20Hz to
15kHz
 Different frequencies trigger activity in
neurons in different parts of the auditory
system, and cause different rates of firing of
nerve impulses
 Auditory system filters sounds
– Allows to ignore background noise and concentrate
on important information
Touch
 last of the senses is touch or haptic perception.
 Provides vital information about our
environment.
 It tells us when we touch something hot or
cold, and can therefore act as a warning.
• Stimulus received via receptors in the skin
Types of sensory receptor
 Thermoreceptors
 Respond to heat and cold
 Nociceptors
 Respond to pressure, heat and pain
 Mechanoreceptors
 Respond to pressure
 2 types:
 Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors - respond to immediate
pressure
 Slowly adapting mechanoreceptors - respond to continuously
applied pressure
 Kinethesis - awareness of position of
body & limb
 affects comfort and performance.
 Three types:
 rapidly adapting - respond when a limb is moved
in a particular direction;
 slowly adapting - respond to both movement and
static position;
 positional receptors - respond only when a limb is
in a static position.
Human Memory
Sensory Memory
 act as buffers for stimuli received
through the senses
 iconic memory for visual stimuli,
 echoic memory for aural stimuli
 haptic memory for touch.
 These memories are constantly overwritten
by new information coming in on these
channels.
 Examples – iconic memory
 Moving a finger infront of the eye
 “sparkler”
 Information remains in iconic memory very
briefly, in the order of 0.5 seconds.
 Examples – echoic memory
 direction from which a sound originates
 Information is passed from sensory memory
into short-term memory by attention,
thereby filtering the stimuli to only those
which are of interest at a given time.
 Information received by sensory memories
is quickly passed into a more permanent
memory store, or overwritten and lost.
Short-term memory
 working memory
 acts as a ‘scratch-pad’ for temporary
recall of information.
 used to store information which is only
required fleetingly
 Example:
 calculate the multiplication 35 × 6 in your head
 5 × 6 and followed by 30 × 6
 Short-term memory can be accessed
– rapid access ~ 70ms
– rapid decay ~ 200ms
 Two basic methods for measuring memory
capacity.
 determining the length of a sequence which can be
remembered in order. limited capacity 7± 2 chunks
 allows items to be freely recalled in any order.
Examples
212348278493202
0121 414 2626
HEC ATR ANU PTH ETR EET
chunking information can increase the
short-term memory capacity
Long Term Memory
 store factual information, experiential
knowledge, procedural rules of behavior –
Stores everything we know.
 Characteristics:
1. It has huge capacity
2. It has a relatively slow access time of
approximately a tenth of seconds.
3. Forgetting occurs more slow in long- term memory
Long-term memory structure
 2 types
 episodic memory
 represents memory of events and experience in a
serial form.
 Can recall an actual events took place at a given
point of our lives.
 semantic memory
 structured record of facts, concepts and skills that we
have acquired.
 semantic LTM derived from episodic
LTM
LTM MODELS:
Semantic Network
 Semantic memory is structured as a
network.
 Items are associated to each other in
classes, and may inherit attributes
from parent classes.
 Example:
knowledge about dogs may be
stored in a network as shown
semantic network
LTM MODELS:
Frames
 Information organized in data
structures
 Type–subtype relationships
DOG
Fixed
legs: 4
Default
diet: Carniverous sound: bark
Variable
size: colour
COLLIE
Fixed
breed of: DOG
type: sheepdog
Default
size: 65 cm
Variable
colour
 Frame slots may contain default, fixed
or variable information.
 A frame is instantiated when the slots
are filled with appropriate values.
 Frames and scripts can be linked
together in networks to represent
hierarchical structured knowledge.
LTM MODELS: Scripts
 Scripts attempt to model the
representation of stereotypical
knowledge about situations.
 Eg: knowledge of the activities of dog
owners and vets
A script comprises a number of elements, which, like
slots, can be filled with appropriate information:
 Entry conditions Conditions that must be
satisfied for the script to be activated.
 Result Conditions that will be true after the script is
terminated.
 Props Objects involved in the events described in
the script.
 Roles Actions performed by particular participants.
 Scenes The sequences of events that occur.
 Tracks A variation on the general pattern
representing an alternative scenario.
LTM MODELS: Production rules
 Representation of procedural
knowledge.
 Condition/action rules
 if condition is matched
 then use rule to determine action
IF dog is wagging tail THEN pat dog
IF dog is growling THEN run away
Long-term memory processes
 3 main activities
 storage or remembering of information,
 Forgetting
 information retrieval
Storage of information
rehearsal :
 Information is moved from short-term
memory to long-term memory.
 by repeated exposure to a stimulus or the
rehearsal of a piece of information transfers it
into long-term memory.
 repetition is not enough to learn
information well. If information is not
meaningful it is more difficult to
remember.
 structure, meaning and familiarity
– information easier to remember
Forgetting
 2 main theories of forgetting:
 Decay
 Interference.
