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OPTICAL FIBER
COMMUNICATION
BY NAVEEN JAKHAR, ITS
IN THIS PRESENTATION…
 GENERAL: History of Transmission Systems
 OFC
• History of OFC
• Advantages
• Applications
• ITU-T Recommendations
• Fiber optic principle
• Windows of operation
• Trends in OF Communication
• Fiber classification
• OF Cable Types
• Optical Fiber transmission impairments
• Optical Sources and Detectors
• Optical Link Characterization and Design
13 September 2016 2
HISTORY OF TRANSMISSION
SYSTEMS
The developments…
• Open Wire Systems
• Coaxial Cables
• UHF Systems
• Microwave Systems
• Digital Transmission Systems
• Satellite Communication Systems
• Optical Fiber Cable
13 September 2016 3
OPEN WIRE SYSTEMS
• Till 1950s, the long distance voice
communication was almost entirely
transported over Open Wire Carrier
system.
• The voice signals for these systems
were multiplexed using FDM to a
higher frequency carrier and carried
through open wire systems.
• These open wire systems were
capable of carrying traffic of three
to twelve subscribers at a time.
13 September 2016 4
COAXIAL CABLES
• With the introduction of U/G symmetrical
pair cable carrier system which was
followed by the Coaxial Cable system,
greatly enhanced, by the decade end, the
simultaneous voice channel carrying
capacity to 960 voice channels.
• The first Coaxial Cable System was
commissioned between Agra and Delhi in
the year 1959.
• Over the years, this system was improved
and developed to carry 2700
simultaneous voice channels.
13 September 2016 5
UHF SYSTEMS
• Close on the heel of coaxial systems, in the
mid-60s wireless microwave systems
were developed and inducted in the
network.
• The first Microwave system was installed in
1965 between Calcutta and Asansole.
Microwave systems with 60, 300 and 1800
voice channels capacity were inducted
into the telecom network subsequently.
• These systems were mostly indigenous
(developed and manufactured within the
country).
13 September 2016 6
DIGITAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
• By mid-1980s Digital TAX exchanges were introduced in the network with the aim
to improve STD services.
• Till 1989, Coaxial cable and UHF transmission medias were used to provide
connectivity.
• Induction of Digital Transmission Systems which were mainly Digital UHF, Digital
Microwave, Digital Coaxial and Optical Fiber Systems, started during 1989-90.
U/G coaxial cable was initially used for the connectivity of large and medium
cities and however, later on, it was also used for connecting small towns.
• Media diversity was provided through Radio Relay (UHF and Microwave)
Systems. These Radio relay systems were very reliable and beneficial particularly
for connecting hilly and backward areas where laying and maintenance of
underground cable is extremely difficult. 13 September 2016 7
SATELLITE SYSTEMS
• Work for connecting far flung, inaccessible area, and island community started
in late 70s by DoT.
• The first Domestic Satellite Network was established by connecting Port-Blair and
Car-Nicobar in Andaman & Nicobar islands, Kavaratti in Lakshadweep islands, Leh
in Ladakh region and Aizwal in North Eastern region. These station were
simultaneously linked to the gateway at Delhi and Chennai. This satellite network
was commissioned in November 1980 through International Telecommunication
Satellite.
• Satellite Communication capacity increased with launch of INSAT-1 and INSAT-2
series satellites. MCPC - VSAT (Multi Channel per Carrier - Very Small Aperture
Terminals) systems were developed and deployed in remote and inaccessible
areas of Garhwal region of (then) Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal
Pradesh, J&K, Orissa, Sikkim etc. for providing STD facilities. These terminals were
linked to an Earth Station generally co-located with the TAX.
13 September 2016 8
OPTICAL FIBER CABLE
• Introduction of Optical Fiber Cable Systems in the country started in 1989-
90.
• These systems are capable of carrying large no. of voice channels
compared to the existing technologies that were available at that time and
offer the circuit at low cost per kilometer of circuit. The DoT deployed these
OFC systems in a big way for connectivity right upto the level of Tehsils.
• By the year 2000, a huge network of optical fiber cable was in place and a
large number of PDH & SDH technology OFC systems were deployed for
providing backbone connectivity to switching network.
• From 2002-03, DWDM technology systems were inducted over the OFC
backbone.
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BSNL
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BSNL
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• 1790: Optical Semaphore invented by Claude Chappe of France.
• 1880: Photophone invented by A.G. Bell at Washington.
• 1940: Optical guides reflective coated to carry visible light.
• 1960: LASER invented by Theodore Maiman.
• 1963: Unguided communications with LASER.
• 1966: OPTICAL FIBER invented by Corning Glass researchers:
ROBERT MAURER
DONALD KECK &
PETER SCHULTZ
13 September 2016 12
Optical Communications
- Historical Perspective
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
(CONTD…)
• Material for fiber was fused silica with special properties like:
• Extreme purity
• A high melting point
• Low refractive index.
