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FARM TRACTOR
And
POWER TILLER
Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi
Assistant Professor
College of Agriculture, Balaghat
Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
FARM TRACTOR
Farm tractor
Tractor is a self propelled power unit having wheels or tracks for operating agricultural
implements and machines including trailers.
Tractor engine is used as a prime mover for active tools and stationary farm machinery
through power take-off shaft (PTO) or belt pulley.
FARM TRACTOR
Tractor development
1890: The word tractor appeared first on record in a patent issued on a tractor or tractor
engine invented by George H. Harris of Chicago.
1906: Successful gasoline tractor was introduced by Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr
of Charles city, Iowa (48A).
1920-1924: All purpose tractor was developed.
1936-1937: Diesel engine was used in tractor and pneumatic tires were introduced.
1960-61: Tractor manufacturing was started in India by first manufacturer M/s Eicher
Good Earth.
1971: Escorts tractor Ltd started producing ford tractor.
1982: Universal tractors were established.
1983-08: GTCL tractors, Bajaj, Mahindra, Swaraj, Hindustan, Sonalika, John Deer, PTL,
VST and many other companies started manufacturing tractor in India.
FARM TRACTOR
Classification and selection of tractors
Classification Tractors can be classified into three classes on the basis of structural design:
 (i) Wheel tractor
(ii) Crawler tractor (track type or chain type) and
(iii) Walking tractor (power tiller).
(i) Wheel tractor: Tractors, having three of four pneumatic wheels are called wheel
tractors. Four wheel tractors are most popular every where.
(ii) Crawler tractor: This is also called track type tractor or chain type tractor. In such
tractors, there is endless chain or track in place of pneumatic wheels.
(iii) Power tiller: Power tiller is a walking type tractor. This tractor is usually fitted with
two wheels only. The direction of travel and its control for field operation is performed by
the operator, walking behind the tractor.
FARM TRACTOR
On the basis of purpose, wheeled tractor is classified into four groups:
(a) General purpose (b) Row crop and (c) Orchard tractors and (d) Special purpose.
(a) General purpose tractor: It is used for major farm operations such as ploughing,
harrowing, sowing, harvesting and transporting work. Such tractors have (i) low ground
clearance (ii) increased engine power (iii) good adhesion and (iv) wide tyres.
(b) Row crop tractors: It is mainly designed to work in rows like planting, interculture
etc. Such tractor is provided with replaceable driving wheels of different thread widths. It
has high ground clearance to save damage of crops. Wide wheel track can be adjusted to
suit inter row distance.
(c) Orchard tractors: These are special type of tractors, are mainly used in orchards. Such
tractors have (i) less weight (ii) less width and (iii) no projected parts.
(d) Special purpose tractor: It is used for definite jobs like cotton fields, marshy land, hill
sides, garden etc. Special designs are there for special purpose tractor
FARM TRACTOR
Tractor components:
A tractor is made of following main components:
(1) I.C. engine
(2) Clutch
(3) Transmission gears
(4) Differential units
(5) Final drive
(6) Rear or wheels
(7) Front wheels
(8) Steering mechanism
(9) Hydraulic control and hitch system
(10) Brakes
(11) Power take-off unit
(12) Tractor pulley and
(13) Control panel.
FARM TRACTOR
The most important requirements of a good tractor are :
1. Greater clearance, both vertical and horizontal.
2. Adaptation to the usual row-widths.
3. Quick – short turning ability.
4. Convenient and easy handling.
5. Quick and easy attachment.
6. Essential accessories such as hydraulic controls. Three point linkage and PTO.
FARM TRACTOR
Selection of tractor
(i) Land holding: Under a single cropping pattern, it is normally recommended to consider
1hp for every 2 hectares of land. In other words, one tractor of 20-25 hp is suitable for 40
hectares farm.
(ii) Cropping pattern: Generally 1.5 hectare/hp has been recommended where adequate
irrigation facilities are available and more than one crop is taken. So a 30-35 hp tractor is
suitable for 40 hectares farm.
(iii) Soil condition: A tractor with less wheel base, higher ground clearance and low overall
weight may work successfully in lighter soil but it will not be able to give sufficient depth
in black cotton soil.
(iv) Climatic conditions: For very hot zone and desert area, air cooled engines are
preferred over water cooled engines. Similarly for higher altitude, air cooled engines are
preferred because water is liable to be frozen at higher altitude.
FARM TRACTOR
(iv) Climatic conditions: For very hot zone and desert area, air cooled engines are
preferred over water cooled engines. Similarly for higher altitude, air cooled engines are
preferred because water is liable to be frozen at higher altitude.