Decay
 information is lost gradually but very slowly
Interference
 new information replaces old: retroactive
interference
 Ex: remembering your new phone number
 old may interfere with new: proactive inhibition
 Ex: find your self going to your old house instead of
new one.
retrieval
 recall
 information reproduced from memory can
be assisted by cues, e.g. categories,
imagery
 recognition
 information gives knowledge that it has
been seen before
 less complex than recall since the
information is provided as cue
Thinking
Reasoning
deduction, induction, abduction
Problem solving
Reasoning
• Is the process by which we use the
knowledge to draw conclusions or infer
something new about the interest.
• inferring new information from what is
already known
 Kinds of Reasons:
 Deductive
 Inductive
 Abductive
Deductive Reasoning
• Deductive reasoning derives the
logically necessary conclusion from the
given premises.
e.g
.
If it is Friday then she will go to work
It is Friday
Therefore she will go to work.
e.g. People from Pampanga cooks well and
delicious She is from Pampanga
Therefore she cooks well and delicious
Deductive Reasoning
• Logical conclusion not necessarily true:
e.g.
If it is raining then the ground
is dry It is raining
Therefore the ground is dry
Deduction (cont.)
• When truth and logical validity clash …
e.g. Some people are babies Some babies
cry
Inference - Some people cry
Correct?
• People bring world knowledge to bear
Inductive Reasoning
• Induction:
generalize from cases seen to infer
information about cases unseen
e.g. all elephants we have seen have trunks therefore we
infer that all elephants have trunks.
• Unreliable:
– can only prove false not true
• Humans not good at using negative evidence
e.g. Wason's cards.
Wason's cards
Is this true?
How many cards do you need to turn over to find out?
…. and which cards?
If a card has a vowel on one side it has an even number on the
other
7 E 4 K
In fact, to test the truth of the statement we need to check
negative evidence
Abductive reasoning
Abduction reasons from a fact to the action or
state that caused it.
e.g.
Sam drives fast when drunk.
If I see Sam driving fast, assume drunk.
• Unreliable:
– can lead to false explanations
•If an event always follows an action, the user
will infer that the event is caused by the action
unless evidence to the contrary is made
available.
•If, in fact, the event and the action are
Problem solving
• Process of finding solution to unfamiliar task
using knowledge.
• There are a number of different views of
how people solve problems.
• Several theories.
Gestalt Theory
 Problem solving is a matter of reproducing
known responses or trial and error.
 problem solving both productive and
reproductive
 Reproductive problem solving draws on
previous experience.
 Hindrance to finding a solution
 Productive problem solving involves insight
and restructuring of the problem
Maier’s pendulum problem
Problem space theory
 Proposed by Newell and Simon
 problem space comprises of problem states
 problem solving involves generating states
using legal operators
 The problem has an initial state and a goal state
and people use the operators to move from
initial to the goal.
 heuristics may be employed to select operators
Sample Heuristic
means-ends analysis
 the initial state is compared with the goal
state and an operator is chosen to reduce
the difference between the two.
 Eg: reorganizing your office and you want to
move your desk from the north wall of the
room to the window
 Operators : carry or push or drag them
 If desk is heavy then new subgoal: to make it
light.
 – operates within human information
processing system
 e.g. STM limits etc.
 – largely applied to problem solving in
well-defined areas
 e.g. puzzles rather than knowledge
intensive areas
Problem solving
(cont.)
• Analogy
– analogical mapping:
• novel problems in new domain?
• use knowledge of similar problem from similar
domain
– analogical mapping difficult if domains are
semantically different
• Skill acquisition
– skilled activity characterized by chunking
• lot of information is chunked to optimize STM
– conceptual rather than superficial grouping of
problems
– information is structured more effectively
Errors and mental
models
Types of error
• slips
– right intention, but failed to do it right
– causes: poor physical skill,inattention etc.
– change to aspect of skilled behaviour can
cause slip
• mistakes
– wrong intention
– cause: incorrect understanding
humans create mental models to explain behaviour.
if wrong (different from actual system) errors can occur
Thank You

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Hci fundamentals

  • 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN COMUPTER INTERACTION Tamizharasi A Assistant Professor /CSE RMD Engineering College
  • 2. What is HCI ?  Point of communication between the user and the computer  Studies the design and use of computer technology focused on the interface between the user and the system
  • 3.