Initially very high loss fiber was developed.
Typical loss of ~17db/km [at λ =820 nm]
• 1970: low loss fiber developed.
OFC systems became practical.
• Currently :
fiber losses=<0.2-0.35 db/km
13 September 2016 13
13 September 2016 14
The Developments
ADVANTAGES OF FIBER COMMUNICATIONS
• High information carrying capacity
• Low attenuation
• Plentiful Resource
• Greater safety
• Immunity to RFI
• Immunity to EMI
• No cross-talk
• Higher Security
• Small size and light weight
• Less Corrosion
• Less temperature sensitive
13 September 2016 15
ADVANTAGES OF FIBER COMMUNICATIONS
• High information carrying capacity:
A valid comparison would be on the basis of cost per meter
per telephone channel, rather than just cost per meter.
• Resource plentiful:
The basic materials are either silicon dioxide for glass fibers
or transparent plastic which are plentiful.
• Less attenuation:
A typical fiber attenuation is 0.3 dB/km. Whereas a coaxial
cable (RG-19/U) will attenuate a 100MHz signal by 22.6
dB/km.
• Greater safety:
Optic fibers glass/plastic, are insulators. No electric current
flows through them.
13 September 2016 16
ADVANTAGES OF FIBER
COMMUNICATIONS (2)
• Immunity to RFI:
Fibers have excellent rejection of radio-frequency
interference (RFI) caused by radio and television stations,
radar, and other electronics equipment.
• Immunity to EMI:
Fibers have excellent rejection of electromagnetic
interference (EMI caused by natural phenomena such as
lightning, sparking, etc).
• No cross-talk:
The optic wave within the fiber is trapped; none leaks out
during transmission to interfere with signals in other fibers.
• Higher Security:
fibers offer higher degree of security and privacy.
13 September 2016 17
ADVANTAGES OF FIBER
COMMUNICATIONS (3)
• Small size and light weight:
typical optical cable fiber dia 125m, cable dia 2.5 mm and
weight 6 kg/km. A coaxial cable (RG-19/U), outer dia 28.4 mm,
and weight 1110 kg/km.
• Less Corrosion:
Corrosion caused by water/chemicals is less severe for glass
than for copper.
• Less temperature sensitive:
Glass fibers can withstand extreme temperatures before
deteriorating. Temperatures up to 800 ̊C leave glass fiber
unaffected.
13 September 2016 18
APPLICATIONS OF OF COMMUNICATIONS
• Telecommunications
Long-Distance Transmission
Inter-exchange junction
Fiber in the loop (FITL) -- FTTC, FTTB, FTTH
• Video Transmission
Television broadcast, cable television (CATV), remote monitoring, etc.
• Broadband Services
provisioning of broadband services, such as video request service,
home study courses, medical facilities, etc.
• High EMI areas
Along railway track, through power substations can be suspended
directly from power line towers, or poles.
• Military applications
• Non-communication fiber optics: e.g. fiber sensors.13 September 2016 19
BSNL
13 September 2016 20
• Dark fiber is optical fiber infrastructure that’s in place, but not
being used
• Its like an unplugged electrical extension cord
• It can be ‘lit’ with active telecom equipment, when required by
TSPs or other end-users
• Provides significant cost savings and substantial time-
efficiencies to end users
• In India, companies registered as IP-I can provide assets such
as Dark Fiber.
The ‘Dark Fiber’ Concept
13 September 2016 21
Series of Recommendations by the ITU-T, A to Z
G series: Transmission systems and media, digital
systems and networks
Some of the G series:
G.600-G.699: Transmission media and optical systems
characteristics
G.700-G.799: Digital terminal equipments
G.800-G.899: Digital networks
G.900-G.999: Digital sections and digital line system
ITU-T Recommendations
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13 September 2016 22
G.600-G.699: Transmission media and optical systems
characteristics
G.600-G.609: General
G.610-G.619: Symmetric cable pairs
G.620-G.629: Land coaxial cable pairs
G.630-G.639: Submarine cables
G.640-G.649: Free space optical systems
G.650-G.659: Optical fibre cables
G.660-G.679: Characteristics of optical
components and subsystems
G.680-G.699: Characteristics of optical systems
ITU-T Recommendations
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13 September 2016 23
Fiber optic principle
Ray Theory:
• A number of optic phenomena are adequately explained by considering light
as narrow rays.
• The theory based on this approach is called geometrical optics.
• These rays obey following rules:
1. In a vacuum, rays travel at a velocity of c = 3x108m/s. In any other medium,
rays travel at a slower speed, given by
v = c/n n = refractive index of the medium.
