SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Grazing Away Parasites
Dr. Niki Whitley
Fort Valley State University
Cooperative Extension
whitleyn@fvsu.edu
478-391-4840 (cell)
Some slides/pictures courtesy of Maryland Cooperative Extension, Susan Schoenian
Internal parasites
• Internal parasites (mostly “gut”
worms) are the primary health
problem in goats/sheep
• Goats and sheep are the most
susceptible farm livestock to
worms.
• Worms are rapidly becoming
resistant (‘immune’) to dewormers.
• We need to use every method we
can to control worms not just
dewormers alone Photo by Susan Schoenian
Barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus)
Although there are other worms that can cause problems, the barberpole worm sucks blood and can
kill sheep and goats very quickly. These worms cause anemia (blood loss) that can be seen as very pale
eyelids (and bottle jaw – swelling/edema under the jaw from loss of blood proteins). Barberpole
worms do not normally cause scours/diarrhea. May cause weight loss.
Female worm
Barberpole worms in
a goat stomach
Pale eyelids in a sheep
caused by a barberpole
worm infection
Other small ruminant worms
•Trichostryonglus spp (Hair worm, others)
•Nemtodirus (Thin-necked int. worm
•Oesophagostomum (Nodular worm)
•Trichuris (Whip worm)
•Ostertagia/Teledorsagia (Brown stomach worm)
•Bunostomum (hookworms, diff species than dogs)
•Tape worms (only ones can “see” in feces)
•White drenches*
Stomach and intestinal – scours, weight loss, poor doers
Others: liver fluke (Valbazen®, Ivomec Plus®)
Gulf Coast area of U.S.; www.merckvetmanual.com/
Deer worm – Meningeal worm
*Some resistance has been found in tapeworms to white drenches (“-dazoles”); praziquantel has been used successfully
(found in some horse dewormers); work with vet
Photos by Susan Schoenian
http://blogs.cornell.edu/smallruminantparasites/chemical-treatment-protocols/
For liver fluke/deer worm – control snails/slugs or fence sheep/goats out of wet areas
Coccidia
Other drugs: EPM treatments for horses (working with vet; Merck Vet Manual); diclazuril or ponazuril; not
available in U.S. - toltrazuril
•Coccidia are different for each species (goats vs sheep
vs chickens, etc.); Eimeria spp.
•Causes diarrhea, weight loss, poor doers
•Damage lining SI; can be permanent.
•Treat with amprolium (Corid®) or sulfa drugs; no treatments labeled for
sheep/goats, work with vet for extra-label use
•Prevent with coccidiostats (rumensin, decoquinate, lasalocid); check
label for danger to horses/donkeys
Sustainable Integrated Parasite Management
• Understand parasites
• Manage animals for their problem level
• Create clean or safe pastures
• Consider multi-species grazing
• Use pasture rest and rotation
• Consider alternative forages
• Understand the role of nutrition
• Could use zero grazing
• Manage refugia (worms that will die when treated)
• Use genetic selection
• Use multiple measures of worm infection to decide which to
deworm
Photo by Susan Schoenian
Barberpole worm life cycle
 Adult worms lay eggs and the eggs exit the animal
in feces.
 Eggs hatch and grow inside manure to the infective
stage larvae (L3; in 3-5 days) which comes out of
the manure and can migrate up grass in dew
drops/water.
 Goats/sheep eat the grass with the L3 on it; in the
stomach, the L3 mature (L4, which can go dormant)
and then to adults – both L4 and adults suck blood).
 L3 (on ground) and L4 (in animal) can hang around
for up to 6 months (i.e. in winter; year?); 2-3 months
more typical
Who gets worms easiest?*
Most likely to get worms
(more susceptible)
• Just weaned up to yearlings
• Orphans/bottle babies
• Late-born (in worm season)
• High-producing females
(milkers/nursing multiples)
• Just before/after giving birth
• Thin animals
• Geriatric animals
• Stressed/sick animals
• Some breeds/not adapted
Less likely to get worms
(more resistant)
• Mature (adults)
• Dry (not milking), open or
early pregnant
• Pets (“babied”/well fed)
• Ones with good body
condition scores (BCS)
• Some breeds or
adapted/selected animals
*Manage animals/pastures based
on susceptibility
Basic Management
• Clean areas, especially where eat;
use feeders if supplementing on
pasture
• Clean water
• Avoid overgrazing