  • 4. Overview  Interaction with world ◦ Occurs through information  Interaction with computer ◦ Input and output channels  Then the information is stored in the memory  Finally the information is processed and applied.  Reasoning  Problem solving  Skill acquistion  Error
  • 5. Input-Output Channels  Human interacts by sending and receiving information  Human Input ◦ Through Senses  Human Output ◦ Through Effectors
  • 6. Input via Senses  Vision  Hearing  Touch  Taste  Smell
  • 7. Output via Effectors (Responders)  Limbs  Fingers  Eyes  Head  Vocal system
  • 8. Interaction with PC Using Input- Output Channels  Using a GUI-based computer  Information received by sight  Beeps received by ear  Feel keyboard and mouse with fingers
  • 9. 3 Major elements of Interaction  Vision  Hearing  Touch
  • 10. Vision ◦ Human Eye ◦ Visual Perception ◦ Reading
  • 11. Vision  Highly complex activity  Physical and perceptual limitations  2 stages of visual perception: ◦ Physical reception of the stimulus ◦ Interpretation/processing of stimulus  Processing allows construction of images from incomplete information
  • 13. Human Eye Image Formation  Cornea and lens ◦ Focuses light into a sharp image on retina ◦ An upside down image is formed on the retina.
  • 15. Rods  Situated towards the edges of retina ◦ Dominate peripheral vision  Highly Sensitive to light ◦ Allow us to see under low level of illumination  Unable to resolve fine detail and are subject to light saturation ◦ Cause of temporary blindness when moving from dark areas to very bright ones  120 million rods per eye
  • 16. Cones  Less sensitive to light ◦ Can tolerate more light than Rods  Basic function is color vision  Situated in Fovea ◦ Small area on retina where image is fixated  Three types of cones ◦ Each sensitive to a different wavelength
  • 17. Blind Spot  Area where optic nerve enters  No rods or cones in this area  Visual system compensates for lack of rods and cones
  • 18. Nerve Cells  A.k.a. Ganglion Cells  Types ◦ X-cells  concentrated in fovea  detection of patterns ◦ Y-cells  widely distributed in retina  early detection of movement  can not detect change in patterns
  • 19. Notions of Size and Distance  You are standing on a hill  Rocks, sheep and small tree on summit  Farmhouse on hillside  Person walking on track
  • 20. Perceiving Size and Depth  Size specified by visual angle  Affected by both ◦ Size of object ◦ Distance from eye
  • 21. Perceiving Size and Depth  Visual angle ◦ Indicates how much of the field of view is taken by the object ◦ Measured in degree or minutes of arc
  • 22. Visual Angle and Perception  Visual Acuity ◦ Visual Acuity is the ability of a person to perceive fine detail  Law of size constancy ◦ Perception of the object size remains constant even if it visual angle changes ◦ Perception depends on factors other than visual angle
  • 23. Factors Affecting Visual Perception  Perception of depth ◦ Cues to determine relative positions of objects  Size and height of object ◦ Provides cue for distance  Familiarity ◦ Certain size helps to judge the distance accordingly
  • 24. Example A B C D E F . H I J K
  • 25. Perceiving Brightness  Brightness ◦ Is subjective reaction to levels of light ◦ affected by luminance of object  Luminance ◦ Depends on  Amount of light falling on object  Reflective properties of object ◦ Measured by photometer  Contrast ◦ Function of the luminance of an object and the luminance of its background
  • 26. Perceiving Brightness  Measured by just noticeable difference caused by luminance  Visual acuity increases with luminance
  • 27. Perceiving Color  3 components ◦ Hue  Determined by the spectral wavelength  Blue (short)  Green (medium)  Red (long)  150 hues determined by eye ◦ Intensity  Brightness of color ◦ Saturation  Amount of whiteness in the color  7 million colors can be perceived
  • 28. Perceiving Color  Color perception best in fovea, worst at periphery where rods are predominate  3-4% cones in fovea sensitive to blue light
  • 29. Capabilities and Limitations of Visual Processing  Visual processing allows transformation and interpretation of a complete image  Visual processing compensates image movement ◦ Image moves on retina, but we see it stable  Color and brightness perceived constant (hue, intensity, saturation)
  • 30.  Provides information about environment :  distances, directions, objects etc. Hearing Human Ear has 3 components:  outer ear protects inner and amplifies sound  middle ear transmits sound waves as vibrations to inner ear  inner ear chemical transmitters are released and cause impulses in auditory nerve
  • 31. outer ear  two parts: ◦ Pinna - attached to the sides of the head ◦ auditory canal - passes the sound waves to the middle ear.  auditory canal contains wax which prevents dust, dirt and over-inquisitive insects reaching the middle ear
  • 32. Middle Ear  Passes the Sound waves along the auditory canal and vibrate the ear drum which in turn vibrates the ossicles, which transmit the vibrations to the cochlea, and so into the inner ear.