2. Rays travel straight paths, unless deflected by some change in medium.
3. If any power crosses a medium-boundary, the ray direction is given by
Snell’s law:
n1 sin θi = n2 sin θr
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THEORY OF FIBER OPTICS
13 September 2016 25
INCIDENT RAYS
REFLECTED RAYS
REFRACTED RAYS
1
1
3
2
2
3
n2
θr
θi
Principle of Total Internal Reflection
n1 = 1.465
n2 = 1.461
n1
THE OPTICAL FIBER
13 September 2016 26
Cladding (n2)
125 mCore (n1)6-10 m
Refractive index n1 > n2
3
2
1
3
2
1
LIGHT PROPAGATION IN FIBER
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Core (n1)
Cladding (n2)
Air 1.0
Carbon dioxide 1.0
Water 1.33
Ethyl alcohol 1.36
Magnesium fluoride 1.38
Fused silica 1.46
Polymethyl methacrylate polymer 1.5
Glass 1.54
Sodium chloride 1.59
Zinc sulfide 2.3
Gallium arsenide 3.35 Silicon
3.5
Indium gallium arsenide phosphoide 3.51
Aluminium gallium arsenide 3.6
Germanium 4.0
13 September 2016 28
Index of Refraction in
different materials
DUAL NATURE OF LIGHT
Wave Nature of Light :
• Many light phenomena can be explained by realizing that light is an
electromagnetic wave having very high oscillation frequencies.
• The wavelength of light beam:
 = v/f
{where, v = velocity of light , f = frequency}
Particle Nature of light :
• Sometimes light behaves as though it were made up of very small particles
called photons. The energy of a single photon in Joules is:
Wp = hf
{where, h = 6.626 x 10-34 js [Planck’s constant], f = frequency}
13 September 2016 29
RELATION BETWEEN Λ AND REFRACTIVE
INDEX
WHEN LIGHT WAVES ENTER A MEDIUM, THEIR
WAVELENGTH IS REDUCED BY A FACTOR EQUAL
TO THE REFRACTIVE INDEX N OF THE MEDIUM BUT
THE FREQUENCY OF THE WAVE IS UNCHANGED
if λ0 is the vacuum wavelength of the wave the
wavelength of the wave in the medium, λ' is
given by
13 September 2016 31
1015
1014
1013
1012
1011
1010
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
RADIO
POWER
MICROWAVE
ULTRAVIOLET
INFRARED
Electromagnetic Spectrum
V I S I B L E L I G H T
UHF
VHF
HF
MF
LF
VLF
Hz
OPTICAL SPECTRUM
• Light
• Ultraviolet (UV)
• Visible
• Infrared (IR)
• Communication wavelengths
• 850, 1310, 1550 nm
• Low-loss wavelengths
• Specialty wavelengths
• 980, 1480, 1625 nm
UV IR
Visible
850 nm
980 nm
1310 nm
1480 nm
1550 nm
1625 nm

125 GHz/nm
• Visible light has a wavelength range of 0.4-0.7 m
• Silica glass fiber attenuates light heavily in visible &
UV regions.
• Glass fiber is relatively efficient in wavelength ranges
upto and in the infrared region.
• Three windows of operation are at 850, 1310 and
1550 nm.
13 September 2016 33
Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
WINDOW CONCEPT IN
OFC SPECTRUM
Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
13 September 2016 35
Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
13 September 2016 36
Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
First Window
This is the band around 800-900 nm. This was the first
band used for optical fiber communication in the 1970s
and early 1980s.
The fiber losses are relatively high in this region,
Therefore, the first telecom window is suitable only for
short-distance transmission.
This window was relevant only for the initial silica fiber,
which had different attenuation characteristics
compared to low loss fiber developed later on.
13 September 2016 37
Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
Second Window
This is the window around 1310 nm which came into use
in the mid 1980s. This band had the property of zero
dispersion of light waves(on single-mode fiber).
The fiber attenuation in this window is about 0.35-0.4
dB/km.
This is the band in which the majority of long distance
communications systems were designed.
13 September 2016 38
Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
Third Window
The window from around 1510 nm to 1625 nm has the
lowest attenuation available on current optical fiber
(about 0.26 dB/km). In addition optical amplifiers are
available which operate in this band.
Almost all new communications systems, from the late
1990s operate in this window.
The loss peaks at 1250 and 1400 nm are due to traces
of water in the glass.
WAVELENGTH BANDS USED IN OFC
BAND DESCRIPTION WAVELENGTH RANGE
nm
O Band Original 1260-1360
E Band Extended 1360-1460
S Band Short wavelength 1460-1530
C Band Conventional 1530-1565
L Band Long wavelength 1565-1625
U Band Ultra long wavelength 1625-1675
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13 September 2016 40
Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
• The potential transmission capacity of optical fiber is
enormous.
• The second window is about 100 nm wide and ranges from
1260 nm to 1360 nm (loss of about 0.4dB/ km). The third &
fourth window is around 100 nm wide and ranges from
1530 nm to 1625 nm (loss of about 0.26 dB/km).
• The useful range is therefore around 200 nm.
• A λ-range of 100nm will correspond to a frequency
bandwidth of 30 THz (on a centre wavelength of 1000nm).
