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けんたま/KENTAMA
Designing an
Edible
Forest Garden
Forests are multidimensional tapestries of
layers, relationships and species
James Golden
Unlike the two dimensional monocultures of
modern agriculture
Carl Wycoff
Edible forests mimic the
three dimensional
ecosystems found in
natural forests
Edible Forest Gardens, Volume 1
Vertical layers are populated with
diverse edibles
Martin Crawford's forest garden
Plants work together
as a community
History is rich with examples
BRAZILIAN THINGS/CC BY-SA 4.0
Kuhikugu is a complex
network of over 20 cities.
Silnei L Andrade
“Many present Amazon
forests, while seemingly
natural, are domesticated…
The Indians were in the process of
terraforming the Amazon when
Columbus showed up and
ruined everything.”
~Charles C. Mann
Mayan Milpa Cycle "is one of the most
successful human inventions ever created"
MesoAmerican Research Center
Chagga home gardens carpet the slopes of
Mount Kilimanjaro
Ulrich Doering/Alamy
Complex, species
rich layers
characterize home
gardens in
Indonesia &
Sri Lanka
Pekarangan
Influenced by Kerala forest gardens, Robert
Hart introduced forest gardening to Britain
London permaculture
Masanobu Fukuoka’s
experiments with natural
orchards, polycultures &
do-nothing farming
challenged
conventional
agricultural
practices
IMAGINE
Susanne Nilsson
“The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops,
but the cultivation and perfection of human beings.”
~Masanobu Fukuoka
Biking down streets lined with
fruit & nut trees
Barry Neild/CNN
Living in a community where you harvest
fruits & nuts with neighbours
Celebrating harvests in edible parks
Building urban oases for native bees, birds
& wildlife
Melinda Young Stuart
Imagination Grove: Matthew Browning
Playing in natural playgrounds that ignite
your imagination
Working at a company where you can
garden with your coworkers
Manutan company, France
La Ferme Biologique du Bec Hellouin
Buying food from a neighbourhood market
gardener farming their quarter acre lot
Aging in a community with a food forest &
farm for its central plaza
Win6 development near Santa Clara California
Being surrounded by nature in the centre
of the city
Rediscovering a unique
spirit of place in the city you
call home
Charlotte Harris, RHS Chelsea Flower Show
fishhawk, flickr
Diversifying from the 15 species we depend
on for 90% of our food
Regenerating soil devastated by current
agricultural and urban practices
George Steinmetz
Developing food resilience in the face of
climate change 2010 Christchurch earthquake
Reji, Garfield Play Park, Danny Perez Photography
Nurturing ecosystems, people & wildlife in
the city
Leaving a living legacy for future
generations
Carol Von Canon
FORESTS
CAN
TEACH US
ancientforest.org
conventional orchard permaculture orchard edible forest
Barbara Eckstein
Conventional practices
fight nature
Little life
Transform the site
Low species diversity
Higher conventional yields
Simultaneous ripening
Bare soil
Ongoing soil amendments
Nurture the plants
Garden for vegetables
Closely monitored pest control
Flat land
Single climate
Two dimensional plantings
Mostly machine or human labour
Fighting animals for the harvest
San Isidro Permaculture
Forests gardens
emulate nature
Teaming with life
Learn from the site and choose plants to suit
High species diversity
Higher diversity of yields (nuts, fruits, medicinals...)
Constant harvesting
Living mulch
Self-sustaining, building soil naturally
Nurture the soil
Garden for food, fuel, cooling, windbreaks, water
Designed for natural pest management
Contoured swales
Designed microclimates
Three dimensional, densely layered plantings
Mostly plant, insect, fungi, and soil labour
Sharing harvest with wildlife
“A tree can be only as strong as
the forest that surrounds it.”
~Peter Wohlleben, The Hidden Life of Trees
Tim Vrtiska
Thomas Rainer
Plants are social beings that thrive in
communities
(JUST LIKE PEOPLE)
If you plant that way [polyculture], it becomes so
much easier… so much more interesting and,
overall, less work… Take a step toward nature
and nature will always take ten steps towards you.
~Stefan Sobkowiak
Peter McCabe/Montreal Gazette
GRASSLAND
community
Thomas Rainer
WOODLAND
community
Thomas Rainer
FOREST
community
Thomas Rainer
Tony Spencer
EDGE
community
How to design an
edible forest
Listen to your inner gardener
Ask what matters
Look to nature
Sculpt the land
Cultivate relationships
Play & have fun
Practice zen & the art of editing
LISTEN TO YOUR INNER
GARDENER
Discover the magic in expressing who you are
ASK: Why do I garden? When do I lose track of time?