  • 33. Inner Ear  The waves are passed into the liquid- filled cochlea  The delicate hair cells or cilia bends because of the vibrations in the cochlean liquid and release a chemical transmitter which causes impulses in the auditory nerve.
  • 34. Processing sound  Characteristics of Sound: ◦ Pitch - frequency of the sound ◦ Loudness - amplitude of the sound ◦ Timbre - type of the sound
  • 35.  Humans can hear frequencies from 20Hz to 15kHz  Different frequencies trigger activity in neurons in different parts of the auditory system, and cause different rates of firing of nerve impulses  Auditory system filters sounds – Allows to ignore background noise and concentrate on important information
  • 36. Touch  last of the senses is touch or haptic perception.  Provides vital information about our environment.  It tells us when we touch something hot or cold, and can therefore act as a warning. • Stimulus received via receptors in the skin
  • 37. Types of sensory receptor  Thermoreceptors  Respond to heat and cold  Nociceptors  Respond to pressure, heat and pain  Mechanoreceptors  Respond to pressure  2 types:  Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors - respond to immediate pressure  Slowly adapting mechanoreceptors - respond to continuously applied pressure
  • 38.  Kinethesis - awareness of position of body & limb  affects comfort and performance.  Three types:  rapidly adapting - respond when a limb is moved in a particular direction;  slowly adapting - respond to both movement and static position;  positional receptors - respond only when a limb is in a static position.
  • 40. Sensory Memory  act as buffers for stimuli received through the senses  iconic memory for visual stimuli,  echoic memory for aural stimuli  haptic memory for touch.  These memories are constantly overwritten by new information coming in on these channels.  Examples – iconic memory  Moving a finger infront of the eye  “sparkler”  Information remains in iconic memory very briefly, in the order of 0.5 seconds.
  • 41.  Examples – echoic memory  direction from which a sound originates  Information is passed from sensory memory into short-term memory by attention, thereby filtering the stimuli to only those which are of interest at a given time.  Information received by sensory memories is quickly passed into a more permanent memory store, or overwritten and lost.
  • 42. Short-term memory  working memory  acts as a ‘scratch-pad’ for temporary recall of information.  used to store information which is only required fleetingly  Example:  calculate the multiplication 35 × 6 in your head  5 × 6 and followed by 30 × 6
  • 43.  Short-term memory can be accessed – rapid access ~ 70ms – rapid decay ~ 200ms  Two basic methods for measuring memory capacity.  determining the length of a sequence which can be remembered in order. limited capacity 7± 2 chunks  allows items to be freely recalled in any order.
  • 44. Examples 212348278493202 0121 414 2626 HEC ATR ANU PTH ETR EET chunking information can increase the short-term memory capacity
  • 45. Long Term Memory  store factual information, experiential knowledge, procedural rules of behavior – Stores everything we know.  Characteristics: 1. It has huge capacity 2. It has a relatively slow access time of approximately a tenth of seconds. 3. Forgetting occurs more slow in long- term memory
  • 46. Long-term memory structure  2 types  episodic memory  represents memory of events and experience in a serial form.  Can recall an actual events took place at a given point of our lives.  semantic memory  structured record of facts, concepts and skills that we have acquired.  semantic LTM derived from episodic LTM
  • 47. LTM MODELS: Semantic Network  Semantic memory is structured as a network.  Items are associated to each other in classes, and may inherit attributes from parent classes.  Example: knowledge about dogs may be stored in a network as shown
  • 49. LTM MODELS: Frames  Information organized in data structures  Type–subtype relationships DOG Fixed legs: 4 Default diet: Carniverous sound: bark Variable size: colour COLLIE Fixed breed of: DOG type: sheepdog Default size: 65 cm Variable colour
  • 50.  Frame slots may contain default, fixed or variable information.  A frame is instantiated when the slots are filled with appropriate values.  Frames and scripts can be linked together in networks to represent hierarchical structured knowledge.
  • 51. LTM MODELS: Scripts  Scripts attempt to model the representation of stereotypical knowledge about situations.  Eg: knowledge of the activities of dog owners and vets
  • 52. A script comprises a number of elements, which, like slots, can be filled with appropriate information:  Entry conditions Conditions that must be satisfied for the script to be activated.  Result Conditions that will be true after the script is terminated.  Props Objects involved in the events described in the script.  Roles Actions performed by particular participants.  Scenes The sequences of events that occur.  Tracks A variation on the general pattern representing an alternative scenario.