• Assuming that a modulation technique resulting in 1 bit/Hz
of analog bandwidth is available, then we can expect a
digital bandwidth of 3 ×1013 bits per second (30Tbps)!
BSNL
13 September 2016 41
G.655 standard OF cable
•Single mode
•1550 nm
•Carries up to 200 λ
DWDM
•10 Gbps to 40 Gbps per λ- commercially deployed
•100G and beyond 100G products are under
development.
Example:
Bharti-Singtel Chennai-Singapore Submarine
OFC link is 104λ x STM-64 ! (as in 2004-05)
working on G.655 NZDSF
Current trends
BSNL
13 September 2016 42
Bell Labs in Sep’2009 announced ultra-high speed
transmission of more than 100 Petabits per
second.kilometer, shown over a distance of 7000kms.
155 λ x 100G DWDM was used for the experiment.
Employs Advanced DSP with Coherent Detection.
Corning Inc. has developed a new multi-core fiber
design. In Jan’2013, NEC Labs and Corning announced
transmission speeds upto 1.05 Pb/s over 52.4km of a
single 12-core fiber.
Latest trends
BSNL
13 September 2016 45
Classification of
Optical Fibers
CONSTRUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBER
• Basic fiber has a core
with refractive index n1
surrounded by cladding
layer with refractive
index n2, n1 > n2
• Change in RI is achieved
by selectively doping the
core (like with GeO2).
• The difference between
n1 and n2 is less than
0.5%.
• The cladding layer is
surrounded by one or
more protective coating.
13 September 2016 46
CORE
CLADDING
n2
n2
n1 > n2n1 > n2
CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBER
Material Classification:
• Liquid core fiber.
• Fused-silica-glass fiber: have silica-core and silica-cladding.
• Plastic-clad-silica (PCS) fiber: have silica core and plastic cladding.
• All-plastic fiber : have both core and cladding made up of plastic.
• Compound glass fiber such as fluoride glass fiber.
Modal classification :
• Fibers can be classified based on number of modes available for
propagation - Single-mode (SM) fiber
- Multi-mode (MM) fiber
Classification based on refractive index profile :
• Step index (SI) fiber
• Graded index (GRIN) fiber
13 September 2016 47
BSNL
CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBER
Single-mode (SM) fiber
• one mode of light at a time through the core
• modal dispersion is greatly reduced
• a higher bandwidth capacity
 Multi-mode (MM) fiber
• has larger core, than the SM fiber
• numerous modes or light paths, can be carried simultaneously
through the waveguide.
oStep Index (SI)- there is a step in the refractive index at the
core and cladding interface
oGraded-index (GRIN) refers to the fact that the refractive index of
the core is graded- it gradually decreases from the center to
outward of the core; reducing modal dispersion.
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BSNL
CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL
FIBER
13 September 2016 49
8-12 m 125m
50 - 100m 125m
50 m 125m
c) Multi mode GRIN fiber (Graded-Index)
b) Multi mode step-index fiber
a) Single mode step-index fiber
Index profile
Index profile
Index profile
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13 September 2016
50
Output of Single mode fiber
Output of Multi-mode fiber
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OPTICAL FIBER CABLE
TYPES
13 September 2016 51
CABLING OF OPTICAL
FIBER
• Cabling is needed to protect the fiber from mechanical
damage and environmental degradation.
• OF Cables have following common parts-
13 September 2016 52
BSNL
OF CABLE CROSS SECTION
1.Optical fibre
2.Central
strength
member
3.Filling
compound
4.Loose tube
5.Filler
6.Wrapping
tape
7.Optional
aramid or
glass strength
members
8.Sheath
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BSNL
CABLE COMPONENTS
13 September 2016 54
Component Function Material
Buffer/ loose tube
buffer
Protect fibre From Outside Nylon, Mylar, Plastic
Central Member
Facilitate Stranding,
Temperature Stability, Anti-
Buckling
Steel, Fibre glass
Primary Strength
Member
Tensile Strength (pulling,
shearing, and bending)
Aramid Yarn, Steel
Cable Jacket
Contain and Protect Cable Core
Abrasion Resistance
polyethylene, polyurethane,
polyvinyl chloride or teflon.
Cable Filling
Compound
Prevent Moisture intrusion and
Migration
Water Blocking Compound
Armoring
Rodent Protection, Crush
Resistance
Steel Tape
• Centre Strengthening
Member – GRP(glass
reinforced plastic),
FRP(fiber reinforced plastic)
• Loose Tube Buffers – 2.4
mm dia, Fibres are
placed inside along with
jelly.