Experience moments of joy? Peace? Pleasure?
“To establish a natural orchard,
one should dig large holes here
and there among the stumps of
felled trees and plant unpruned
saplings and fruit seed over the
site, leaving these unattended just
as one would leave alone a
reforested stand
of trees.”
~Masanobu Fukuoka, “do-nothing” farming
“Miracle” apples, Akinori Kimura
"When everybody is going the
wrong way, are you
brave enough to go the
true way? A man can transform the
world's agriculture from
what he learns from
an apple tree."
~Akinori Kimura, What I Learn From The Apple Trees
"a way to recover a lost relationship I had with
wildness”
~Thomas Rainer
"If should look as if it has always been like that, as if
Nature made it that way. That’s good design.”
~Sepp Holzer
ASK WHAT MATTERS
Tidy or natural? Plentiful harvests or shared
sanctuary? Doing or not doing?
ASK: What’s important to me? How do I want to spend
my time? What do I like to cook? Eat? Make?
Eliza Greenman #eatuglyfruit
Nancy Lawson (Humane Gardener), cultivating compassion
Rosalind Creasy ("crazy hippy lady from California”), gardening & cooking
LOOK TO NATURE
Practice the art of observation
ASK: What is here? What will nature
help me do here? What sparks my imagination?
Peter Power for The Globe and Mail
What’s wrong with
this picture?
Learn about your bioregion
Marie Davey Lupine Invasions
Get to know your soil
Observe light, air, earth, water, warmth
Listen to the stories each plant has to tell
SCULPT THE LAND
design mini-ecosystems
Dan Pearson, Chelsea Garden Show
ASK: What makes me feel at home? What do I
want to harvest?
Cultivating a forest of nut trees
Shaping a microclimate with hugelkultur
Sepp Holzer
Protecting peaches with stone walls in Paris
murs à pêches
Contouring the land for rice paddies in Vermont
Whole Systems Design
Capturing rainwater with a pond
CULTIVATE RELATIONSHIPS
“One plant is just a single note”
ASK: What does a plant want? What functions
does it serve? How can I honour its essential nature?
“One plant is just a single note; no matter how beautiful on
its own, it needs other notes to form a melody.
That’s where the real music can begin.”
~Roy Diblik, The Know Maintenance Perennial Garden
What is its structural character?
How sociable is it (how does it spread)?
What does its life underground look like?
How does it compete?
How does it tolerate stress?
What’s its growth habit?
What does a tree want?
Carol Von Canon
needs
attributes
behaviours
high water table
endomycorrhizae
Juglone suppresses competition
rounded, spreading canopy
deep, rich, fertile soil
late to leaf out
drops leaves after first frost
gold fall colour
Black walnut
(Juglans nigra)
delicate apical bud
deeply furrowed black bark
long, brittle taproot, deep
wide spreading roots
strong limbs
sun
pioneer species
bole sprouting
companions
protection from
pests & disease
pollination
nutrients
Can I eat it? Use it for medicine? Harvest for other uses?
Does it add beauty? How? In what seasons?
Can birds or other wildlife eat it? Use it as habitat?
Does it fix nitrogen? Serve as a living mulch?
Does it provide nectar for pollinators?
Can insects, moths or butterflies feed off its leaves?
Does it deter pests?
Does it serve as support structure for other plants?
Can it lower my energy costs?
Does it tolerate drought?
Is it native?
Will it filter and clean runoff?
Does it provide other ecosystem services?
What functions does a tree serve?
gifts
shade & cooling
purifies air
nuts
syrup
valuable timber
medicine
juglone
dye
wildlife
neutralizes carcinogens
Black walnut
(Juglans nigra)
sedative
inhibitor of fungal growth
pH indicator
food
shelter
sequesters carbon
windbreak
attributes
behaviours
rounded, spreading canopy
gold fall colour
deeply furrowed black bark
strong limbs
pioneer species
late to leaf out
abrasive
abrasive
Thomas Rainer & Claudia West
TECTONIC SAFARI
TECTONIC SAFARI
TECTONIC SAFARI
talkingplant
Some of the most important relationships
form underground
PLAY & HAVE FUN
Don’t be too serious, start simple, make mistakes
ASK: What can I try? What happened? What did I
learn?
David Chapman
One nut is all you need
Be on the lookout for
inspiration
Opportunity knocks, turning
hollow stumps into
hugelkultur
containers
Stump as garden art can become its own
mini ecosystem
How many ways can you use dead wood?
