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Rendering is Cooking and Drying.
Rendering is Recycling and the Basis for Sustainability.
Rendering is Essential to Public Health.
What is Rendering?
Raw Materials
• Offal
• Bones and fat
• Blood
• Animals dead on arrival,
in transit or on farms
• Restaurant grease
• Feathers
• Recalled meat
• Outdated meat
• Butcher shop scraps
Rendering is Cooking and Drying
• Continuous flow or batch
• Steam cookers
• 115º to 145º C. for 40 to 90
minutes (245º to 290º F.)
• Inactivation of bacteria, viruses,
protozoa, and parasitic
organisms.
Today’s industry produces approximately 9 MMT (20 billion pounds)
annually of finished rendered products, continues to grow, and is
integrated into the dynamic and productive agricultural system.
Rendering is Recycling
Rendering Plant
The industry converts more than 25 MMT (56 billion lb.) of
animal by-products into usable commodities annually.
• Highly valued protein ingredients for livestock, poultry, pets
• Tallow and other animal fats for the manufacture of fatty acids and
as a source of energy in feed rations and biofuels.
• 125 AAFCO-defined animal by-products
• Meat Meal
• Meat and Bone Meal (can be species specific)
• Blood Meal (Flash/Spray/Ring/Batch Dried)
–Can be whole, plasma, or hemoglobin
• Poultry By-Product Meal
• Poultry Meal
• Hydrolyzed Poultry Feather Meal
Protein Meals – 9 billion pounds*
(U.S. Production)
*4 Million Metric tons
Turning This:
Into This:
Examples of a Few Finished Products
Stabilized Pet Food
Poultry Fat
Stabilized Poultry
Fat
Hydrolyzed Poultry
Feather Meal
Stabilized
Poultry
Protein Meal
Low Ash Pet Food
Poultry Protein Meal Pet Food Poultry
Protein Meal
Minimum Product Safety Standards
• Physical hazards
– Are materials such as wood, glass, metal, plastic,
etc. significant hazards?
– How will the hazard be addressed?
• Removal
• Processing to remove the hazard
– Who is responsible?
– Are appropriate process controls in place?
Plant Operator Screen
Adequate heat kills conventional pathogens
• ACREC research at Clemson
– For every 10Co (18Fo) increase in temp, you double the lethality
(“rule of thumb”).
– Conducting experiments on lethality of different temps in rendering
on various bacterial strains.
– We can prove lethality based on the temp after crax leaves the
cooker.
• 240Fo for 2 minutes is highly lethal for most bacteria.
National Renderers Association Fats and Proteins Research Foundation
Rendering Destroys Viruses of Feed Safety Concern
Thermal Processing: Rendering
Research conducted at Clemson University indicates that at 230ºF (110ºC)
or above, for 15 sec or longer, Type A influenza viral RNA is destroyed within
rendered poultry products as determined by PCR.
Reference: Leaphart, A.B., T.R. Scott, S.D. Chambers, W.C. Bridges, Jr. and A.K. Greene. 2012.
Validation of rendering for destroying avian influenza in poultry co-products. J. Appl. Poult. Res.
21 :719–725. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3382/japr.2011-00345
Research also has shown rendering effective in killing:
• Classical swine fever virus
• Foot and mouth (FMD) virus
• Pseudorabies virus (PRV)
Biological Safety Hazards
• Adequate heat kills conventional pathogens
• Select indicator organism for validation
– Salmonella may not be a good choice due to lack of specificity
and potential for recontamination
– Control recontamination with GMPs/SSOPs
• Assess the extent of heat treatment needed for each
product
The Rendering Industry Commitment
• Is committed to producing quality products that are safe for
use as animal feeds and feed ingredients.
• The Rendering Code of Practice is a feed safety program
based on Good Manufacturing Practices and process
controls that are consistent with HACCP-based principles.
• The Rendering Code of Practice is the rendering equivalent
of the AFIA Safe Feed/Safe Food program.
• Feed manufacturers should source ingredients from
certified renderers.
• The current list is here:
http://nationalrenderers.org/biosecurity-appi/code/certified-plants/
Alternatives
• To protect the environment
• To protect human health
• To protect animal health
• It is sustainable and contributes to
sustainability of animal agriculture
Rendering is Essential
Our Green Impact
Rendering protects the environment:
• If not recycled, the large amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus present in
inedible animal by-products may contribute to global warming, soil loading and water
contamination.