• Primary Strength Member –
Aramid Yarn
• Inner Sheath – Black
• Outer Nylon Sheath -
Orange
13 September 2016 55
OF Cable Construction
BSNL
Loose Tube Buffers
•The Fibers are loosely drawn inside the Buffer
Tubes to take care of Temp. variations
•The OF Cable which is used outside is known as
Loose Tube Buffers
•The Correction Factor is 0.98/0.985
 980 meters of OFC will contain 1000 meters
Fiber inside (Cable length is less by 1.5 to 2%)
13 September 2016 56
OPTICAL FIBER CABLE
TYPES
• Conventional Loose-tube OFC
• Armoured OFC (Underground Installation - Directly Buried)
• Aerial Optical Fibre Cables
• Ribbon OFC – high/very high fiber-count, for OAN
• Micro-duct OFC- high fiber count in same duct
• ADSS(All-Dielectric Self-Supporting) – aerial installations
• OPGW (Optical Ground Wire)- power line installations
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Construction Of Cable
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FIBER COUNT IN CABLE
13 September 2016 59
•6 fiber
•12 fiber
•24 fiber
•48 fiber
•96 fiber
Standard OFC length on drum is
2000M (2Km). Other drum lengths
like 4km are also available.
BSNL
RIBBON-FIBER CABLE
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MICRODUCT OFC
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Armored Cable
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Aerial Cable/Self-
Supporting
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ADSS CABLE
(33 KV)
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OPGW
(400 KV)
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These are tight Buffered cable
•Has only one fibre per cable
•Connector ended
•Used in the indoor
applications
•Connecting equipment to
outside OFC cable
•Connecting meters to the
equipment
micro
meter
Pig Tail Cable
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Specification Of OFC
Fibre -
Core - 8-10 Microns (Single Mode)
50 - 100Microns (Multimode)
Cladding - 125 Microns (overall Dia)
Attenuation - better than 0.5 db /KM
Primary Coating 250 Microns UV cured Acrylate
Secondary Coating –2.4 mm nylon PE Jelly filled tube
Central Strength Member – Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
Moisture Barrier- non metallic polythylene sheet free from
pinholes and other defects
Polythene sheath Polythene free from pin holes
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Nylon Outer Sheath (0.7mm thickness)- Protective sheath against
termite & partially against rodent
Strength to withstand a load - 3X9.8 W Newtons, where W is
weight of O/F cable per KM in Kg
MAX Strain allowed in fibre - 0.25%
MAX attenuation variation - Permissible + 0.02 dB from
normal 20 degree centigrade to 60 degree centigrade
Flexibility – Maximum bending radius allowed 24d, d is the
diameter of OF cable
Cable drum lengths - 2 KM +10%
Cable ends - one end fitted with grip
Other end sealed with cap
Specification Of OFC
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OF Cable jointing
OF CABLE JOINTING
Jointing of optical fiber is imperative in fiber communication.
For this the following are used-
CONNECTORS
COUPLERS
SPLICES
OPTICAL FIBER CONNECTORS
CONNECTORS USED FOR ARRANGING TRANSFER
OF OPTICAL ENERGY FROM ONE FIBER OPTIC
COMPONENT TO ANOTHER IN AN OPTICAL FIBER
SYSTEM
COMPONENTS INCLUDE FIBER, FILTER, COUPLER,
OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES ETC.
BSNL
FIBER
CONNECTO
RS
13 September 2016 71
COUPLERS
FIBER OPTIC COUPLERS EITHER SPLIT OPTICAL SIGNALS
INTO MULTIPLE PATHS OR COMBINE MULTIPLE
SIGNALS ON ONE PATH.
. THE NUMBER OF INPUT AND OUTPUT PORTS,
EXPRESSED AS AN N X M CONFIGURATION,
CHARACTERIZES A COUPLER
. FUSED COUPLERS CAN BE MADE IN ANY
CONFIGURATION, BUT THEY COMMONLY USE
MULTIPLES OF TWO (2 X 2, 4 X 4, 8 X 8, ETC.).
SPLITTERS
THE SIMPLEST COUPLERS ARE FIBER OPTIC
SPLITTERS
. THESE DEVICES POSSESS AT LEAST THREE PORTS
.
A TYPICAL
‘T’COUPLER
SPLICES
SPLICE IS A PERMANENT INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN TWO
FIBERS
TWO TYPES OF SPLICES –
•Mechanical splice
•Fusion splice
MECHANICAL SPLICES
FIVE GENERAL STEPS TO COMPLETE
FUSION SPLICE
1. STRIP, CLEAN & CLEAVE
2. LOAD SPLICER
3. SPLICE FIBERS
4. DIAGNOSE AND CORRECT IF ERRORS OCCUR
5. REMOVE AND PROTECT SPLICE
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CLEAVER
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LOAD SPLICER
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RIBBON FUSION SPLICER
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LAYING OF CABLE
• Optic fiber cables are laid underground as well as
overhead.
• Underground laying is much frequent practice.
• Over ground laying is used in special cases
• A large collection of accessories are required to make a
strong and reliable overhead OFC alignment.