• Do not graze below 4-6 inches/
balance for nutrition
• Time birthing to minimize parasite
infections Photo by Susan Schoenian
Pasture or forage management
• Rotate pastures; every 1-3
days (MIG)
• Rest 2 months (or more)
before bringing sheep or
goats back to the pasture, in
most cases during hot
parasite season, 2-3 months
is plenty of time
www.wormx.info
(photo left)
Photo above by
Niki Whitley
More info at: www.wormx.info/bmps
Pasture or forage management
• If cannot wait 2 months, manage
forage height greater than 4-6”
• Up to 80% of the larvae (worms)
are in the first 2-3” of forage, but
they can migrate up 4-6” inches
• Balance for nutrition (as forages
mature, quality goes down)
Photos by Susan Schoenian
Pasture or forage management
•Develop some clean
pastures:
• New pastures
• Rotated with crops/tilled
• Dormant “burned” pastures
• Cut for hay (biomass
removed/area dries)
Photo by Susan Schoenian
Photo:http://nwdistrict.ifas.ufl.edu/phag/2015/01/23/winte
r-burns-benefit-bermudagrass-hay-fields/
Pasture or forage management
• Multi-species/mixed grazing can
also help “clean” pastures
• Do not have to be together (if so,
sheep feed/mineral), can rotate
pastures among species
• Also takes advantage of differing
grazing behaviors
Bottom photo by Susan Schoenian
Approximate Diet Selection of Grazing Animals when Given Choice
Type of Diet
Animal Species
Grasses Broadleaf Weeds
& Legumes
Browse
(shrubs/trees)
Cattle 65-75 20-30 5-10
Horses 70-80 15-25 0-5
Sheep 45-55 30-40 10-20
Goats 20-30 10-30 40-60
White-tailed deer 10-30 30-50 30-50
Pastures for Goats and Sheep, Greg Brann, NRCS-TN (info from Southern Forages book)
Pasture or forage management
Graphical Description of Diet Choice
Selectivity
Graphics by Dennis Hancock
Pre-hensile lips goats/sheep make selective grazing/browsing easy!
Pasture or forage management
Stocking Rates on 2-2 ½ Acres
(based on animal units - AU)
Pasture Type Cows Sheep Goats Cows + Goats
Excellent
Pasture
1 5-6 6-8 1 + 1-2
Brushy
Pasture
0.75 6-7 9-11 0.75 + 2-4
Silvopasture 0.5-0.75 4-6 6-8 0.5 + 2-4
*Brush
Eradication
9-15 0.5 + 6-8
*Sheep can also be used for brush clearing though it may take longer than for goats.
Slide by Dennis Hancock, modified
Pasture or forage management
For parasite management,
could start with stocking
rates of 3-5 adult sheep or
goats per acre
Pasture or forage management
• Allow access to browse (like woods/cutover
areas); could even plant some?
Photo Credit: Angela Boudro, Oregon St. Univ. from Dennis Hancock, UGA
Photo Credit: Angela Boudro, Oregon St. Univ.; from Dennis Hancock, UGA
Pasture or forage management
8 days later….
Some browse very nutritious
Photo credit: D. Ditsch and B. Sears, UKCES from Dennis Hancock, UGA
Kudzu:
55-60% TDN (energy);
12-18% CP (protein)
Pasture or forage management
Pasture or forage management
• Will need to rotate, or could
have erosion and/or lose the
available forage
• Leave at least (no less than)
20% of leaf on individual
plants to survive? May need
more!
Photo credit: D. Ditsch and B. Sears,
UKCES; from Dennis Hancock, UGA
Pasture or forage management
• Forages with high tannin
(like sericea lespedeza)
have been shown to
lower worm egg counts
(and coccidia oocyst
counts) in feces of goats
and sheep
Photo by Susan Schoenian
www.wormx.info; Joan Burke
More info at: www.wormx.info/bmps
Pasture or forage management
• Birdsfoot (and Big) trefoil and chicory have
some tannin
Birdsfoot trefoil; photo Ken
Turner, wormx.info
Chicory; photos by Susan Schoenian
Pasture or forage management
• No one silver bullet
• Not even sericea lespedeza
• Long-term feeding as primary
source, lower ADG vs Bermuda;
lower (not deficient) Mo, other
minerals
• Idea for use: 2 weeks before
and 4 weeks after weaning to
help control parasites/coccidiaPhoto by Joan Burke;
wormx.info
Nutritional management
• Animals fed well and in better
body condition are better
able to handle or resist
worms; this is especially
important in late pregnancy
(help lower issues with
PPER?)
• Forage/pasture alone cannot
always meet energy
requirements (see note in
yellow box below)
TDN (energy)
Adapted from a presentation by An Pieschel, TN State Univ; data from Dr.
Luginbuhl, NCSU.