“My green thumb came only as a result of the
mistakes I made while learning to see things
from the plant’s point of view.”
~H. Fred Ale
PRACTICE ZEN & THE
ART OF EDITING
Allow your garden to express itself
ASK: How is it evolving in space & time? What do I
need to tweak? What can I not do?
“Experience what happens, act when necessary.”
~Piet Oudolf
Stefan Sobkowiak, Miracle Farms
Maddy Harland’s polyculture vegetable garden
welcomes volunteers - salads and flowers
The ditch that
wanted to
become
a meadow
Evolve with your garden
LET’S
TRY
Adam Bindslev
Choose your
canopy
Black cherry
(Prunus serotina)
Hackberry
(Celtis occidentalis)
Oak
(Quercus spp.)
Hickory
(Carya spp.)
Sugar maple
(Acer saccharum)
American basswood
(Tilia americana)
American beech
(Fagus grandifolia)
Chestnut
(Castanea spp.)
Heartnut
(Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis)
Ultra Northern Pecan
(Carya illinoensis)
Korean pine
(Pinus koraiensis)
Walnuts, Butternuts, & Buartnuts
(Juglans spp.)
Trazel
(Corylus spp. avellana x colurna)
Swiss stone pine
(Pinus cembra)
Chinese elm
(Ulmus parvifolia)
Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
Feed your forest with
nitrogen fixers
Red clover
(Trifolium pratense)
White clover
(Trifolium
repens)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Buffaloberry
(Shepherdia canadensis)
Bayberry
(Myrica pensylvanica)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
New Jersey Tea
(Ceanothus americanus)
Honey locust
(Gleditsia triacanthos)
Kentucky coffee tree
(Gymnocladus dioicus)
Lupin
(Lupine spp.)
Leadplant
(Amorpha canescens)
Blue false indigo
(Baptisia australis)
Groundnut
(Apios americana)
White prairie
clover
(Dalea candida
)
American wisteria
(Wisteria frutescens)
False Indigo
(Amorpha fruticosa)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Structure
your understory
Rick Darke
Medlar
(Mespilus germanica)
Spicebush
(Lindera benzoin)
Yellowhorn
(Xanthoceras sorbifolia)
Hazelnut
(Corylus Americana)
Serviceberry
(Amelanchier canadensis)
Mulberry
(Morus rubra)
Persimmon
(Diospyros virginiana)
Pawpaw
(Asimina triloba)
American cranberry
(Viburnum trilobum)
Wild plum
(Prunus americana)
Raisin Tree
(Hovenia dulcis)
Hawthorn
(Crataegus spp.)
Cornelian Cherry
(Cornus mas)
Jujube
(Ziziphus jujuba)
Sumac
(Rhus spp.)
Elderberry
(Sambucus species)
Fringe tree
(Chionanthus virginicus)
Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum
simulans & Z. schinifolium)
Serviceberry
(Amelanchier canadensis)
Mulberry
(Morus rubra)
Elderberry
(Sambucus species)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Design for seasonal beauty
using shrubs
Black Raspberry
(Rubus occidentalis)
Wild black currant
(Ribes americanum)
Wild roses
(Rosa spp.)
Wild raisin
(Viburnum cassinoides)
Wild gooseberry
(Ribes hirtellum)
Jostaberry
(Ribes nidigrolaria)
Haskap
(Lonicera caerulea)
Blueberries
(Vaccinium corymbosum)
Aronia berries
(Aronia melanocarpa)
Quince
(Cydonia oblonga)
Goji Berry
(Lycium chinense)
Summersweet
(Clethra alnifolia)
Shrubby St. John’s Wort
(Hypericum kalmianum)
Snowberry
(Symphoricarpos)
Red raspberry
(Rubus idaeus.)
Serviceberry
(Amelanchier canadensis)
Mulberry
(Morus rubra)
Elderberry
(Sambucus species)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Black Raspberry
(Rubus occidentalis)
Wild roses
(Rosa spp.)
Snowberry
(Symphoricarpos)
Grow food using
living mulches
(for yourself, wildlife & the soil)
Beth Chatto Woodland Garden
Siberian purslane
(Claytonia sibirica)
Horseradish
(Armoracia rusticana)
Miner’s lettuce
(Claytonia perfoliata)
Sea kale
(Crambe maritima)
Garden sorrel
(Rumex acetosa ‘Profusion’)
Ostrich fern
(Matteuccia struthiopteris)
Wild arugula
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Rhubarb
(Rheum rhabarbarum)
Eastern waterleaf
(Hydrophyllum
virginianum)
Lovage
(Levisticum officinale)
Ground cherry
(Physalis pubescens)
Good king henry
(Chenopodium bonus-henricus)
French Dandelion
(Taraxacum officinale)
Radicchio
(Cichorium intybus)
Egyptian walking onions
(Allium cepa x proliferum)
Apple mint
(Mentha suaveolens)
Broad-leaved toothwort
(Cardamine diphylla)
Salad burnet
(Sanguisorba minor)
Woodland strawberry
(Fragaria vesca)
Hosta
(Hosta spp.)