(v) Repairing facilities: It should be ensured that the tractor to be purchased has a dealer
at nearby place with all the technical skills for repair and maintenance of machine.
(vi) Running cost: Tractors with less specific fuel consumption should be preferred over
others so that running cost may be less.
(vii) Initial cost and resale value: While keeping the resale value in mind, the initial cost
should not be very high, otherwise higher amount of interest will have to be paid.
(viii) Test report: Test report of tractors released from farm machinery testing stations
should be consulted for guidance.
FARM TRACTOR
The control board of a tractor generally consists of the following:
Ignition switch: When the ignition switch is on, the electric current flows in the electrical
circuit.
Throttle lever: This lever is for increasing or decreasing the speed of the engine.
Decompression lever: This lever releases compression pressure from the combustion
chamber of the engine and helps to stop the engine.
Hour meter: This meter indicates the engine hour as well as engine revolution per minute.
Light switch: Light switch is for light points only.
Horn button: This is for horn of the tractor.
Battery charging indicator: This indicates the charge and discharge of the battery.
Oil pressure indicator: This indicates the lubricating oil pressure in the system.
Water temperature gauge: This indicates the temperature of water of the cooling system.
FARM TRACTOR
Precautions to be taken before starting of a tractor
1) Fuel oil should be checked in the fuel tank. If it is not adequate, fuel oil should be added to the tank.
2) Lubricating oil should be checked by a dipstick and if necessary it should be topped up.
3) Water in the radiator should be checked, if necessary it should be topped up.
4) Air cleaner should be checked to see whether it is clean or blocked. If blocked, it should be cleaned.
5) Transmission oil should be checked by a dipstick, if necessary it should be topped up.
6) Air pressure in the tyres should be checked and if necessary the tyres should be inflated as
recommended by the manufacturers.
7) Fan belt should be checked by hand; if necessary it may be tightened or loosened.
8) Grease points should be checked, to see whether they have been greased or not.
9) Important nuts and bolts should be checked. If any of them are loose, it should be tightened.
10) The water level of the battery should be checked. If it is below the partition wall, it should be filled
up with distilled water.
FARM TRACTOR
Method to start a tractor
In order to start a tractor, the following sequence should be followed:
Open the fuel cock.
Put the gear shift lever and PTO lever into neutral position.
Put the throttle lever in about 3/4th position.
Put the hydraulic control level to the lowered position.
Press the clutch pedal and turn the ignition key to the on position. Thus the tractor will be
started.
FARM TRACTOR
Method to stop a tractor
Tractor is a heavy machine and it can cause serious accident if it is not stopped in time.
The following procedure should be followed for stopping the movement of the tractor.
Move the throttle lever down and reduce the engine speed to the lowest possible limit.
Press the clutch pedal and press the brake pedal of the tractor to stop the motion of the
tractor.
Put the gear shift lever into neutral position.
If an implement is attached to the tractor, hydraulic control lever should be moved slowly
to the lower position.
Pull the stock lever.
Apply the parking brakes, if necessary.
FARM TRACTOR
There are four power outlets of tractor
(1) Power take-off unit (PTO)
It is a part of tractor transmission system. It consists of a shaft, a shield
and a cover.
The shaft is externally splined to transmit torsional power to another
machine as shown in.
A rigid guard fitted on a tractor covers the power take-off shaft as a
safety device.
This guard is called power take-off shield. Agricultural machines are
coupled with this shaft at the rear part of the tractor.
As per ASABE standard PTO speed is 540±10 rpm when operating
under load.
In order to operate 1000 rpm drive machine, a new standard has been
developed. Modern tractors are provided with PTO speed of 1000±10
rpm.
FARM TRACTOR
(2) A hook
It is provided for hitching of trailers, and other stationery
machines operated by tractor like thresher, winnower etc.
It is provided at the back of the tractor.
(3) Three point linkage
It is a combination of three links, one is upper link and two are
lower links, the links articulated to the tractor and the implements
at their ends in order to connect the implement to the tractor.
All the tractor drawn implement are attached to this and hydraulic
control is also provided for three point linkage.
(4) Belt pulley
A pulley is provided with PTO shaft for some of the tractors
through which rotary power output can be tapped for operating
stationery machines.
Belt pulley
POWER TILLER
The power tiller is a walking type tractor in which the direction of travel and its control for
field operation is performed by the operator walking behind it.