  • 53. LTM MODELS: Production rules  Representation of procedural knowledge.  Condition/action rules  if condition is matched  then use rule to determine action IF dog is wagging tail THEN pat dog IF dog is growling THEN run away
  • 54. Long-term memory processes  3 main activities  storage or remembering of information,  Forgetting  information retrieval
  • 55. Storage of information rehearsal :  Information is moved from short-term memory to long-term memory.  by repeated exposure to a stimulus or the rehearsal of a piece of information transfers it into long-term memory.  repetition is not enough to learn information well. If information is not meaningful it is more difficult to remember.  structure, meaning and familiarity – information easier to remember
  • 56. Forgetting  2 main theories of forgetting:  Decay  Interference. Decay  information is lost gradually but very slowly Interference  new information replaces old: retroactive interference  Ex: remembering your new phone number  old may interfere with new: proactive inhibition  Ex: find your self going to your old house instead of new one.
  • 57. retrieval  recall  information reproduced from memory can be assisted by cues, e.g. categories, imagery  recognition  information gives knowledge that it has been seen before  less complex than recall since the information is provided as cue
  • 59. Reasoning • Is the process by which we use the knowledge to draw conclusions or infer something new about the interest. • inferring new information from what is already known  Kinds of Reasons:  Deductive  Inductive  Abductive
  • 60. Deductive Reasoning • Deductive reasoning derives the logically necessary conclusion from the given premises. e.g . If it is Friday then she will go to work It is Friday Therefore she will go to work. e.g. People from Pampanga cooks well and delicious She is from Pampanga Therefore she cooks well and delicious
  • 61. Deductive Reasoning • Logical conclusion not necessarily true: e.g. If it is raining then the ground is dry It is raining Therefore the ground is dry
  • 62. Deduction (cont.) • When truth and logical validity clash … e.g. Some people are babies Some babies cry Inference - Some people cry Correct? • People bring world knowledge to bear
  • 63. Inductive Reasoning • Induction: generalize from cases seen to infer information about cases unseen e.g. all elephants we have seen have trunks therefore we infer that all elephants have trunks. • Unreliable: – can only prove false not true • Humans not good at using negative evidence e.g. Wason's cards.
  • 64. Wason's cards Is this true? How many cards do you need to turn over to find out? …. and which cards? If a card has a vowel on one side it has an even number on the other 7 E 4 K In fact, to test the truth of the statement we need to check negative evidence
  • 65. Abductive reasoning Abduction reasons from a fact to the action or state that caused it. e.g. Sam drives fast when drunk. If I see Sam driving fast, assume drunk. • Unreliable: – can lead to false explanations •If an event always follows an action, the user will infer that the event is caused by the action unless evidence to the contrary is made available. •If, in fact, the event and the action are
  • 66. Problem solving • Process of finding solution to unfamiliar task using knowledge. • There are a number of different views of how people solve problems. • Several theories.
  • 67. Gestalt Theory  Problem solving is a matter of reproducing known responses or trial and error.  problem solving both productive and reproductive  Reproductive problem solving draws on previous experience.  Hindrance to finding a solution  Productive problem solving involves insight and restructuring of the problem
  • 69.
  • 70. Problem space theory  Proposed by Newell and Simon  problem space comprises of problem states  problem solving involves generating states using legal operators  The problem has an initial state and a goal state and people use the operators to move from initial to the goal.  heuristics may be employed to select operators
  • 71. Sample Heuristic means-ends analysis  the initial state is compared with the goal state and an operator is chosen to reduce the difference between the two.  Eg: reorganizing your office and you want to move your desk from the north wall of the room to the window  Operators : carry or push or drag them  If desk is heavy then new subgoal: to make it light.
  • 72.  – operates within human information processing system  e.g. STM limits etc.  – largely applied to problem solving in well-defined areas  e.g. puzzles rather than knowledge intensive areas
  • 73. Problem solving (cont.) • Analogy – analogical mapping: • novel problems in new domain? • use knowledge of similar problem from similar domain – analogical mapping difficult if domains are semantically different • Skill acquisition – skilled activity characterized by chunking • lot of information is chunked to optimize STM – conceptual rather than superficial grouping of problems – information is structured more effectively
  • 74. Errors and mental models Types of error • slips – right intention, but failed to do it right – causes: poor physical skill,inattention etc. – change to aspect of skilled behaviour can cause slip • mistakes – wrong intention – cause: incorrect understanding humans create mental models to explain behaviour. if wrong (different from actual system) errors can occur