False Solomon's Seal
(Maianthemum racemosum)
Mallow
(Malva spp.)
Spikenard
(Aralia cordata)
Honewort
(Cryptotaenia canadensis)
Bugleweed
(Ajuga reptans)
Daylilies
(Hemerocallis spp.)
Sweet woodruff
(Galium odoratum)
Balloon flower
(Platycodon grandiflorus)
Fennel
(Foeniculum vulgare)
Chinese Artichoke
(Stachys affinis)
Angelica, Korean
(Angelica gigas)
Showy stonecrop
(Sedum spectabile)
Milkweed
(Asclepias syriaca)
Columbine
(Aquilegia canadensis)
Bracken fern
(Pteridium aquilinum)
Sweet cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Sweet woodruff
(Galium odoratum)
Daylilies
(Hemerocallis spp.)
Woodland strawberry
(Fragaria vesca)
Sweet cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Serviceberry
(Amelanchier canadensis)
Mulberry
(Morus rubra)
Solomon’s seal
(Polygonatum biflorum)
Wild roses
(Rosa spp.)
Snowberry
(Symphoricarpos)
Elderberry
(Sambucus spp.)
Wild ginger
(Asarum canadense)
Add plants to
attract pollinators
& deter pests
Toshihiro Gamo
Carrot (Apiaceae) family Daisy (Asteraceae) family
Wild arugula (Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Mustard (Brassicaceae) family
Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.)Cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum)
Plants with small flowers in clusters attract
the most beneficials
Chives
(Allium schoenoprasum)
Bocking 14 Comfrey
(Symphytum x uplandicum
'Bocking 14')
Anise hyssop
(Agastache foeniculum)
Garlic chives
(Allium tuberosum)
Tarragon
(Artemisia dracunculus ‘Sativa’)
Epazote
(Dysphania ambrosioides)
Borage
(Borago officinalis)
Garlic
(Allium spp.)
Nasturtiums
(Tropaeolum spp.)
Spotted beebalm
(Monarda punctata)
Fennel
(Foeniculum vulgare)
Dill
(Anethum graveolens)
Mountain mint
(Pycnanthemum spp.)
Catnip
(Nepeta spp.)
Sage
(Salvia officinalis)
Lavender
(Lavandula spp.)
Basil
(Ocimum basilicum)
Sweet cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Sweet woodruff
(Galium odoratum)
Daylilies
(Hemerocallis spp.)
Woodland strawberry
(Fragaria vesca)
Sweet cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Solomon’s seal
(Polygonatum biflorum)
Wild roses
(Rosa spp.)
Snowberry
(Symphoricarpos)
Wild ginger
(Asarum canadense)
Spotted beebalm
(Monarda punctata)
Serviceberry
(Amelanchier canadensis)
Mulberry
(Morus rubra)
Elderberry
(Sambucus spp.)
Carpet the ground to maximize
biodiversity
Tuin Smakelijk
Woodland strawberry
(Fragaria vesca)
Violets
(Viola spp.)
False Solomon's Seal
(Maianthemum racemosum)
Cow Parsnip
(Heracleum maximum)
American Yew
(Taxus canadensis)
Ostrich fern
(Matteuccia struthiopteris)
Barren strawberry
(Waldsteinia fragarioides)
Canada windflower
(Anemone canadensis)
Eastern waterleaf
(Hydrophyllum
virginianum)
Plains coreopsis
(Coreopsis tinctoria)
Wild ginger
(Asarum canadense)
Brown-eyed susan
(Rudbeckia triloba)
Mountain Mint
(Pycnanthemum muticum)
False strawberry
(Potentilla indica)
Goat’s beard
(Aruncus dioicus)
Columbine
(Aquilegia canadensis)
American ginseng
(Panax quinquefolius)
Broad-leaved toothwort
(Cardamine diphylla)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Sweet woodruff
(Galium odoratum)
Daylilies
(Hemerocallis spp.)
Woodland strawberry
(Fragaria vesca)
Sweet cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Solomon’s seal
(Polygonatum biflorum)
Wild roses
(Rosa spp.)
