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PERSONALITY AND
THEORIES
Made by:-
Mohd Aqil
Ritu verma
Jetendra saran
Manisha Mishra
 Personality can be defined as :-
 A dynamic and organized set of
characteristics possessed by a person .
 That uniquely influences his or her
cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in
various situations.
Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality
1. Trait Theories
2. Psycho-analytic Theory
3. MBTI Theory
Trait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up personality
and how they relate to actual behavior
Psycho-analytical Theories: Focus on the inner workings of
personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test
designed to assist a person in identifying some significant
personal preferences.
Types of Personality Theories
Trait Theories
Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple,
believed that we are one of two personality types:
• Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is
focused inward
• Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed
outward
Jung’s Theory of Two Types
Raymond Cattell: from Devon, England, believed that there
were two basic categories of traits:
• Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible areas
of personality
• Source Traits: Underlying characteristics of a
personality
Cattell: Source & Surface Traits
Cattell: The Big Five
Cattell believed that five factors were
most important:
Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeable
Neuroticism
Extraversion focuses on the comfort
level of an individual in interaction with
others.
Assertive
Outgoing
Talkative
Open
 Timid
 Quiet
 Reserved
Agreeableness refers to an individual’s
behavior towards others while interacting with
them.
 Good Natured
 Co-operative
 Trusting
 Cold
 Antagonistic
 Distant
Conscientiousness refers to the extent to which
individuals show consistent & reliable behavior while
working in the organization.
 High Responsible
 Dependable
 Organized
 Persistent
 Unreliable
 Disorganized
 Inconsistent
 Easy-going
Neuroticism refers to the ability of an
individual to control his/her emotions at the
time of crisis.
 Calm
 Self-confident
 Secure
 Nervous
 Depressed
 Insecure
Openness to experience measures the individual’s
ability to be open to any kind of experience that
helps him/her to do the job effectively.
 More Approachable
 Creative
 Imagination
 Curiosity
 Uncomfortable
 Practical
 Traditional
 Down-to-earth
 Conservative
Psychoanalytic theory
SIGMUND FREUD
Role of Consciousness
 Unconscious:
The unconscious is understood to be the large part of
the mind, which is hidden from view.
 Pre-conscious:
The pre-conscious is represented by the waterline -
but it is the zone in which there are fleeting
glimpses of the unconscious, "flickering" across the
screen of consciousness. 
 Conscious:
The relatively small part which sticks of the
water is seen as equivalent to the small
amount of conscious awareness that the
human experiences. 
Model Of Personality
Elements Of Personality (Freud’s View):
 The Id
 The Ego
 The Superego
ID
 Primary component of personality
 Pleasure principle
 Strives for immediate satisfaction of all desires, needs,
wants
 For example, if an infant feels hungry, he will cry till his
want is satisfied.
 ID fails result in tension,anxiety
EGO
 Responsible for dealing with reality
 Reality principle weighs the cost of doing or abandoning
something
 Discharges tension by finding the object in the real
world created by Id.
SUPER EGO
 Holds of our internalized moral standards that we
acquire from parents, society.
 Has two parts:-
1. The ego Ideal
Good Behaviors
1. The Conscience
Bad Behaviors
• A self report instrument
• Non judgmental
• An indicator of preferences
• Well researched
• Rich in theory
• Professionally interpreted
• Used internationally
• A way to sort, not to measure
THE MBTI IS
MBTI THEORY
Extraversion -------------- Introversion
Sensing -------------- Intuition
Thinking -------------- Feeling
Judging -------------- Perception
EXTRAVERSION INTROVERSION
 Attention focused
outward: people,
things, action
 Relaxed and confident
 Wants to be with others
 Attention focused
inward: concepts,
ideas, feelings
 Considering deeply
before acting
 Wants time to be
alone
SENSING INTUITION
 Perceiving with the 5
senses
 In touch with physical
realities
 Attending to the present
moment
 Prefer using learned skills
 Pay attention to details
 Perceiving with
memory and
association (6th
sense)
 Seeing patterns and
meanings
 Future achievement
 Projecting possibilities
for the future
 Change, rearrange life
THINKING FEELING
 Decision based on the
logic of the situation
 Uses cause and effect
reasoning
 Can be tough-minded
 Fair- want everyone
treated equally
 Decisions based on
impact on people
 Guided by personal
values
 May appear tender
hearted
 Fair-want everyone
treated as an
individual
JUDGING PERCEIVING
 Focuses on completing
task
 Deciding and planning
 Organizing and
scheduling
 Controlling and
regulating
 Goal oriented
 Focuses on starting
task
 Taking in information
 Adapting and changing
 Curious and interested
 Resisting closure in
order to obtain more
data
Thank You

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Personality theories

  • 1. PERSONALITY AND THEORIES Made by:- Mohd Aqil Ritu verma Jetendra saran Manisha Mishra
  • 2.  Personality can be defined as :-  A dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person .  That uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations.