Sheep have similar requirement trends; breed matters – some young fast-growing kids/lambs may require 79-90% TDN!
Nutritional management
• Higher protein has been shown to reduce
problems with worms; up to 30% above
requirements
• Some browse/brushy plants with high
protein: mimosa, locust (black/honey),
mulberry, privet, kudzu, green briar,
trumpet creeper
• Pastures (with legumes for
weanlings/lactating females?) only in
vegetative state MAY meet protein
requirements (see note below in yellow
box)
•Supplemental feeding on pasture helps them fight worms
Adapted from a presentation by An Pieschel, TN
State Univ; data from Dr. Luginbuhl, NCSU.
Protein
Sheep have similar requirement trends; breed matters – some young fast-growing kids/lambs may require 19-25% protein!
Body condition scoring
Spine
Transverse
processes
Muscle Fat
1 Individually clearly felt,
sharp, obvious
Fingers easily pass
underneath Very little No
2 Form a smooth line
with deep undulations
Smooth round
edges
Concave Very thin
3 Only slightly detectable
undulations
Well covered
have to push firmly
to get fingers
underneath
Not concave
Not convex
Moderate
4 Only detectable with
firm pressure Cannot be
felt at all
Maximally
developed
Convex
Thick
5 Not detectable Very thick
Score: 1 2 3 4 5
Videos available online for
goats at Langston University;
for sheep at Purdue
University (search body
condition scoring and choose
videos for more)
For dairy goats, use ADGA
information for body
condition scoring (online)
Goats score 0.5 score higher
than sheep with same fat
cover
Try to keep between 2-4,
depending on production
status!
Pasture or forage management
• Use of annuals can help with parasite
management through:
• Creation of ‘new’ (clean) pastures
• Providing supplemental nutrition
• Warm season examples: chicory,
millet, sorghum, sunnhemp, cowpeas
• Cool season: small grains (oats, rye,
barley, wheat), ryegrass, clovers; rape,
turnips, forage peas, radish; some
mixes for deer may be good for goats
(and sheep)
SunnHemp; photo by Susan Schoenian
• Zero grazing or hybrid systems
• In before dew; out when dried off
• Or never graze, bring fresh forage to them
(cut and carry); or bring hay/feed
• If in barns/shelter or dry lots with no
access to grazing, few/no worm
problems (as long as don’t eat off the
ground); can be economically feasible
• Coccidia could be a problem if feeders,
waterers, housing not kept clean
Pasture or forage management
Bottom photo by Susan Schoenian
• Plant multiple plant species for pastures/browse
• Some have tried grasses mixed with forbs (i.e. dandelion, chickweed,
birdsfoot trefoil, plantain); talk to local county Extension agent for ideas
• Manage refugia on pastures by managing number of
animals dewormed (targeted selective treatment; TST)
• Manage pastures for high quality forages
• Soil testing/fertilizing
• Mow/Trim as needed for forage quality
• Weed control (?) – for those weeds with little/no nutritional value and
toxic plants
Pasture or forage management
Pasture or forage management
• Can conduct fecal egg counts to
indicate potential parasite burdens on
pastures (can learn to do yourself)
• Duddington flagrans
(Bioworma®/Livamol® with
Bioworma® – fungus with potential to
reduce pasture burdens
• Traps larvae in poop (and digests it) so it
cannot infect animals
• Feed daily (more research needed); may
target groups with most problems Photos: Susan Schoenian
Reducing pasture contamination – Bioworma® cost (minus shipping)
Animal
Livamol with
Bioworma® per
animal
Bioworma ® per animal
50 lb lamb/kid $0.30/d; $9/mon $0.10/d; $3/mon
100 lb ewe/doe $0.60; $18/mon $0.20/d; $6/mon
Pasture or forage management
Bioworma/Livamol ready to feed: ($89.50/15 lb or 240 oz; $0.373/oz); 0.8 oz/d/50 lb; 1.6 oz/d/100 lb
Bioworma (must mix): ($495/15 lb or 240 oz; $2.063/oz); 0.05 oz/d/50 lb; 0.1 oz/d/100 lb
More info in the BIOWORMA webinar available at: www.wormx.info/webinar-videos
Pasture or forage management
• Again, no ‘silver bullet’
• Use an integrated approach to
include pasture/forage and
animal management, genetic
selection, and deworming
management, etc.
Photo: Molly Klein; wormx.info
Fact sheets on pasture management, nutritional management and sericea lespedeza,
among others available at: https://www.wormx.info/bmps