Snowberry
(Symphoricarpos)
Wild ginger
(Asarum canadense)
Spotted beebalm
(Monarda punctata)
Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum
virginianum)
Brown-eyed susan
(Rudbeckia triloba)
Columbine
(Aquilegia canadensis)
Serviceberry
(Amelanchier canadensis)
Mulberry
(Morus rubra)
Elderberry
(Sambucus spp.)
Grow up to maximize space
& privacy
Malabar spinach
(Basella alba)
Nasturtium vine
(Tropaeolum spp.)
Montreal melon
(Cucumis melo
'Montreal Market')
Coral honeysuckle
(Lonicera sempervirens)
Groundnut
(Apios americana)
Wild grape
(Vitis riparia)
Virgin’s bower
(Clematis virginiana)
Five flavour berry
(Schisandra chinensis)
Caucasian spinach
(Hablitzia tamnoides)
Mouse melon
(Melothria scabra)
Scarlet runner beans
(Phaseolus coccineus)
Fava beans
(Vicia faba)
Climbing Hydrangea
(Hydrangea petiolaris)
Zucchini Tromboncino
(Cucurbita moschata
‘Tromboncino’)
American wisteria
(Wisteria frutescens)
Hardy kiwi
(Actinidia arguta)
Hops
(Humulus lupulus)
Bitter melon
(Momordica charantia)
Black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia)
Redbud
(Cercis canadensis)
Sweet woodruff
(Galium odoratum)
Daylilies
(Hemerocallis spp.)
Woodland strawberry
(Fragaria vesca)
Sweet cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Serviceberry
(Amelanchier canadensis)
Mulberry
(Morus rubra)
Solomon’s seal
(Polygonatum biflorum)
Wild roses
(Rosa spp.)
Snowberry
(Symphoricarpos)
Elderberry
(Sambucus spp.)
Wild ginger
(Asarum canadense)
Spotted beebalm
(Monarda punctata)
Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum
virginianum)
Brown-eyed susan
(Rudbeckia triloba)
Columbine
(Aquilegia canadensis)
Virgin’s bower
(Clematis virginiana)
Grow down for edible roots
& to build organic matter
Trout lily
(Erythronium americanum)
Golden garlic
(Allium moly)
Skirret
(Sium sisarum)
Groundnut
(Apios americana)
Salsify
(Tragopogon Porrifolius)
Sunchoke
(Helianthus tuberosus)
Cattail
(Typha latifolia)
Garlic
(Allium spp.)
Wild Leek
(Allium tricoccum)
Marsh Woundwort
(Stachys palustris)
American ginseng
(Panax quinquefolius)
Chinese artichoke
(Stachys affinis)
Parsnip
(Pastinaca sativa)
Spring beauty
(Claytonia virginica)
Daikon
(Raphanus sativus Longipinnatus)
Arrowhead
(Sagittaria latifolia.)
Water lily
(Nymphaea odorata)
Wild ginger
(Asarum canadense)
“Few of us are in a position to restore the forests...
But tens of millions of us have gardens, or access to
open spaces such as industrial wastelands, where
trees can be planted.
And if full advantage can be taken of the potentialities
that are available even in heavily built up areas, new
‘city forests’ can arise.”
~Robert A.de J.Hart
UNLEASH YOUR
INNER GARDENER
scrappy annie
Joyce Hostyn | joycehostyn.com

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How to design a beautiful edible forest garden

  • 2. Forests are multidimensional tapestries of layers, relationships and species James Golden
  • 3. Unlike the two dimensional monocultures of modern agriculture Carl Wycoff
  • 4. Edible forests mimic the three dimensional ecosystems found in natural forests Edible Forest Gardens, Volume 1
  • 5. Vertical layers are populated with diverse edibles
  • 6. Martin Crawford's forest garden Plants work together as a community
  • 7. History is rich with examples BRAZILIAN THINGS/CC BY-SA 4.0
  • 8. Kuhikugu is a complex network of over 20 cities. Silnei L Andrade “Many present Amazon forests, while seemingly natural, are domesticated… The Indians were in the process of terraforming the Amazon when Columbus showed up and ruined everything.” ~Charles C. Mann
  • 9. Mayan Milpa Cycle "is one of the most successful human inventions ever created" MesoAmerican Research Center
  • 10.