• U.S. rendering facilities utilize world-class processing equipment, treatment processes
and control equipment to minimize the impact on the local environments’ air and water.
Rendering Annually Recycles (million lb) :
Nutrient U.S. Total
Carbon 10,511
Nitrogen 1,072
Phosphorus 384
Item U.S.
CO2 equivalents recycled, metric tons/year 66,958,000
Greenhouse gas reduction strategy U.S.
Number of cars taken off the road per year 12,263,370
Seedling trees planted per year 1,716,871,791
Tons of garbage diverted from landfills per
year
23,088,966
Rendering’s Carbon Footprint
• Recycling fat and protein significantly reduces the amount of greenhouse
gases, such as CO2, released into the environment.
• According to the US-EPA, the CO2 renderers recycle each year is equivalent to
the following actions taken to reduce greenhouse gases:
“Fallen” Animals
1.71 million adult cattle/yr.
2.37 million calves/yr.
18 million swine/yr.
350 million lb. poultry/yr.
Total = 4.4 billion lb./yr.
Approx. 2.2 billion lb./yr. (50%) is rendered.
Approx. 4.5% of rendered products come from fallen animals.
The Basic Production Process of Rendering
‫٭‬Process Control Points
Raw
Materials
Sizing Heat Processing
(Time x Temperature)
Press
Fat Clean-up
Protein
Grinding
Storage/Load out
‫٭‬.
‫٭‬.
‫٭‬.
‫٭‬.
‫٭‬.
The Basic Process of Rendering
Trucks: plant cleanliness and product quality begin with prompt collection.
Grinder: each type of raw material is processed separately, starting with
crushing.
Cooker: releases natural proteins and oils of the animal by-products;
feathers are hydrolyzed.
Air purifier: ensures the highest standard of air quality.
Press: all materials are pressed to separate solids from liquids.
Centrifuge: fats and oils are centrifuged to remove any remaining solids;
blood is collected through coagulation and centrifuging.
Polisher: fats and oils are further refined, filtered and processed.
Dryer: fish solids and feathers are dried separately.
Mill: protein meals are milled separately.
Storage: all meals, fats and oils are stored in tanks until shipped.
Transport: meals, fats and oils are delivered worldwide via truck, rail,
container or ship.
To this:
Public health

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A BUSINESS PROPOSAL FOR SLAUGHTER HOUSE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MYSORE MUNICIPAL CORPORATION

  • 1. Rendering is Cooking and Drying. Rendering is Recycling and the Basis for Sustainability. Rendering is Essential to Public Health. What is Rendering?
  • 2. Raw Materials • Offal • Bones and fat • Blood • Animals dead on arrival, in transit or on farms • Restaurant grease • Feathers • Recalled meat • Outdated meat • Butcher shop scraps
  • 3. Rendering is Cooking and Drying • Continuous flow or batch • Steam cookers • 115º to 145º C. for 40 to 90 minutes (245º to 290º F.) • Inactivation of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic organisms.
  • 4. Today’s industry produces approximately 9 MMT (20 billion pounds) annually of finished rendered products, continues to grow, and is integrated into the dynamic and productive agricultural system. Rendering is Recycling
  • 6. The industry converts more than 25 MMT (56 billion lb.) of animal by-products into usable commodities annually. • Highly valued protein ingredients for livestock, poultry, pets • Tallow and other animal fats for the manufacture of fatty acids and as a source of energy in feed rations and biofuels. • 125 AAFCO-defined animal by-products
  • 7. • Meat Meal • Meat and Bone Meal (can be species specific) • Blood Meal (Flash/Spray/Ring/Batch Dried) –Can be whole, plasma, or hemoglobin • Poultry By-Product Meal • Poultry Meal • Hydrolyzed Poultry Feather Meal Protein Meals – 9 billion pounds* (U.S. Production) *4 Million Metric tons
  • 10. Examples of a Few Finished Products Stabilized Pet Food Poultry Fat Stabilized Poultry Fat Hydrolyzed Poultry Feather Meal Stabilized Poultry Protein Meal Low Ash Pet Food Poultry Protein Meal Pet Food Poultry Protein Meal
  • 11. Minimum Product Safety Standards • Physical hazards – Are materials such as wood, glass, metal, plastic, etc. significant hazards? – How will the hazard be addressed? • Removal • Processing to remove the hazard – Who is responsible? – Are appropriate process controls in place?