More Related Content

What's hot

Ai manual chapter 09
Ai manual chapter 09Ai manual chapter 09
Ai manual chapter 09
Abs Pecplan
 
Organic, functional, designer & spf feed production
Organic, functional, designer & spf feed productionOrganic, functional, designer & spf feed production
Organic, functional, designer & spf feed production
Dr.Balakesava Reddy
 
Barber Pole Worm
Barber Pole WormBarber Pole Worm
Optimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken Nordlund
Optimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken NordlundOptimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken Nordlund
Optimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken Nordlund
DAIReXNET
 
Nutritional Causes of Lameness
Nutritional Causes of LamenessNutritional Causes of Lameness
Nutritional Causes of Lameness
DAIReXNET
 
MaintainingHoofHealth
MaintainingHoofHealthMaintainingHoofHealth
Nutritional Factors Affecting Hatchability
Nutritional Factors Affecting HatchabilityNutritional Factors Affecting Hatchability
Breeder production
Breeder productionBreeder production
Breeder production
Muhammad Arslan Musa
 
Bypass fat and bypass protein in livestock feeding
Bypass fat and bypass protein in livestock feedingBypass fat and bypass protein in livestock feeding
Basic Nutrition for Production Goats and Sheep
Basic Nutrition for Production Goats and SheepBasic Nutrition for Production Goats and Sheep
Basic Nutrition for Production Goats and Sheep
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Monitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry Diseases
Monitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry DiseasesMonitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry Diseases
Monitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry Diseases
Rafael Monleon
 
Animal breeding course
Animal breeding courseAnimal breeding course
Animal breeding course
daacadprinting
 
Feeding a dairy cow
Feeding a dairy cowFeeding a dairy cow
Feeding a dairy cow
ILRI
 
Swine feeding.pptx
Swine feeding.pptxSwine feeding.pptx
Swine feeding.pptx
Gowhergull1
 
Performance evaluation
Performance evaluationPerformance evaluation
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
DAIReXNET
 
An overview of sheep and goats
An overview of sheep and goatsAn overview of sheep and goats
Sheep & Goat Nutriton
Sheep & Goat Nutriton Sheep & Goat Nutriton
Fine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: females
Fine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: femalesFine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: females
Fine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: females
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding PercentageTips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 

What's hot (20)

Ai manual chapter 09
Ai manual chapter 09Ai manual chapter 09
Ai manual chapter 09
 
Organic, functional, designer & spf feed production
Organic, functional, designer & spf feed productionOrganic, functional, designer & spf feed production
Organic, functional, designer & spf feed production
 
Barber Pole Worm
Barber Pole WormBarber Pole Worm
Barber Pole Worm
 
Optimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken Nordlund
Optimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken NordlundOptimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken Nordlund
Optimizing Facilities for Transition Cow Success- Ken Nordlund
 
Nutritional Causes of Lameness
Nutritional Causes of LamenessNutritional Causes of Lameness
Nutritional Causes of Lameness
 
MaintainingHoofHealth
MaintainingHoofHealthMaintainingHoofHealth
MaintainingHoofHealth
 
Nutritional Factors Affecting Hatchability
Nutritional Factors Affecting HatchabilityNutritional Factors Affecting Hatchability
Nutritional Factors Affecting Hatchability
 
Breeder production
Breeder productionBreeder production
Breeder production
 
Bypass fat and bypass protein in livestock feeding
Bypass fat and bypass protein in livestock feedingBypass fat and bypass protein in livestock feeding
Bypass fat and bypass protein in livestock feeding
 
Basic Nutrition for Production Goats and Sheep
Basic Nutrition for Production Goats and SheepBasic Nutrition for Production Goats and Sheep
Basic Nutrition for Production Goats and Sheep
 
Monitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry Diseases
Monitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry DiseasesMonitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry Diseases
Monitor and Control of Vertically Transmitted Poultry Diseases
 
Animal breeding course
Animal breeding courseAnimal breeding course
Animal breeding course
 
Feeding a dairy cow
Feeding a dairy cowFeeding a dairy cow
Feeding a dairy cow
 
Swine feeding.pptx
Swine feeding.pptxSwine feeding.pptx
Swine feeding.pptx
 
Performance evaluation
Performance evaluationPerformance evaluation
Performance evaluation
 
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
 
An overview of sheep and goats
An overview of sheep and goatsAn overview of sheep and goats
An overview of sheep and goats
 
Sheep & Goat Nutriton
Sheep & Goat Nutriton Sheep & Goat Nutriton
Sheep & Goat Nutriton
 
Fine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: females
Fine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: femalesFine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: females
Fine-tuning breeding animal selection for your farm: females
 
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding PercentageTips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
 

Similar to Grazing Away Parasites

TheBigFiveTopics
TheBigFiveTopicsTheBigFiveTopics
Weaning lambs and kids
Weaning lambs and kidsWeaning lambs and kids
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawgSaving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Dr. Niki Whitley
 
Late Gestation
Late GestationLate Gestation
Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
Management of  Internal Parasites in Small RuminantsManagement of  Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Pig,Horse Management Class Lecture
Pig,Horse Management   Class LecturePig,Horse Management   Class Lecture
Pig,Horse Management Class Lecture
Dr. IRSHAD A
 
Putting It All Together
Putting It All TogetherPutting It All Together
As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4
As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4
As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4
Njovualtho
 
Nutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
Nutrition Of The Ewe And LambNutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
TheBigFiveTopics1
TheBigFiveTopics1TheBigFiveTopics1
Goatery -Breeds and management
Goatery -Breeds and managementGoatery -Breeds and management
Goatery -Breeds and management
Dr Alok Bharti
 
Goats: Sustainable Production Overview
Goats: Sustainable Production OverviewGoats: Sustainable Production Overview
Goats: Sustainable Production Overview
Gardening
 
Strategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production IStrategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production I
Shubhadeep Bhattacharjee
 
Management tools for flock and herd improvement
Management tools for flock and herd improvementManagement tools for flock and herd improvement
Management tools for flock and herd improvement
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Goat and sheep feeding Dr. pankaj
Goat and sheep feeding Dr. pankajGoat and sheep feeding Dr. pankaj
Goat Farming - ALL.pptx
Goat Farming - ALL.pptxGoat Farming - ALL.pptx
Goat Farming - ALL.pptx
Dr Alok Bharti
 
Goat Care And Management Irshad
Goat Care And Management IrshadGoat Care And Management Irshad
Goat Care And Management Irshad
Dr. IRSHAD A
 
Raising your own replacements
Raising your own replacementsRaising your own replacements
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Feeding them
Feeding themFeeding them

Similar to Grazing Away Parasites (20)

TheBigFiveTopics
TheBigFiveTopicsTheBigFiveTopics
TheBigFiveTopics
 
Weaning lambs and kids
Weaning lambs and kidsWeaning lambs and kids
Weaning lambs and kids
 
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawgSaving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
 
Late Gestation
Late GestationLate Gestation
Late Gestation
 
Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
Management of  Internal Parasites in Small RuminantsManagement of  Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
 
Pig,Horse Management Class Lecture
Pig,Horse Management   Class LecturePig,Horse Management   Class Lecture
Pig,Horse Management Class Lecture
 
Putting It All Together
Putting It All TogetherPutting It All Together
Putting It All Together
 
As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4
As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4
As 308 calf weaning and mortality 4
 
Nutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
Nutrition Of The Ewe And LambNutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
Nutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
 
TheBigFiveTopics1
TheBigFiveTopics1TheBigFiveTopics1
TheBigFiveTopics1
 
Goatery -Breeds and management
Goatery -Breeds and managementGoatery -Breeds and management
Goatery -Breeds and management
 
Goats: Sustainable Production Overview
Goats: Sustainable Production OverviewGoats: Sustainable Production Overview
Goats: Sustainable Production Overview
 
Strategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production IStrategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production I
 
Management tools for flock and herd improvement
Management tools for flock and herd improvementManagement tools for flock and herd improvement
Management tools for flock and herd improvement
 
Goat and sheep feeding Dr. pankaj
Goat and sheep feeding Dr. pankajGoat and sheep feeding Dr. pankaj
Goat and sheep feeding Dr. pankaj
 
Goat Farming - ALL.pptx
Goat Farming - ALL.pptxGoat Farming - ALL.pptx
Goat Farming - ALL.pptx
 
Goat Care And Management Irshad
Goat Care And Management IrshadGoat Care And Management Irshad
Goat Care And Management Irshad
 
Raising your own replacements
Raising your own replacementsRaising your own replacements
Raising your own replacements
 
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
 
Feeding them
Feeding themFeeding them
Feeding them
 

More from University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program

Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Health Care of Pregnant ewes
Health Care of Pregnant ewesHealth Care of Pregnant ewes
Hoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Hoof Care of Sheep/GoatsHoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Proper deworming methods
Proper deworming methodsProper deworming methods
Show me the signs
Show me the signsShow me the signs
Copper: its complicated
Copper: its complicatedCopper: its complicated
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheepPregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Goat Hoof Health
Goat Hoof HealthGoat Hoof Health
MinimizingDrugUse
MinimizingDrugUseMinimizingDrugUse
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminantsBeyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Goats 101
Goats 101Goats 101
Marketing them
Marketing themMarketing them
Keeping them healthy
Keeping them healthyKeeping them healthy
Raising them
Raising themRaising them
Sheep 101
Sheep 101Sheep 101
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye ScoresDewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 
FAMACHA eye anemia system
FAMACHA eye anemia systemFAMACHA eye anemia system
Five Point Check
Five Point CheckFive Point Check
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
 

More from University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program (20)

Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
 
Health Care of Pregnant ewes
Health Care of Pregnant ewesHealth Care of Pregnant ewes
Health Care of Pregnant ewes
 
Hoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Hoof Care of Sheep/GoatsHoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Hoof Care of Sheep/Goats
 
Proper deworming methods
Proper deworming methodsProper deworming methods
Proper deworming methods
 
Show me the signs
Show me the signsShow me the signs
Show me the signs
 
Copper: its complicated
Copper: its complicatedCopper: its complicated
Copper: its complicated
 