It is also known as Hand tractor or Walking type tractor. The concept of also known as
Hand tractor or walking tractor.
The operator walks behind the power tiller, holding the two handles of power tiller in his
hands. Power tiller may be called a single axle walking type tractor, though a riding seat is
provided in certain designs.
The concept of power tiller came in the world in the year 1920. Japan is the first country to
use power tiller was designed in the year 1947.
Production of power tiller rapidly increased during the year 1950 to 1965.
Power tiller was first introduced in India in the year 1963.
Manufacturing of several makes of power tillers like Iseki, Sato, Krishi, Kubota, Yanmar
and Mitsubishi were started in India after 1962.
POWER TILLER
A power tiller consists of the following main parts:
Engine
Transmission gears
Clutch
Brakes
Rotary unit
All the power tillers are fitted with an I.C. engine. At present, most of the power tillers are
fitted with diesel engine. Only Iseki make have used kerosene engine. Other makes like
Kamco, Mitsubishi, Krishi, Yanmar and Satoh have used diesel engine in India.
POWER TILLER
Operation
The main clutch is a lever on the handle.
The lever can be shifted to on or off position while operating in the field.
When the lever is shifted to on position, the power from the engine is transmitted through the main
clutch to the various parts of power tiller.
When the lever is shifted to off position, the power from the engine is cut-off from the rest of the
transmission.
Power transmission in power tiller
For operation of power tiller, the power is obtained from the I.C. engine, fitted on the power tiller.
The engine power goes to the main clutch with the help of belt or chain.
From main clutch, the power is divided in two routes, one goes to transmission gears, steering
clutch and then to the wheel.
The other component goes to the tilling clutch and then to the tilling attachment.
POWER TILLER
POWER TILLER
Operation
The main clutch is a lever on the handle.
The lever can be shifted to on or off position while operating in the field.
When the lever is shifted to on position, the power from the engine is transmitted through the main
clutch to the various parts of power tiller.
When the lever is shifted to off position, the power from the engine is cut-off from the rest of the
transmission.
Power transmission in power tiller
For operation of power tiller, the power is obtained from the I.C. engine, fitted on the power tiller.
The engine power goes to the main clutch with the help of belt or chain.
From main clutch, the power is divided in two routes, one goes to transmission gears, steering
clutch and then to the wheel.
The other component goes to the tilling clutch and then to the tilling attachment.
Thank You

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Farm Tractor & Power Tiller.pptx

  • 1. FARM TRACTOR And POWER TILLER Dr. Ajay Singh Lodhi Assistant Professor College of Agriculture, Balaghat Jawahar Lal Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.)
  • 2. FARM TRACTOR Farm tractor Tractor is a self propelled power unit having wheels or tracks for operating agricultural implements and machines including trailers. Tractor engine is used as a prime mover for active tools and stationary farm machinery through power take-off shaft (PTO) or belt pulley.
  • 3. FARM TRACTOR Tractor development 1890: The word tractor appeared first on record in a patent issued on a tractor or tractor engine invented by George H. Harris of Chicago. 1906: Successful gasoline tractor was introduced by Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr of Charles city, Iowa (48A). 1920-1924: All purpose tractor was developed. 1936-1937: Diesel engine was used in tractor and pneumatic tires were introduced. 1960-61: Tractor manufacturing was started in India by first manufacturer M/s Eicher Good Earth. 1971: Escorts tractor Ltd started producing ford tractor. 1982: Universal tractors were established. 1983-08: GTCL tractors, Bajaj, Mahindra, Swaraj, Hindustan, Sonalika, John Deer, PTL, VST and many other companies started manufacturing tractor in India.
  • 4. FARM TRACTOR Classification and selection of tractors Classification Tractors can be classified into three classes on the basis of structural design:  (i) Wheel tractor (ii) Crawler tractor (track type or chain type) and (iii) Walking tractor (power tiller). (i) Wheel tractor: Tractors, having three of four pneumatic wheels are called wheel tractors. Four wheel tractors are most popular every where. (ii) Crawler tractor: This is also called track type tractor or chain type tractor. In such tractors, there is endless chain or track in place of pneumatic wheels. (iii) Power tiller: Power tiller is a walking type tractor. This tractor is usually fitted with two wheels only. The direction of travel and its control for field operation is performed by the operator, walking behind the tractor.
