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Introductory Psychology Concepts Gender © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Gender: Perception of Being Male or Female Although there is a good deal of overlap between the concepts of sex and gender, they are not the same. Sex typically refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior Gender refers to the sense of maleness or femaleness related to our membership in a given society. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
Gender: Psychological Aspect of Being Male or Female Men and women differ in how positively they view their own abilities and how they estimate the probability of their future success. In general, women evaluate themselves more harshly than men. Content of men’s and women’s speech differs, with women’s speech being more precise. Speech patterns lead others to view them as more tentative, less assertive. Women’s and men’s nonverbal behavior differs in several significant respects. In conversation with opposite sex, women look at their partner significantly more while listening than while speaking. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
Gender Typing: Process in Which People Learn their Cultural Appropriate Gender Role Starting from the moment of birth, with blue blankets for boys and pink ones for girls, most parents and other adults provide environments that differ in important respects according to gender. Differences in environment and activity based on gender are described as socialization, the process by which an individual learns the rules and norms of appropriate behavior. According to Sandra Bem (1998), socialization produces a gender schema, a mental framework that organizes and guides a child’s understanding of information relevant to gender. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
Gender Identity Gender identity is the sense of “femaleness” or “maleness” that becomes a central aspect of one’s personal identity. Most children develop a basic gender identity between the ages of 2 and 3 and can label themselves and others as being either a boy or a girl. Gender constancy is the understanding that being male or female is a permanent part of person, developing at age 6 or 7. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
Gender Stereotyping As gender identity develops, children acquire sex-role stereotypes; beliefs about the characteristics and behaviors that are appropriate for boys and girls to possess. Every group, including family and cultural groups, has norms for expected and accepted gender behavior. Parents, siblings, friends, the mass media, and other socializing agents convey these norms as we grow up. As we internalize these norms, they become part of our identity  (Martin & Ruble, 2004). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
Gender Stereotyping: Positive and Negative Aspects Stereotyping can be either negative or positive, but in either case stereotyping is inherently harmful for three reasons: 1) Stereotypes reduce our ability to treat members of a gender as an individual. 2) Stereotypes lead to narrow expectations for gender behavior. 3) Stereotypes lead to faulty attributions, the theory that people tend to look for explanations for specific behavior based on gender stereotypes. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
Theories of Children Learning Gender Roles Social-learning theory: Gender differences are learned through a society’s division of labor and the social roles established for men and women. Gender schema theory: Within a given culture, gender schemas tell us what the typical man or woman should be like.  In Western cultures, men tend to prize attributes related to achievement, emotional strength, athleticism. Women prize interpersonal competencies, kindness, and helpfulness to others (Beyer, 1990; Marsh, 1990). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
Culture’s Expectation: For Male and Female Behavior Gender-role socialization provides us with gender schemas, organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviors that are appropriate and expected for males and females (Bem, 1981). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
Theories of Children Learning Gender Roles Social-learning theory: Gender differences are learned through a society’s division of labor and the social roles established for men and women. Gender schema theory: Within a given culture, gender schemas tell us what the typical man or woman should be like.  In Western cultures, men tend to prize attributes related to achievement, emotional strength, athleticism. Women prize interpersonal competencies, kindness, and helpfulness to others (Beyer, 1990; Marsh, 1990). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
Sexuality: Physical and Psychological Perspective Sex is often described as a biological reproductive motive, yet people usually do not have sex to conceive children. Evolution shaped our physiology so that sex feels good Periodically, having sex for pleasure leads to childbirth, through which our genes are passed on. People engage in sex to: Reproduce Obtain and give sensual pleasure Express love Foster intimacy Fulfill one’s “duty” Conform to peer pressure, and a host of other reasons. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Female Sex Organs Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality Female Ovary Uterus Bladder Pubic bone Urethra Clitoris Anus Vagina Cervix
Male Sex Organs Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality Glans Penis Urethra Vas deferens Pubic bone Bladder Large intestine Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate Anus Testis Scrotum Male
Psychological Side of Sexuality Sexual arousal typically begins with desire and a sexual stimulus that is perceived positively  (Walen & Roth, 1987). Sexual fantasy is an important component of many people’s lives, studies indicate that men sexually fantasize more than women  (Martinez & Raul, 2000). Psychological factors can not only trigger sexual arousal but also inhibit it. Stress, fatigue, and anger at one’s partner can lead to temporary arousal problems. Sexual dysfunction refers to chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person. It may result from injuries, diseases, and drug effects, some causes are psychological. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender: Perception of Being Male or Female Although there is a good deal of overlap between the concepts of sex and gender, they are not the same. Sex typically refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior Gender refers to the sense of maleness or femaleness related to our membership in a given society. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender Stereotyping: Positive and Negative Aspects Stereotyping can be either negative or positive, but in either case stereotyping is inherently harmful for three reasons: 1) Stereotypes reduce our ability to treat members of a gender as individuals. 2) Stereotypes lead to narrow expectations for gender behavior. 3) Stereotypes lead to faulty attributions, the theory that people tend to look for explanations for specific behavior based on gender stereotypes. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Psychological Side of Sexuality Gender: The psychological experience of being male of female. Gender Roles: Typical behaviors which people learn that belong to males and females as dictated by their cultural norms. Gender Typing: Process by which people learn appropriate gender roles within their cultures. Gender Identity: One’s view of oneself as male of female. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality

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Gender

  • 1. Introductory Psychology Concepts Gender © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 2. Gender: Perception of Being Male or Female Although there is a good deal of overlap between the concepts of sex and gender, they are not the same. Sex typically refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior Gender refers to the sense of maleness or femaleness related to our membership in a given society. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
  • 3. Gender: Psychological Aspect of Being Male or Female Men and women differ in how positively they view their own abilities and how they estimate the probability of their future success. In general, women evaluate themselves more harshly than men. Content of men’s and women’s speech differs, with women’s speech being more precise. Speech patterns lead others to view them as more tentative, less assertive. Women’s and men’s nonverbal behavior differs in several significant respects. In conversation with opposite sex, women look at their partner significantly more while listening than while speaking. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
  • 4. Gender Typing: Process in Which People Learn their Cultural Appropriate Gender Role Starting from the moment of birth, with blue blankets for boys and pink ones for girls, most parents and other adults provide environments that differ in important respects according to gender. Differences in environment and activity based on gender are described as socialization, the process by which an individual learns the rules and norms of appropriate behavior. According to Sandra Bem (1998), socialization produces a gender schema, a mental framework that organizes and guides a child’s understanding of information relevant to gender. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
  • 5. Gender Identity Gender identity is the sense of “femaleness” or “maleness” that becomes a central aspect of one’s personal identity. Most children develop a basic gender identity between the ages of 2 and 3 and can label themselves and others as being either a boy or a girl. Gender constancy is the understanding that being male or female is a permanent part of person, developing at age 6 or 7. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
  • 6. Gender Stereotyping As gender identity develops, children acquire sex-role stereotypes; beliefs about the characteristics and behaviors that are appropriate for boys and girls to possess. Every group, including family and cultural groups, has norms for expected and accepted gender behavior. Parents, siblings, friends, the mass media, and other socializing agents convey these norms as we grow up. As we internalize these norms, they become part of our identity (Martin & Ruble, 2004). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
  • 7. Gender Stereotyping: Positive and Negative Aspects Stereotyping can be either negative or positive, but in either case stereotyping is inherently harmful for three reasons: 1) Stereotypes reduce our ability to treat members of a gender as an individual. 2) Stereotypes lead to narrow expectations for gender behavior. 3) Stereotypes lead to faulty attributions, the theory that people tend to look for explanations for specific behavior based on gender stereotypes. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender
  • 8. Theories of Children Learning Gender Roles Social-learning theory: Gender differences are learned through a society’s division of labor and the social roles established for men and women. Gender schema theory: Within a given culture, gender schemas tell us what the typical man or woman should be like. In Western cultures, men tend to prize attributes related to achievement, emotional strength, athleticism. Women prize interpersonal competencies, kindness, and helpfulness to others (Beyer, 1990; Marsh, 1990). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
  • 9. Culture’s Expectation: For Male and Female Behavior Gender-role socialization provides us with gender schemas, organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviors that are appropriate and expected for males and females (Bem, 1981). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
  • 10. Theories of Children Learning Gender Roles Social-learning theory: Gender differences are learned through a society’s division of labor and the social roles established for men and women. Gender schema theory: Within a given culture, gender schemas tell us what the typical man or woman should be like. In Western cultures, men tend to prize attributes related to achievement, emotional strength, athleticism. Women prize interpersonal competencies, kindness, and helpfulness to others (Beyer, 1990; Marsh, 1990). Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
  • 11. Sexuality: Physical and Psychological Perspective Sex is often described as a biological reproductive motive, yet people usually do not have sex to conceive children. Evolution shaped our physiology so that sex feels good Periodically, having sex for pleasure leads to childbirth, through which our genes are passed on. People engage in sex to: Reproduce Obtain and give sensual pleasure Express love Foster intimacy Fulfill one’s “duty” Conform to peer pressure, and a host of other reasons. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
  • 12. Female Sex Organs Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality Female Ovary Uterus Bladder Pubic bone Urethra Clitoris Anus Vagina Cervix
  • 13. Male Sex Organs Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality Glans Penis Urethra Vas deferens Pubic bone Bladder Large intestine Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate Anus Testis Scrotum Male
  • 14. Psychological Side of Sexuality Sexual arousal typically begins with desire and a sexual stimulus that is perceived positively (Walen & Roth, 1987). Sexual fantasy is an important component of many people’s lives, studies indicate that men sexually fantasize more than women (Martinez & Raul, 2000). Psychological factors can not only trigger sexual arousal but also inhibit it. Stress, fatigue, and anger at one’s partner can lead to temporary arousal problems. Sexual dysfunction refers to chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person. It may result from injuries, diseases, and drug effects, some causes are psychological. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
  • 15. Gender: Perception of Being Male or Female Although there is a good deal of overlap between the concepts of sex and gender, they are not the same. Sex typically refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior Gender refers to the sense of maleness or femaleness related to our membership in a given society. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
  • 16. Gender Stereotyping: Positive and Negative Aspects Stereotyping can be either negative or positive, but in either case stereotyping is inherently harmful for three reasons: 1) Stereotypes reduce our ability to treat members of a gender as individuals. 2) Stereotypes lead to narrow expectations for gender behavior. 3) Stereotypes lead to faulty attributions, the theory that people tend to look for explanations for specific behavior based on gender stereotypes. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
  • 17. Psychological Side of Sexuality Gender: The psychological experience of being male of female. Gender Roles: Typical behaviors which people learn that belong to males and females as dictated by their cultural norms. Gender Typing: Process by which people learn appropriate gender roles within their cultures. Gender Identity: One’s view of oneself as male of female. Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality

Editor's Notes

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