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheepPregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheep
 
Goat Hoof Health
Goat Hoof HealthGoat Hoof Health
Goat Hoof Health
 
MinimizingDrugUse
MinimizingDrugUseMinimizingDrugUse
MinimizingDrugUse
 
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminantsBeyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
 
Goats 101
Goats 101Goats 101
Goats 101
 
Marketing them
Marketing themMarketing them
Marketing them
 
Keeping them healthy
Keeping them healthyKeeping them healthy
Keeping them healthy
 
Raising them
Raising themRaising them
Raising them
 
Sheep 101
Sheep 101Sheep 101
Sheep 101
 
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
 
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye ScoresDewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
 
FAMACHA eye anemia system
FAMACHA eye anemia systemFAMACHA eye anemia system
FAMACHA eye anemia system
 
Five Point Check
Five Point CheckFive Point Check
Five Point Check
 
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
 

Recently uploaded

BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
Himanshu Rai
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Henry Hollis
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
PsychoTech Services
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour TrainingNutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
melliereed
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Denish Jangid
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
deepaannamalai16
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
khuleseema60
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour TrainingNutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
Nutrition Inc FY 2024, 4 - Hour Training
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
 

Grazing Away Parasites

  • 1. Grazing Away Parasites Dr. Niki Whitley Fort Valley State University Cooperative Extension whitleyn@fvsu.edu 478-391-4840 (cell) Some slides/pictures courtesy of Maryland Cooperative Extension, Susan Schoenian
  • 2. Internal parasites • Internal parasites (mostly “gut” worms) are the primary health problem in goats/sheep • Goats and sheep are the most susceptible farm livestock to worms. • Worms are rapidly becoming resistant (‘immune’) to dewormers. • We need to use every method we can to control worms not just dewormers alone Photo by Susan Schoenian
  • 3. Barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus) Although there are other worms that can cause problems, the barberpole worm sucks blood and can kill sheep and goats very quickly. These worms cause anemia (blood loss) that can be seen as very pale eyelids (and bottle jaw – swelling/edema under the jaw from loss of blood proteins). Barberpole worms do not normally cause scours/diarrhea. May cause weight loss. Female worm Barberpole worms in a goat stomach Pale eyelids in a sheep caused by a barberpole worm infection
  • 4. Other small ruminant worms •Trichostryonglus spp (Hair worm, others) •Nemtodirus (Thin-necked int. worm •Oesophagostomum (Nodular worm) •Trichuris (Whip worm) •Ostertagia/Teledorsagia (Brown stomach worm) •Bunostomum (hookworms, diff species than dogs) •Tape worms (only ones can “see” in feces) •White drenches* Stomach and intestinal – scours, weight loss, poor doers Others: liver fluke (Valbazen®, Ivomec Plus®) Gulf Coast area of U.S.; www.merckvetmanual.com/ Deer worm – Meningeal worm *Some resistance has been found in tapeworms to white drenches (“-dazoles”); praziquantel has been used successfully (found in some horse dewormers); work with vet Photos by Susan Schoenian http://blogs.cornell.edu/smallruminantparasites/chemical-treatment-protocols/ For liver fluke/deer worm – control snails/slugs or fence sheep/goats out of wet areas
  • 5. Coccidia Other drugs: EPM treatments for horses (working with vet; Merck Vet Manual); diclazuril or ponazuril; not available in U.S. - toltrazuril •Coccidia are different for each species (goats vs sheep vs chickens, etc.); Eimeria spp. •Causes diarrhea, weight loss, poor doers •Damage lining SI; can be permanent. •Treat with amprolium (Corid®) or sulfa drugs; no treatments labeled for sheep/goats, work with vet for extra-label use •Prevent with coccidiostats (rumensin, decoquinate, lasalocid); check label for danger to horses/donkeys
  • 6. Sustainable Integrated Parasite Management • Understand parasites • Manage animals for their problem level • Create clean or safe pastures • Consider multi-species grazing • Use pasture rest and rotation • Consider alternative forages • Understand the role of nutrition • Could use zero grazing • Manage refugia (worms that will die when treated) • Use genetic selection • Use multiple measures of worm infection to decide which to deworm Photo by Susan Schoenian