• Sometimes ordinary overhead alignments are erected for
emergent situations
13 September 2016 81
PROPERTIES OF OPTICAL
FIBER AND
TRANSMISSION
IMPAIRMENTS
13 September 2016 82
LOSSES IN OPTICAL FIBERS
• There are several points in an optic system where
losses occur.
• These are:
•couplers
•splices
•Connectors
•Fiber itself
13 September 2016 83
CLASSIFICATION OF FIBER
LOSSES
• Losses due to absorption.
• Even the purest glass will absorb heavily within specific
wavelength regions. Other major source of loss is impurities
like, metal ions and OH ions.
• Losses due to scattering:
• caused due to localized variations in density, called Rayleigh
scattering and the loss is:
L = 1.7(0.85/)4 dB/km  is in micrometers
• Losses due to geometric effects:
• micro-bending
• macro-bending
• Losses are also termed as
Attenuation in a fiber
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LOSSES DUE TO MICRO BENDING
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LOSSES DUE TO MACRO BENDING
13 September 2016 86
DISPERSION IN FIBER
• Dispersion is spreading of the optical pulse as it travels down
the length.
• Dispersion limits the information carrying capacity of fiber
• Dispersion is classified as : Chromatic Dispersion , Modal
Dispersion, and PMD
• Chromatic dispersion consists of:
• Material Dispersion
• Waveguide Dispersion
• Modal Dispersion:
• pulse spreading caused by various modes (only for MM
fiber).
• For visible light, refraction indices n of most transparent
materials (e.g., air, glasses) decrease with increasing wavelength
λ
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13 September 2016 88
CONSEQUENCES OF DISPERSION
BSNL
MATERIAL DISPERSION
• Pulse spreading caused due to variation of velocity with
wavelength
• Every laser source has a range of optical wavelengths;
figure shows examples for LD and LED laser sources
13 September 2016 89
BSNL
MATERIAL DISPERSION
13 September 2016 90
FIBER
LOGIC 1 LOGIC 1
λ1
λ
λ
λ
λ
λ
0
2
1
0
2
λλ λ λ1 0 2
1.0
0.5
Light source
spectrum
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HOW TO REDUCE MATERIAL
DISPERSION?
• By using sources with smaller band width or spectral
width
13 September 2016 91
LED 20-100 nm
LD(semiconductor) 1-5 nm
YAG laser 0.1 nm
He Ne laser 0.002nm
BSNL
WAVEGUIDE DISPERSION
• The figure below shows the light distribution inside the
fiber (in the core and cladding) for different wavelengths
• Dispersion directly proportional to wavelength
13 September 2016 92
.
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CHROMATIC DISPERSION
13 September 2016 93For G.652 fiber, CD is nil at 1310nm
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POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION
(PMD)
13 September 2016 94
Most single-mode fibers support two perpendicular
polarization modes, a vertical one and a horizontal one.
Because these polarization states are not maintained,
there occurs an interaction between the pulses that results
is a smearing of the signal.
PMD has more impact on higher bit-rates, more than
10Gbps.
BSNL
13 September 2016 95
DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS
• CD Coefficient
- CD Coefficient, indicated as D, is expressed in ps/(nm.km).
- It specifies the arrival time delay in picoseconds, that would be
included per 1km of the transmission fiber if the wavelength
deviates by 1nm.
• PMD Coefficient
- It is indicated by PMDQ and the unit is ps /(km)-1/2
BSNL
13 September 2016 96
OPTICAL SOURCES
AND
DETECTORS
OPTICAL SOURCES
• The basic elements in transmitters: Light source, Electronic interfaces,
Electronics processing circuitry, Drive circuitry, optical interfaces, output
sensing and stabilization, Temperature sensing and control.
• Most common light sources (the device which actually converts electrical
signals to its optical equipment) :
• LEDs
• LASER diodes.
• Laser power is very sensitive to temperature. Hence temperature sensing
and control is required
• Operating characteristics of a laser are notably, threshold current, output
power, and wavelength change with temperature 13 September 2016 97
BSNL
LED VS LASER DIODE
13 September 2016 98
LED - LIGHT EMITTING DIODE
- Shorthaul and medium haul
communication systems where
- Power requirements are small
- Low bit rate optical communication
- broad spectral width is not a problem
LD - LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation) Diode
- Used for long distance and high bit-rates
-very narrow spectral width (0.1 to 2nm)
Cooled DFB Lasers are available in precisely selected s
(for DWDM applications)
BSNL
LASERS
• Active Transmit device—Converts electrical signal into light
pulse.
• Conversion, or modulation is normally done by externally
modulating a continuous wave of light or by using a device
that can generate modulated light directly.
• Light source used in the design of a system is an important
consideration because it can be one of the most costly
elements.
• Its characteristics are often a strong limiting factor in the
final performance of the optical link
• Light emitting devices used in optical transmission must be
compact, monochromatic, stable, and long-lasting.