  • 5. FARM TRACTOR On the basis of purpose, wheeled tractor is classified into four groups: (a) General purpose (b) Row crop and (c) Orchard tractors and (d) Special purpose. (a) General purpose tractor: It is used for major farm operations such as ploughing, harrowing, sowing, harvesting and transporting work. Such tractors have (i) low ground clearance (ii) increased engine power (iii) good adhesion and (iv) wide tyres. (b) Row crop tractors: It is mainly designed to work in rows like planting, interculture etc. Such tractor is provided with replaceable driving wheels of different thread widths. It has high ground clearance to save damage of crops. Wide wheel track can be adjusted to suit inter row distance. (c) Orchard tractors: These are special type of tractors, are mainly used in orchards. Such tractors have (i) less weight (ii) less width and (iii) no projected parts. (d) Special purpose tractor: It is used for definite jobs like cotton fields, marshy land, hill sides, garden etc. Special designs are there for special purpose tractor
  • 6. FARM TRACTOR Tractor components: A tractor is made of following main components: (1) I.C. engine (2) Clutch (3) Transmission gears (4) Differential units (5) Final drive (6) Rear or wheels (7) Front wheels (8) Steering mechanism (9) Hydraulic control and hitch system (10) Brakes (11) Power take-off unit (12) Tractor pulley and (13) Control panel.
  • 7. FARM TRACTOR The most important requirements of a good tractor are : 1. Greater clearance, both vertical and horizontal. 2. Adaptation to the usual row-widths. 3. Quick – short turning ability. 4. Convenient and easy handling. 5. Quick and easy attachment. 6. Essential accessories such as hydraulic controls. Three point linkage and PTO.
  • 8. FARM TRACTOR Selection of tractor (i) Land holding: Under a single cropping pattern, it is normally recommended to consider 1hp for every 2 hectares of land. In other words, one tractor of 20-25 hp is suitable for 40 hectares farm. (ii) Cropping pattern: Generally 1.5 hectare/hp has been recommended where adequate irrigation facilities are available and more than one crop is taken. So a 30-35 hp tractor is suitable for 40 hectares farm. (iii) Soil condition: A tractor with less wheel base, higher ground clearance and low overall weight may work successfully in lighter soil but it will not be able to give sufficient depth in black cotton soil. (iv) Climatic conditions: For very hot zone and desert area, air cooled engines are preferred over water cooled engines. Similarly for higher altitude, air cooled engines are preferred because water is liable to be frozen at higher altitude.
  • 9. FARM TRACTOR (iv) Climatic conditions: For very hot zone and desert area, air cooled engines are preferred over water cooled engines. Similarly for higher altitude, air cooled engines are preferred because water is liable to be frozen at higher altitude. (v) Repairing facilities: It should be ensured that the tractor to be purchased has a dealer at nearby place with all the technical skills for repair and maintenance of machine. (vi) Running cost: Tractors with less specific fuel consumption should be preferred over others so that running cost may be less. (vii) Initial cost and resale value: While keeping the resale value in mind, the initial cost should not be very high, otherwise higher amount of interest will have to be paid. (viii) Test report: Test report of tractors released from farm machinery testing stations should be consulted for guidance.
  • 10. FARM TRACTOR The control board of a tractor generally consists of the following: Ignition switch: When the ignition switch is on, the electric current flows in the electrical circuit. Throttle lever: This lever is for increasing or decreasing the speed of the engine. Decompression lever: This lever releases compression pressure from the combustion chamber of the engine and helps to stop the engine. Hour meter: This meter indicates the engine hour as well as engine revolution per minute. Light switch: Light switch is for light points only. Horn button: This is for horn of the tractor. Battery charging indicator: This indicates the charge and discharge of the battery. Oil pressure indicator: This indicates the lubricating oil pressure in the system. Water temperature gauge: This indicates the temperature of water of the cooling system.
  • 11. FARM TRACTOR Precautions to be taken before starting of a tractor 1) Fuel oil should be checked in the fuel tank. If it is not adequate, fuel oil should be added to the tank. 2) Lubricating oil should be checked by a dipstick and if necessary it should be topped up. 3) Water in the radiator should be checked, if necessary it should be topped up. 4) Air cleaner should be checked to see whether it is clean or blocked. If blocked, it should be cleaned. 5) Transmission oil should be checked by a dipstick, if necessary it should be topped up. 6) Air pressure in the tyres should be checked and if necessary the tyres should be inflated as recommended by the manufacturers. 7) Fan belt should be checked by hand; if necessary it may be tightened or loosened. 8) Grease points should be checked, to see whether they have been greased or not. 9) Important nuts and bolts should be checked. If any of them are loose, it should be tightened. 10) The water level of the battery should be checked. If it is below the partition wall, it should be filled up with distilled water.