  • 7. Barberpole worm life cycle  Adult worms lay eggs and the eggs exit the animal in feces.  Eggs hatch and grow inside manure to the infective stage larvae (L3; in 3-5 days) which comes out of the manure and can migrate up grass in dew drops/water.  Goats/sheep eat the grass with the L3 on it; in the stomach, the L3 mature (L4, which can go dormant) and then to adults – both L4 and adults suck blood).  L3 (on ground) and L4 (in animal) can hang around for up to 6 months (i.e. in winter; year?); 2-3 months more typical
  • 8. Who gets worms easiest?* Most likely to get worms (more susceptible) • Just weaned up to yearlings • Orphans/bottle babies • Late-born (in worm season) • High-producing females (milkers/nursing multiples) • Just before/after giving birth • Thin animals • Geriatric animals • Stressed/sick animals • Some breeds/not adapted Less likely to get worms (more resistant) • Mature (adults) • Dry (not milking), open or early pregnant • Pets (“babied”/well fed) • Ones with good body condition scores (BCS) • Some breeds or adapted/selected animals *Manage animals/pastures based on susceptibility
  • 9. Basic Management • Clean areas, especially where eat; use feeders if supplementing on pasture • Clean water • Avoid overgrazing • Do not graze below 4-6 inches/ balance for nutrition • Time birthing to minimize parasite infections Photo by Susan Schoenian
  • 10. Pasture or forage management • Rotate pastures; every 1-3 days (MIG) • Rest 2 months (or more) before bringing sheep or goats back to the pasture, in most cases during hot parasite season, 2-3 months is plenty of time www.wormx.info (photo left) Photo above by Niki Whitley More info at: www.wormx.info/bmps
  • 11. Pasture or forage management • If cannot wait 2 months, manage forage height greater than 4-6” • Up to 80% of the larvae (worms) are in the first 2-3” of forage, but they can migrate up 4-6” inches • Balance for nutrition (as forages mature, quality goes down) Photos by Susan Schoenian
  • 12. Pasture or forage management •Develop some clean pastures: • New pastures • Rotated with crops/tilled • Dormant “burned” pastures • Cut for hay (biomass removed/area dries) Photo by Susan Schoenian Photo:http://nwdistrict.ifas.ufl.edu/phag/2015/01/23/winte r-burns-benefit-bermudagrass-hay-fields/
  • 13. Pasture or forage management • Multi-species/mixed grazing can also help “clean” pastures • Do not have to be together (if so, sheep feed/mineral), can rotate pastures among species • Also takes advantage of differing grazing behaviors Bottom photo by Susan Schoenian
  • 14. Approximate Diet Selection of Grazing Animals when Given Choice Type of Diet Animal Species Grasses Broadleaf Weeds & Legumes Browse (shrubs/trees) Cattle 65-75 20-30 5-10 Horses 70-80 15-25 0-5 Sheep 45-55 30-40 10-20 Goats 20-30 10-30 40-60 White-tailed deer 10-30 30-50 30-50 Pastures for Goats and Sheep, Greg Brann, NRCS-TN (info from Southern Forages book) Pasture or forage management
  • 15. Graphical Description of Diet Choice Selectivity Graphics by Dennis Hancock Pre-hensile lips goats/sheep make selective grazing/browsing easy! Pasture or forage management
  • 16. Stocking Rates on 2-2 ½ Acres (based on animal units - AU) Pasture Type Cows Sheep Goats Cows + Goats Excellent Pasture 1 5-6 6-8 1 + 1-2 Brushy Pasture 0.75 6-7 9-11 0.75 + 2-4 Silvopasture 0.5-0.75 4-6 6-8 0.5 + 2-4 *Brush Eradication 9-15 0.5 + 6-8 *Sheep can also be used for brush clearing though it may take longer than for goats. Slide by Dennis Hancock, modified Pasture or forage management For parasite management, could start with stocking rates of 3-5 adult sheep or goats per acre
  • 17. Pasture or forage management • Allow access to browse (like woods/cutover areas); could even plant some? Photo Credit: Angela Boudro, Oregon St. Univ. from Dennis Hancock, UGA
  • 18. Photo Credit: Angela Boudro, Oregon St. Univ.; from Dennis Hancock, UGA Pasture or forage management 8 days later….
  • 19. Some browse very nutritious Photo credit: D. Ditsch and B. Sears, UKCES from Dennis Hancock, UGA Kudzu: 55-60% TDN (energy); 12-18% CP (protein) Pasture or forage management
  • 20. Pasture or forage management • Will need to rotate, or could have erosion and/or lose the available forage • Leave at least (no less than) 20% of leaf on individual plants to survive? May need more! Photo credit: D. Ditsch and B. Sears, UKCES; from Dennis Hancock, UGA
  • 21. Pasture or forage management • Forages with high tannin (like sericea lespedeza) have been shown to lower worm egg counts (and coccidia oocyst counts) in feces of goats and sheep Photo by Susan Schoenian www.wormx.info; Joan Burke More info at: www.wormx.info/bmps
  • 22. Pasture or forage management • Birdsfoot (and Big) trefoil and chicory have some tannin Birdsfoot trefoil; photo Ken Turner, wormx.info Chicory; photos by Susan Schoenian