  • 11. Chagga home gardens carpet the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro Ulrich Doering/Alamy
  • 12. Complex, species rich layers characterize home gardens in Indonesia & Sri Lanka Pekarangan
  • 13. Influenced by Kerala forest gardens, Robert Hart introduced forest gardening to Britain London permaculture
  • 14. Masanobu Fukuoka’s experiments with natural orchards, polycultures & do-nothing farming challenged conventional agricultural practices
  • 15. IMAGINE Susanne Nilsson “The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human beings.” ~Masanobu Fukuoka
  • 16. Biking down streets lined with fruit & nut trees Barry Neild/CNN
  • 17. Living in a community where you harvest fruits & nuts with neighbours
  • 18. Celebrating harvests in edible parks
  • 19. Building urban oases for native bees, birds & wildlife Melinda Young Stuart
  • 20. Imagination Grove: Matthew Browning Playing in natural playgrounds that ignite your imagination
  • 21. Working at a company where you can garden with your coworkers Manutan company, France
  • 22. La Ferme Biologique du Bec Hellouin Buying food from a neighbourhood market gardener farming their quarter acre lot
  • 23. Aging in a community with a food forest & farm for its central plaza Win6 development near Santa Clara California
  • 24. Being surrounded by nature in the centre of the city
  • 25. Rediscovering a unique spirit of place in the city you call home Charlotte Harris, RHS Chelsea Flower Show
  • 26. fishhawk, flickr Diversifying from the 15 species we depend on for 90% of our food
  • 27. Regenerating soil devastated by current agricultural and urban practices George Steinmetz
  • 28. Developing food resilience in the face of climate change 2010 Christchurch earthquake
  • 29. Reji, Garfield Play Park, Danny Perez Photography Nurturing ecosystems, people & wildlife in the city
  • 30. Leaving a living legacy for future generations Carol Von Canon
  • 32. conventional orchard permaculture orchard edible forest Barbara Eckstein
  • 34. Little life Transform the site Low species diversity Higher conventional yields Simultaneous ripening Bare soil Ongoing soil amendments Nurture the plants Garden for vegetables Closely monitored pest control Flat land Single climate Two dimensional plantings Mostly machine or human labour Fighting animals for the harvest
  • 35. San Isidro Permaculture Forests gardens emulate nature
  • 36. Teaming with life Learn from the site and choose plants to suit High species diversity Higher diversity of yields (nuts, fruits, medicinals...) Constant harvesting Living mulch Self-sustaining, building soil naturally Nurture the soil Garden for food, fuel, cooling, windbreaks, water Designed for natural pest management Contoured swales Designed microclimates Three dimensional, densely layered plantings Mostly plant, insect, fungi, and soil labour Sharing harvest with wildlife
  • 37. “A tree can be only as strong as the forest that surrounds it.” ~Peter Wohlleben, The Hidden Life of Trees Tim Vrtiska
  • 38. Thomas Rainer Plants are social beings that thrive in communities
  • 40. If you plant that way [polyculture], it becomes so much easier… so much more interesting and, overall, less work… Take a step toward nature and nature will always take ten steps towards you. ~Stefan Sobkowiak Peter McCabe/Montreal Gazette
  • 45. How to design an edible forest
  • 46. Listen to your inner gardener Ask what matters Look to nature Sculpt the land Cultivate relationships Play & have fun Practice zen & the art of editing
  • 47. LISTEN TO YOUR INNER GARDENER Discover the magic in expressing who you are ASK: Why do I garden? When do I lose track of time? Experience moments of joy? Peace? Pleasure?
  • 48. “To establish a natural orchard, one should dig large holes here and there among the stumps of felled trees and plant unpruned saplings and fruit seed over the site, leaving these unattended just as one would leave alone a reforested stand of trees.” ~Masanobu Fukuoka, “do-nothing” farming
  • 49. “Miracle” apples, Akinori Kimura "When everybody is going the wrong way, are you brave enough to go the true way? A man can transform the world's agriculture from what he learns from an apple tree." ~Akinori Kimura, What I Learn From The Apple Trees
  • 50. "a way to recover a lost relationship I had with wildness” ~Thomas Rainer
  • 51. "If should look as if it has always been like that, as if Nature made it that way. That’s good design.” ~Sepp Holzer
  • 52. ASK WHAT MATTERS Tidy or natural? Plentiful harvests or shared sanctuary? Doing or not doing? ASK: What’s important to me? How do I want to spend my time? What do I like to cook? Eat? Make?
  • 54. Nancy Lawson (Humane Gardener), cultivating compassion
  • 55. Rosalind Creasy ("crazy hippy lady from California”), gardening & cooking
  • 56.