13 September 2016 99
BSNL
SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS
• Two type
• Febry Perot- Normally used in SONET/SDH systems
• Distributed Feedback- well suited for DWDM applications, as it
emits a nearly monochromatic light, is capable of high speeds, has
a favorable signal-to-noise ratio.
• The ITU draft standard G.692 defines a laser grid for
point-to-point WDM systems based on 100-GHz
wavelength spacing with a center wavelength of 1553.52
nm
13 September 2016 100
BSNL
EXTERNAL MODULATION IN DFB LASER
13 September 2016 101
DETECTORS
• The basic elements in an optical receiver: Detector,
Amplifier, Decision circuits
• The detectors used in fiber optic communications are
semiconductor photodiodes or photo detectors.
• It converts the received optical signal into electrical form.
• PiN photodiode: cheaper, less temperature sensitive,
and requires lower reverse bias voltage.
• Avalanche PhotoDiode (APD): used where high
receive sensitivity and accuracy is required.
• But APDs are expensive and more temp sensitive
13 September 2016 102
OPTICAL LINK DESIGN
BASIC FIBER OPTIC
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
An Optical Fiber System consists of :
a transmitter to convert electrical signals to optical
a receiver to convert optical signal to electrical
a medium - optical fiber cable.
13 September 2016 104
BSNL
• Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure)
• X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10-.3 = 0.501
• Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is power
and represents loss or gain.
• Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt
X mW is 10log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW
• Wavelength (): length of a wave in a particular medium. Common
unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm)
• 390nm (violet) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, & 1550nm
• Frequency (): the number of times that a wave is produced within a
particular time period. Common unit: TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per
second (Thz)
• Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light   x  = C
13 September 2016 105
Some terminology
BSNL
• Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
• The extent to which optical power from the source is diminished as it passes
through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This
specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable
can be properly illuminated by a given light source.
• Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR) = Ratio of optical signal power
to noise power for the receiver. (OSNR = 10log10(Ps/Pn)).
13 September 2016 106
Some more terminology
BSNL
DB VERSUS DBM
• dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity (Absolute Value)
A dBm is a specific measurement referenced to 10-3 watts or 1
milliwatt (mW). The calculation, where X is the measured power in watts,
for laser output measured in dBm:
13 September 2016 107
Examples
10dBm 10 mW
0 dBM 1 mW
-3 dBm 500 uW
-10 dBm 100 uW
-30 dBm 1 uW
BSNL
DB VERSUS DBM
13 September 2016 108
• dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)
For example, output power in Watts (A) compared to input
power in Watts (B) used to represent attenuation of a fiber
related to the Common (base 10) logarithm value:
BSNL
BIT ERROR RATE (BER)
• BER is a key objective of the Optical
System Design
• Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER <
BER threshold of the Rx
• BER thresholds are on Data sheets
• Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12
13 September 2016 109
BSNL
OPTICAL BUDGET
Optical Budget is affected by:
• Fiber attenuation
• Splices
• Patch Panels/Connectors
• Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc)
• Bends in fiber
• Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)
13 September 2016 110
Basic Optical Budget = Output Power – Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm R = -30 dBm
Budget = 36 dB
BSNL
OPTICAL LINK BUDGET
13 September 2016 111
Pt - (Lcp+ Lct+ Lsp+ Lfb+ Msys)  Srec
where
Pt = light source transmitting power, in dBm
Lcp =coupling loss source to fiber, in dB
Lct =connector’s losses (2nos, source to fiber & fiber
to detector), in dB
Lsp =splicing losses, in dB
Lfb =fiber loss, in dB
Msys =system loss margin requirement, in dB
Srec =required PD receiver sensitivity, in dBm
BSNL
13 September 2016 112
Transmitter Receiver
Fiber Fiber
Splice
Receiver Sensitivity
Margin
LINK POWER BUDGET
P
O
W
E
R
BSNL
An Optical Link is required to be commissioned between two Stations A & B.
Do the Power Budgeting. Check its feasibility. What is the Total Link Loss?
Data is given below :-
• Distance between two stations = 69 km.
• Splice Loss. = 0.1 dB / Splice.
• Connector Loss. = 1 dB / Connector.
• Coupling Loss (Source to fiber). = 3 dB.
• Laser Output. = 0 dBm.
• Receiver Sensitivity. = -37 dBm.
• fiber Loss. = 0.4 dB/km.
• System Margin. = 3 dB.
• Extra Cable to be kept at Joint = 20 m / Joint.
• fiber Length to be taken. = 102% of Cable Length.
• Shrinkage. = 1 %.
• Extra Cable at Terminals = 100m each
• Cable Length on drum = 2km /cable drum
13 September 2016 113
EXERCISE
BSNL
Distance Between Station A & B = 69 km.
Cable Length after taking Shrinkage = 69x101% = 69.69 km.
Number of Cable Drums required = 69.69/2 = 35.
Total number of Splices in the Cable Route = 35- 1= 34.
Extra Cable to be kept at Joints = 20x34 = 680 m.