  • 23. Pasture or forage management • No one silver bullet • Not even sericea lespedeza • Long-term feeding as primary source, lower ADG vs Bermuda; lower (not deficient) Mo, other minerals • Idea for use: 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after weaning to help control parasites/coccidiaPhoto by Joan Burke; wormx.info
  • 24. Nutritional management • Animals fed well and in better body condition are better able to handle or resist worms; this is especially important in late pregnancy (help lower issues with PPER?) • Forage/pasture alone cannot always meet energy requirements (see note in yellow box below) TDN (energy) Adapted from a presentation by An Pieschel, TN State Univ; data from Dr. Luginbuhl, NCSU. Sheep have similar requirement trends; breed matters – some young fast-growing kids/lambs may require 79-90% TDN!
  • 25. Nutritional management • Higher protein has been shown to reduce problems with worms; up to 30% above requirements • Some browse/brushy plants with high protein: mimosa, locust (black/honey), mulberry, privet, kudzu, green briar, trumpet creeper • Pastures (with legumes for weanlings/lactating females?) only in vegetative state MAY meet protein requirements (see note below in yellow box) •Supplemental feeding on pasture helps them fight worms Adapted from a presentation by An Pieschel, TN State Univ; data from Dr. Luginbuhl, NCSU. Protein Sheep have similar requirement trends; breed matters – some young fast-growing kids/lambs may require 19-25% protein!
  • 26. Body condition scoring Spine Transverse processes Muscle Fat 1 Individually clearly felt, sharp, obvious Fingers easily pass underneath Very little No 2 Form a smooth line with deep undulations Smooth round edges Concave Very thin 3 Only slightly detectable undulations Well covered have to push firmly to get fingers underneath Not concave Not convex Moderate 4 Only detectable with firm pressure Cannot be felt at all Maximally developed Convex Thick 5 Not detectable Very thick Score: 1 2 3 4 5 Videos available online for goats at Langston University; for sheep at Purdue University (search body condition scoring and choose videos for more) For dairy goats, use ADGA information for body condition scoring (online) Goats score 0.5 score higher than sheep with same fat cover Try to keep between 2-4, depending on production status!
  • 27. Pasture or forage management • Use of annuals can help with parasite management through: • Creation of ‘new’ (clean) pastures • Providing supplemental nutrition • Warm season examples: chicory, millet, sorghum, sunnhemp, cowpeas • Cool season: small grains (oats, rye, barley, wheat), ryegrass, clovers; rape, turnips, forage peas, radish; some mixes for deer may be good for goats (and sheep) SunnHemp; photo by Susan Schoenian
  • 28. • Zero grazing or hybrid systems • In before dew; out when dried off • Or never graze, bring fresh forage to them (cut and carry); or bring hay/feed • If in barns/shelter or dry lots with no access to grazing, few/no worm problems (as long as don’t eat off the ground); can be economically feasible • Coccidia could be a problem if feeders, waterers, housing not kept clean Pasture or forage management Bottom photo by Susan Schoenian
  • 29. • Plant multiple plant species for pastures/browse • Some have tried grasses mixed with forbs (i.e. dandelion, chickweed, birdsfoot trefoil, plantain); talk to local county Extension agent for ideas • Manage refugia on pastures by managing number of animals dewormed (targeted selective treatment; TST) • Manage pastures for high quality forages • Soil testing/fertilizing • Mow/Trim as needed for forage quality • Weed control (?) – for those weeds with little/no nutritional value and toxic plants Pasture or forage management
  • 30. Pasture or forage management • Can conduct fecal egg counts to indicate potential parasite burdens on pastures (can learn to do yourself) • Duddington flagrans (Bioworma®/Livamol® with Bioworma® – fungus with potential to reduce pasture burdens • Traps larvae in poop (and digests it) so it cannot infect animals • Feed daily (more research needed); may target groups with most problems Photos: Susan Schoenian
  • 31. Reducing pasture contamination – Bioworma® cost (minus shipping) Animal Livamol with Bioworma® per animal Bioworma ® per animal 50 lb lamb/kid $0.30/d; $9/mon $0.10/d; $3/mon 100 lb ewe/doe $0.60; $18/mon $0.20/d; $6/mon Pasture or forage management Bioworma/Livamol ready to feed: ($89.50/15 lb or 240 oz; $0.373/oz); 0.8 oz/d/50 lb; 1.6 oz/d/100 lb Bioworma (must mix): ($495/15 lb or 240 oz; $2.063/oz); 0.05 oz/d/50 lb; 0.1 oz/d/100 lb More info in the BIOWORMA webinar available at: www.wormx.info/webinar-videos
  • 32. Pasture or forage management • Again, no ‘silver bullet’ • Use an integrated approach to include pasture/forage and animal management, genetic selection, and deworming management, etc. Photo: Molly Klein; wormx.info Fact sheets on pasture management, nutritional management and sericea lespedeza, among others available at: https://www.wormx.info/bmps