  • 12. FARM TRACTOR Method to start a tractor In order to start a tractor, the following sequence should be followed: Open the fuel cock. Put the gear shift lever and PTO lever into neutral position. Put the throttle lever in about 3/4th position. Put the hydraulic control level to the lowered position. Press the clutch pedal and turn the ignition key to the on position. Thus the tractor will be started.
  • 13. FARM TRACTOR Method to stop a tractor Tractor is a heavy machine and it can cause serious accident if it is not stopped in time. The following procedure should be followed for stopping the movement of the tractor. Move the throttle lever down and reduce the engine speed to the lowest possible limit. Press the clutch pedal and press the brake pedal of the tractor to stop the motion of the tractor. Put the gear shift lever into neutral position. If an implement is attached to the tractor, hydraulic control lever should be moved slowly to the lower position. Pull the stock lever. Apply the parking brakes, if necessary.
  • 14. FARM TRACTOR There are four power outlets of tractor (1) Power take-off unit (PTO) It is a part of tractor transmission system. It consists of a shaft, a shield and a cover. The shaft is externally splined to transmit torsional power to another machine as shown in. A rigid guard fitted on a tractor covers the power take-off shaft as a safety device. This guard is called power take-off shield. Agricultural machines are coupled with this shaft at the rear part of the tractor. As per ASABE standard PTO speed is 540±10 rpm when operating under load. In order to operate 1000 rpm drive machine, a new standard has been developed. Modern tractors are provided with PTO speed of 1000±10 rpm.
  • 15. FARM TRACTOR (2) A hook It is provided for hitching of trailers, and other stationery machines operated by tractor like thresher, winnower etc. It is provided at the back of the tractor. (3) Three point linkage It is a combination of three links, one is upper link and two are lower links, the links articulated to the tractor and the implements at their ends in order to connect the implement to the tractor. All the tractor drawn implement are attached to this and hydraulic control is also provided for three point linkage. (4) Belt pulley A pulley is provided with PTO shaft for some of the tractors through which rotary power output can be tapped for operating stationery machines. Belt pulley
  • 16. POWER TILLER The power tiller is a walking type tractor in which the direction of travel and its control for field operation is performed by the operator walking behind it. It is also known as Hand tractor or Walking type tractor. The concept of also known as Hand tractor or walking tractor. The operator walks behind the power tiller, holding the two handles of power tiller in his hands. Power tiller may be called a single axle walking type tractor, though a riding seat is provided in certain designs. The concept of power tiller came in the world in the year 1920. Japan is the first country to use power tiller was designed in the year 1947. Production of power tiller rapidly increased during the year 1950 to 1965. Power tiller was first introduced in India in the year 1963. Manufacturing of several makes of power tillers like Iseki, Sato, Krishi, Kubota, Yanmar and Mitsubishi were started in India after 1962.
  • 17. POWER TILLER A power tiller consists of the following main parts: Engine Transmission gears Clutch Brakes Rotary unit All the power tillers are fitted with an I.C. engine. At present, most of the power tillers are fitted with diesel engine. Only Iseki make have used kerosene engine. Other makes like Kamco, Mitsubishi, Krishi, Yanmar and Satoh have used diesel engine in India.
  • 18. POWER TILLER Operation The main clutch is a lever on the handle. The lever can be shifted to on or off position while operating in the field. When the lever is shifted to on position, the power from the engine is transmitted through the main clutch to the various parts of power tiller. When the lever is shifted to off position, the power from the engine is cut-off from the rest of the transmission. Power transmission in power tiller For operation of power tiller, the power is obtained from the I.C. engine, fitted on the power tiller. The engine power goes to the main clutch with the help of belt or chain. From main clutch, the power is divided in two routes, one goes to transmission gears, steering clutch and then to the wheel. The other component goes to the tilling clutch and then to the tilling attachment.
  • 20. POWER TILLER Operation The main clutch is a lever on the handle. The lever can be shifted to on or off position while operating in the field. When the lever is shifted to on position, the power from the engine is transmitted through the main clutch to the various parts of power tiller. When the lever is shifted to off position, the power from the engine is cut-off from the rest of the transmission. Power transmission in power tiller For operation of power tiller, the power is obtained from the I.C. engine, fitted on the power tiller. The engine power goes to the main clutch with the help of belt or chain. From main clutch, the power is divided in two routes, one goes to transmission gears, steering clutch and then to the wheel. The other component goes to the tilling clutch and then to the tilling attachment.