  • 57. LOOK TO NATURE Practice the art of observation ASK: What is here? What will nature help me do here? What sparks my imagination? Peter Power for The Globe and Mail
  • 59. Learn about your bioregion Marie Davey Lupine Invasions
  • 60. Get to know your soil
  • 61. Observe light, air, earth, water, warmth
  • 62. Listen to the stories each plant has to tell
  • 63. SCULPT THE LAND design mini-ecosystems Dan Pearson, Chelsea Garden Show ASK: What makes me feel at home? What do I want to harvest?
  • 64. Cultivating a forest of nut trees
  • 65. Shaping a microclimate with hugelkultur
  • 67. Protecting peaches with stone walls in Paris murs à pêches
  • 68. Contouring the land for rice paddies in Vermont Whole Systems Design
  • 70. CULTIVATE RELATIONSHIPS “One plant is just a single note” ASK: What does a plant want? What functions does it serve? How can I honour its essential nature?
  • 71. “One plant is just a single note; no matter how beautiful on its own, it needs other notes to form a melody. That’s where the real music can begin.” ~Roy Diblik, The Know Maintenance Perennial Garden
  • 72. What is its structural character? How sociable is it (how does it spread)? What does its life underground look like? How does it compete? How does it tolerate stress? What’s its growth habit? What does a tree want? Carol Von Canon
  • 73. needs attributes behaviours high water table endomycorrhizae Juglone suppresses competition rounded, spreading canopy deep, rich, fertile soil late to leaf out drops leaves after first frost gold fall colour Black walnut (Juglans nigra) delicate apical bud deeply furrowed black bark long, brittle taproot, deep wide spreading roots strong limbs sun pioneer species bole sprouting companions protection from pests & disease pollination nutrients
  • 74. Can I eat it? Use it for medicine? Harvest for other uses? Does it add beauty? How? In what seasons? Can birds or other wildlife eat it? Use it as habitat? Does it fix nitrogen? Serve as a living mulch? Does it provide nectar for pollinators? Can insects, moths or butterflies feed off its leaves? Does it deter pests? Does it serve as support structure for other plants? Can it lower my energy costs? Does it tolerate drought? Is it native? Will it filter and clean runoff? Does it provide other ecosystem services? What functions does a tree serve?
  • 75. gifts shade & cooling purifies air nuts syrup valuable timber medicine juglone dye wildlife neutralizes carcinogens Black walnut (Juglans nigra) sedative inhibitor of fungal growth pH indicator food shelter sequesters carbon windbreak attributes behaviours rounded, spreading canopy gold fall colour deeply furrowed black bark strong limbs pioneer species late to leaf out abrasive abrasive
  • 76. Thomas Rainer & Claudia West
  • 80. talkingplant Some of the most important relationships form underground
  • 81. PLAY & HAVE FUN Don’t be too serious, start simple, make mistakes ASK: What can I try? What happened? What did I learn?
  • 82. David Chapman One nut is all you need
  • 83. Be on the lookout for inspiration
  • 84. Opportunity knocks, turning hollow stumps into hugelkultur containers
  • 85. Stump as garden art can become its own mini ecosystem
  • 86. How many ways can you use dead wood?
  • 87. “My green thumb came only as a result of the mistakes I made while learning to see things from the plant’s point of view.” ~H. Fred Ale
  • 88. PRACTICE ZEN & THE ART OF EDITING Allow your garden to express itself ASK: How is it evolving in space & time? What do I need to tweak? What can I not do?
  • 89. “Experience what happens, act when necessary.” ~Piet Oudolf Stefan Sobkowiak, Miracle Farms
  • 90. Maddy Harland’s polyculture vegetable garden welcomes volunteers - salads and flowers
  • 91. The ditch that wanted to become a meadow
  • 95. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) Oak (Quercus spp.) Hickory (Carya spp.) Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) American basswood (Tilia americana) American beech (Fagus grandifolia) Chestnut (Castanea spp.) Heartnut (Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis) Ultra Northern Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) Walnuts, Butternuts, & Buartnuts (Juglans spp.) Trazel (Corylus spp. avellana x colurna) Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia)
  • 97. Feed your forest with nitrogen fixers
  • 98. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) White clover (Trifolium repens) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus americanus) Honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) Kentucky coffee tree (Gymnocladus dioicus) Lupin (Lupine spp.) Leadplant (Amorpha canescens) Blue false indigo (Baptisia australis) Groundnut (Apios americana) White prairie clover (Dalea candida ) American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) False Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa)
  • 101. Medlar (Mespilus germanica) Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia) Hazelnut (Corylus Americana) Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) American cranberry (Viburnum trilobum) Wild plum (Prunus americana) Raisin Tree (Hovenia dulcis) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Sumac (Rhus spp.) Elderberry (Sambucus species) Fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum simulans & Z. schinifolium)
  • 102. Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus species) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)
  • 103. Design for seasonal beauty using shrubs
  • 104. Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Wild black currant (Ribes americanum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Wild raisin (Viburnum cassinoides) Wild gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum) Jostaberry (Ribes nidigrolaria) Haskap (Lonicera caerulea) Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) Aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa) Quince (Cydonia oblonga) Goji Berry (Lycium chinense) Summersweet (Clethra alnifolia) Shrubby St. John’s Wort (Hypericum kalmianum) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus.)
