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Conversational Analysis
 Contents
. Interaction
. Conversation
. Conversation analysis
. Terms regarding conversation analysis
. Pauses, overlaps, and backchannels
. Conversational style
. Adjacency pairs
. Preference structure
Interaction;
The term interaction is applied in social encounter, when
the people having discussion with each other.
The interaction can be between;
Teacher and students.
Doctor and patient.
Individual and group and may more.
Conversation ;
It is a discussion among people the conversation can be
between two people and more than two.
Conversation structure;
The basic structure of conversation is I speak ---You Speak--- I
speak--- you speak called conversational analysis.
Conversation Analysis
There are many metaphor is used to describe the conversation
structure such as;
 Conversation is like a dance, conversation partners
coordinating their movement smoothly.
Conversation is like a traffic which involve lots of alternative
movements without any crash.
Some words which are used in conversation analysis
 Floor
The right to speak is called floor.
 Turn
Having control of this floor at any time.
Turn-taking
 In any situation where the control is not fixed, any one can
attempt to get it.
Local management system
Set of conversation for getting, keeping and giving away
turns.
 Pauses
Conversation involves two or more participants and only one
person can speak at a time. While conversation between two
person there must be a silence for some second that can be
pauses.
Overlaps
It is something when both speakers are trying to speak at the
same time that can be awkward.
Backchannels/Backchannels signals.
Speaker always expect from his partner that
he is listening. There are some ways of going
this,
Head nods, smiles, gestures, and vocal
indications are called backchannel signals.
This is something is feedback which is used
by the listener that message is being
received.
i.e. conversation on telephone, face to face conversation.
Conversational Style
There are individual and cultural differences in conversational
style.
a) High involvement style.
Some people are very active and there speaking rate is very fast,
and there is no pausing between those speakers and may have
overlaps.
b) High considerateness style
This style is opposite from the previous style in which speakers
have a sloe rate of speaking and may have pauses in
conversation.
Due to pauses it may not have overlaps there will be no
interruption.
Adjacency pairs
The automatic sequence while conversation is called
adjacency pairs.
Adjacency pairs always consist of two parts. The first and the
second parts.
A: Hello
B: Hi!
A: How are you?
B: Fine!
A: see you!
B: bye!
Preference structure :
Acceptance is structurally more likely than refusal and structural
likelihood is called preference.
 Preference structure divides second part into preferred and
dispreferred social acts.
Preferred :
Acceptance of something like request , invitation or proposal.
Excepted act is preferred.
Examples :
First person : Will you come at my marriage ?
Second person : yes , Of course.
1st person : can I get your number ?
2nd person : yes .
1st person : can you help me ?
2nd person : sure .
Dispreferred :
Unexpected act or refusal is dispreferred , silence is also
a dispreferred response , after leading to revision of the
first part.
 Silence is risky as it may give the impression of non-
participation in the conversational structure.
Examples :
Sandy : I am sure they will have a great food there
( 1.6 seconds )
Sandy : hmmm - I guess the food isn’t good.
Jack : nah- people mostly go for the music,
Summary :
 dispreferred take more time/language/ effort.
 More language creates more distance between
first and second part.
 Preferred represents closeness and quick
connections.
 Participants try to avoid creating context for
dispreferred e.g. by using pre-sequence.

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Conversational analysis

  • 2.  Contents . Interaction . Conversation . Conversation analysis . Terms regarding conversation analysis . Pauses, overlaps, and backchannels . Conversational style . Adjacency pairs . Preference structure
  • 3. Interaction; The term interaction is applied in social encounter, when the people having discussion with each other. The interaction can be between; Teacher and students. Doctor and patient. Individual and group and may more. Conversation ; It is a discussion among people the conversation can be between two people and more than two.
  • 4. Conversation structure; The basic structure of conversation is I speak ---You Speak--- I speak--- you speak called conversational analysis. Conversation Analysis There are many metaphor is used to describe the conversation structure such as;  Conversation is like a dance, conversation partners coordinating their movement smoothly. Conversation is like a traffic which involve lots of alternative movements without any crash.
  • 5. Some words which are used in conversation analysis  Floor The right to speak is called floor.  Turn Having control of this floor at any time. Turn-taking  In any situation where the control is not fixed, any one can attempt to get it. Local management system Set of conversation for getting, keeping and giving away turns.
  • 6.  Pauses Conversation involves two or more participants and only one person can speak at a time. While conversation between two person there must be a silence for some second that can be pauses. Overlaps It is something when both speakers are trying to speak at the same time that can be awkward.
  • 7. Backchannels/Backchannels signals. Speaker always expect from his partner that he is listening. There are some ways of going this, Head nods, smiles, gestures, and vocal indications are called backchannel signals. This is something is feedback which is used by the listener that message is being received. i.e. conversation on telephone, face to face conversation.
  • 8. Conversational Style There are individual and cultural differences in conversational style. a) High involvement style. Some people are very active and there speaking rate is very fast, and there is no pausing between those speakers and may have overlaps. b) High considerateness style This style is opposite from the previous style in which speakers have a sloe rate of speaking and may have pauses in conversation. Due to pauses it may not have overlaps there will be no interruption.
  • 9. Adjacency pairs The automatic sequence while conversation is called adjacency pairs. Adjacency pairs always consist of two parts. The first and the second parts. A: Hello B: Hi! A: How are you? B: Fine! A: see you! B: bye!
  • 10. Preference structure : Acceptance is structurally more likely than refusal and structural likelihood is called preference.  Preference structure divides second part into preferred and dispreferred social acts. Preferred : Acceptance of something like request , invitation or proposal. Excepted act is preferred.
  • 11. Examples : First person : Will you come at my marriage ? Second person : yes , Of course. 1st person : can I get your number ? 2nd person : yes . 1st person : can you help me ? 2nd person : sure .
  • 12. Dispreferred : Unexpected act or refusal is dispreferred , silence is also a dispreferred response , after leading to revision of the first part.  Silence is risky as it may give the impression of non- participation in the conversational structure. Examples : Sandy : I am sure they will have a great food there ( 1.6 seconds ) Sandy : hmmm - I guess the food isn’t good. Jack : nah- people mostly go for the music,
  • 13. Summary :  dispreferred take more time/language/ effort.  More language creates more distance between first and second part.  Preferred represents closeness and quick connections.  Participants try to avoid creating context for dispreferred e.g. by using pre-sequence.