  • 3. Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality 1. Trait Theories 2. Psycho-analytic Theory 3. MBTI Theory
  • 4. Trait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior Psycho-analytical Theories: Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test designed to assist a person in identifying some significant personal preferences. Types of Personality Theories
  • 6. Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: • Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward • Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward Jung’s Theory of Two Types
  • 7. Raymond Cattell: from Devon, England, believed that there were two basic categories of traits: • Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible areas of personality • Source Traits: Underlying characteristics of a personality Cattell: Source & Surface Traits
  • 8. Cattell: The Big Five Cattell believed that five factors were most important: Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeable Neuroticism
  • 9. Extraversion focuses on the comfort level of an individual in interaction with others. Assertive Outgoing Talkative Open  Timid  Quiet  Reserved
  • 10. Agreeableness refers to an individual’s behavior towards others while interacting with them.  Good Natured  Co-operative  Trusting  Cold  Antagonistic  Distant
  • 11. Conscientiousness refers to the extent to which individuals show consistent & reliable behavior while working in the organization.  High Responsible  Dependable  Organized  Persistent  Unreliable  Disorganized  Inconsistent  Easy-going
  • 12. Neuroticism refers to the ability of an individual to control his/her emotions at the time of crisis.  Calm  Self-confident  Secure  Nervous  Depressed  Insecure
  • 13. Openness to experience measures the individual’s ability to be open to any kind of experience that helps him/her to do the job effectively.  More Approachable  Creative  Imagination  Curiosity  Uncomfortable  Practical  Traditional  Down-to-earth  Conservative
  • 15. Role of Consciousness  Unconscious: The unconscious is understood to be the large part of the mind, which is hidden from view.  Pre-conscious: The pre-conscious is represented by the waterline - but it is the zone in which there are fleeting glimpses of the unconscious, "flickering" across the screen of consciousness.   Conscious: The relatively small part which sticks of the water is seen as equivalent to the small amount of conscious awareness that the human experiences. 
  • 16.
  • 17. Model Of Personality Elements Of Personality (Freud’s View):  The Id  The Ego  The Superego
  • 18. ID  Primary component of personality  Pleasure principle  Strives for immediate satisfaction of all desires, needs, wants  For example, if an infant feels hungry, he will cry till his want is satisfied.  ID fails result in tension,anxiety
  • 19. EGO  Responsible for dealing with reality  Reality principle weighs the cost of doing or abandoning something  Discharges tension by finding the object in the real world created by Id.
  • 20. SUPER EGO  Holds of our internalized moral standards that we acquire from parents, society.  Has two parts:- 1. The ego Ideal Good Behaviors 1. The Conscience Bad Behaviors
  • 21. • A self report instrument • Non judgmental • An indicator of preferences • Well researched • Rich in theory • Professionally interpreted • Used internationally • A way to sort, not to measure THE MBTI IS
  • 22. MBTI THEORY Extraversion -------------- Introversion Sensing -------------- Intuition Thinking -------------- Feeling Judging -------------- Perception
  • 23. EXTRAVERSION INTROVERSION  Attention focused outward: people, things, action  Relaxed and confident  Wants to be with others  Attention focused inward: concepts, ideas, feelings  Considering deeply before acting  Wants time to be alone
  • 24. SENSING INTUITION  Perceiving with the 5 senses  In touch with physical realities  Attending to the present moment  Prefer using learned skills  Pay attention to details  Perceiving with memory and association (6th sense)  Seeing patterns and meanings  Future achievement  Projecting possibilities for the future  Change, rearrange life
  • 25. THINKING FEELING  Decision based on the logic of the situation  Uses cause and effect reasoning  Can be tough-minded  Fair- want everyone treated equally  Decisions based on impact on people  Guided by personal values  May appear tender hearted  Fair-want everyone treated as an individual
  • 26. JUDGING PERCEIVING  Focuses on completing task  Deciding and planning  Organizing and scheduling  Controlling and regulating  Goal oriented  Focuses on starting task  Taking in information  Adapting and changing  Curious and interested  Resisting closure in order to obtain more data