  • 13. Adequate heat kills conventional pathogens • ACREC research at Clemson – For every 10Co (18Fo) increase in temp, you double the lethality (“rule of thumb”). – Conducting experiments on lethality of different temps in rendering on various bacterial strains. – We can prove lethality based on the temp after crax leaves the cooker. • 240Fo for 2 minutes is highly lethal for most bacteria. National Renderers Association Fats and Proteins Research Foundation
  • 14. Rendering Destroys Viruses of Feed Safety Concern Thermal Processing: Rendering Research conducted at Clemson University indicates that at 230ºF (110ºC) or above, for 15 sec or longer, Type A influenza viral RNA is destroyed within rendered poultry products as determined by PCR. Reference: Leaphart, A.B., T.R. Scott, S.D. Chambers, W.C. Bridges, Jr. and A.K. Greene. 2012. Validation of rendering for destroying avian influenza in poultry co-products. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 21 :719–725. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3382/japr.2011-00345 Research also has shown rendering effective in killing: • Classical swine fever virus • Foot and mouth (FMD) virus • Pseudorabies virus (PRV)
  • 15. Biological Safety Hazards • Adequate heat kills conventional pathogens • Select indicator organism for validation – Salmonella may not be a good choice due to lack of specificity and potential for recontamination – Control recontamination with GMPs/SSOPs • Assess the extent of heat treatment needed for each product
  • 16. The Rendering Industry Commitment • Is committed to producing quality products that are safe for use as animal feeds and feed ingredients. • The Rendering Code of Practice is a feed safety program based on Good Manufacturing Practices and process controls that are consistent with HACCP-based principles. • The Rendering Code of Practice is the rendering equivalent of the AFIA Safe Feed/Safe Food program. • Feed manufacturers should source ingredients from certified renderers. • The current list is here: http://nationalrenderers.org/biosecurity-appi/code/certified-plants/
  • 18. • To protect the environment • To protect human health • To protect animal health • It is sustainable and contributes to sustainability of animal agriculture Rendering is Essential
  • 19. Our Green Impact Rendering protects the environment: • If not recycled, the large amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus present in inedible animal by-products may contribute to global warming, soil loading and water contamination. • U.S. rendering facilities utilize world-class processing equipment, treatment processes and control equipment to minimize the impact on the local environments’ air and water. Rendering Annually Recycles (million lb) : Nutrient U.S. Total Carbon 10,511 Nitrogen 1,072 Phosphorus 384
  • 20. Item U.S. CO2 equivalents recycled, metric tons/year 66,958,000 Greenhouse gas reduction strategy U.S. Number of cars taken off the road per year 12,263,370 Seedling trees planted per year 1,716,871,791 Tons of garbage diverted from landfills per year 23,088,966 Rendering’s Carbon Footprint • Recycling fat and protein significantly reduces the amount of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, released into the environment. • According to the US-EPA, the CO2 renderers recycle each year is equivalent to the following actions taken to reduce greenhouse gases:
  • 21. “Fallen” Animals 1.71 million adult cattle/yr. 2.37 million calves/yr. 18 million swine/yr. 350 million lb. poultry/yr. Total = 4.4 billion lb./yr. Approx. 2.2 billion lb./yr. (50%) is rendered. Approx. 4.5% of rendered products come from fallen animals.
  • 22. The Basic Production Process of Rendering ‫٭‬Process Control Points Raw Materials Sizing Heat Processing (Time x Temperature) Press Fat Clean-up Protein Grinding Storage/Load out ‫٭‬. ‫٭‬. ‫٭‬. ‫٭‬. ‫٭‬.
  • 23.
  • 24. The Basic Process of Rendering Trucks: plant cleanliness and product quality begin with prompt collection. Grinder: each type of raw material is processed separately, starting with crushing. Cooker: releases natural proteins and oils of the animal by-products; feathers are hydrolyzed. Air purifier: ensures the highest standard of air quality. Press: all materials are pressed to separate solids from liquids. Centrifuge: fats and oils are centrifuged to remove any remaining solids; blood is collected through coagulation and centrifuging. Polisher: fats and oils are further refined, filtered and processed. Dryer: fish solids and feathers are dried separately. Mill: protein meals are milled separately. Storage: all meals, fats and oils are stored in tanks until shipped. Transport: meals, fats and oils are delivered worldwide via truck, rail, container or ship.