  • 105. Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus species) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos)
  • 106. Grow food using living mulches (for yourself, wildlife & the soil) Beth Chatto Woodland Garden
  • 107. Siberian purslane (Claytonia sibirica) Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata) Sea kale (Crambe maritima) Garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa ‘Profusion’) Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) Wild arugula (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Lovage (Levisticum officinale) Ground cherry (Physalis pubescens) Good king henry (Chenopodium bonus-henricus) French Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Radicchio (Cichorium intybus) Egyptian walking onions (Allium cepa x proliferum) Apple mint (Mentha suaveolens) Broad-leaved toothwort (Cardamine diphylla) Salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor)
  • 108. Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Hosta (Hosta spp.) False Solomon's Seal (Maianthemum racemosum) Mallow (Malva spp.) Spikenard (Aralia cordata) Honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis) Bugleweed (Ajuga reptans) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Chinese Artichoke (Stachys affinis) Angelica, Korean (Angelica gigas) Showy stonecrop (Sedum spectabile) Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
  • 109. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense)
  • 110. Add plants to attract pollinators & deter pests Toshihiro Gamo
  • 111. Carrot (Apiaceae) family Daisy (Asteraceae) family Wild arugula (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) Mustard (Brassicaceae) family Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.)Cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum) Plants with small flowers in clusters attract the most beneficials
  • 112. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) Bocking 14 Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum 'Bocking 14') Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum) Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus ‘Sativa’) Epazote (Dysphania ambrosioides) Borage (Borago officinalis) Garlic (Allium spp.) Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum spp.) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Dill (Anethum graveolens) Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp.) Catnip (Nepeta spp.) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Lavender (Lavandula spp.) Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
  • 113. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.)
  • 114. Carpet the ground to maximize biodiversity Tuin Smakelijk
  • 115. Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Violets (Viola spp.) False Solomon's Seal (Maianthemum racemosum) Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum) American Yew (Taxus canadensis) Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) Barren strawberry (Waldsteinia fragarioides) Canada windflower (Anemone canadensis) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Plains coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia triloba) Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum muticum) False strawberry (Potentilla indica) Goat’s beard (Aruncus dioicus) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Broad-leaved toothwort (Cardamine diphylla)
  • 116. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia triloba) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.)
  • 117. Grow up to maximize space & privacy
  • 118. Malabar spinach (Basella alba) Nasturtium vine (Tropaeolum spp.) Montreal melon (Cucumis melo 'Montreal Market') Coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) Groundnut (Apios americana) Wild grape (Vitis riparia) Virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana) Five flavour berry (Schisandra chinensis) Caucasian spinach (Hablitzia tamnoides) Mouse melon (Melothria scabra) Scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) Fava beans (Vicia faba) Climbing Hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris) Zucchini Tromboncino (Cucurbita moschata ‘Tromboncino’) American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) Hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Bitter melon (Momordica charantia)
  • 119. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia triloba) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) Virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana)
  • 120. Grow down for edible roots & to build organic matter
  • 121. Trout lily (Erythronium americanum) Golden garlic (Allium moly) Skirret (Sium sisarum) Groundnut (Apios americana) Salsify (Tragopogon Porrifolius) Sunchoke (Helianthus tuberosus) Cattail (Typha latifolia) Garlic (Allium spp.) Wild Leek (Allium tricoccum) Marsh Woundwort (Stachys palustris) American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Chinese artichoke (Stachys affinis) Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Spring beauty (Claytonia virginica) Daikon (Raphanus sativus Longipinnatus) Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia.) Water lily (Nymphaea odorata) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense)
  • 122. “Few of us are in a position to restore the forests... But tens of millions of us have gardens, or access to open spaces such as industrial wastelands, where trees can be planted. And if full advantage can be taken of the potentialities that are available even in heavily built up areas, new ‘city forests’ can arise.” ~Robert A.de J.Hart
  • 124. Joyce Hostyn | joycehostyn.com