Leading-in Cable at Both Ends = 100+100=200m.
As the Cable Length exceeds 70 km, there will be one more Joint in the Route and
we need to provide additional 20 meter of cable at Joint Location, Hence :
Total number of Splices in the Link = 34+1= 35
Cable Length after keeping provision for Joint = 69.69+0.70+0.20
=70.59 km
Fiber Length. =70.59 x 102%
= 72.00 km.
13 September 2016 114
SOLUTION
Contd…
BSNL
Link Loss:
Source to Fiber Coupling Loss = 03.00 dB.
Connectors Losses = 1 x 2 = 02.00 dB.
Fiber Loss = 0.4 x 72.0 = 28.80 dB.
Splicing Loss = 0.1 x35 = 03.50 dB.
Total link loss = 37.30 dB.
Laser Output – Link Loss = 0 – 37.30 = -37.30dBm.
Projected loss by including 3dB Margin = -40.30 dBm
Which is beyond Receiver Sensitivity level of -37 dBm.
Hence Link is NOT Feasible! 13 September 2016 115
SOLUTION
THANK YOU
13 September 2016 116

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Concepts of optical fiber communication

  • 2. IN THIS PRESENTATION…  GENERAL: History of Transmission Systems  OFC • History of OFC • Advantages • Applications • ITU-T Recommendations • Fiber optic principle • Windows of operation • Trends in OF Communication • Fiber classification • OF Cable Types • Optical Fiber transmission impairments • Optical Sources and Detectors • Optical Link Characterization and Design 13 September 2016 2
  • 3. HISTORY OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS The developments… • Open Wire Systems • Coaxial Cables • UHF Systems • Microwave Systems • Digital Transmission Systems • Satellite Communication Systems • Optical Fiber Cable 13 September 2016 3
  • 4. OPEN WIRE SYSTEMS • Till 1950s, the long distance voice communication was almost entirely transported over Open Wire Carrier system. • The voice signals for these systems were multiplexed using FDM to a higher frequency carrier and carried through open wire systems. • These open wire systems were capable of carrying traffic of three to twelve subscribers at a time. 13 September 2016 4
  • 5. COAXIAL CABLES • With the introduction of U/G symmetrical pair cable carrier system which was followed by the Coaxial Cable system, greatly enhanced, by the decade end, the simultaneous voice channel carrying capacity to 960 voice channels. • The first Coaxial Cable System was commissioned between Agra and Delhi in the year 1959. • Over the years, this system was improved and developed to carry 2700 simultaneous voice channels. 13 September 2016 5
  • 6. UHF SYSTEMS • Close on the heel of coaxial systems, in the mid-60s wireless microwave systems were developed and inducted in the network. • The first Microwave system was installed in 1965 between Calcutta and Asansole. Microwave systems with 60, 300 and 1800 voice channels capacity were inducted into the telecom network subsequently. • These systems were mostly indigenous (developed and manufactured within the country). 13 September 2016 6
  • 7. DIGITAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS • By mid-1980s Digital TAX exchanges were introduced in the network with the aim to improve STD services. • Till 1989, Coaxial cable and UHF transmission medias were used to provide connectivity. • Induction of Digital Transmission Systems which were mainly Digital UHF, Digital Microwave, Digital Coaxial and Optical Fiber Systems, started during 1989-90. U/G coaxial cable was initially used for the connectivity of large and medium cities and however, later on, it was also used for connecting small towns. • Media diversity was provided through Radio Relay (UHF and Microwave) Systems. These Radio relay systems were very reliable and beneficial particularly for connecting hilly and backward areas where laying and maintenance of underground cable is extremely difficult. 13 September 2016 7
  • 8. SATELLITE SYSTEMS • Work for connecting far flung, inaccessible area, and island community started in late 70s by DoT. • The first Domestic Satellite Network was established by connecting Port-Blair and Car-Nicobar in Andaman & Nicobar islands, Kavaratti in Lakshadweep islands, Leh in Ladakh region and Aizwal in North Eastern region. These station were simultaneously linked to the gateway at Delhi and Chennai. This satellite network was commissioned in November 1980 through International Telecommunication Satellite. • Satellite Communication capacity increased with launch of INSAT-1 and INSAT-2 series satellites. MCPC - VSAT (Multi Channel per Carrier - Very Small Aperture Terminals) systems were developed and deployed in remote and inaccessible areas of Garhwal region of (then) Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, J&K, Orissa, Sikkim etc. for providing STD facilities. These terminals were linked to an Earth Station generally co-located with the TAX. 13 September 2016 8
  • 9. OPTICAL FIBER CABLE • Introduction of Optical Fiber Cable Systems in the country started in 1989- 90. • These systems are capable of carrying large no. of voice channels compared to the existing technologies that were available at that time and offer the circuit at low cost per kilometer of circuit. The DoT deployed these OFC systems in a big way for connectivity right upto the level of Tehsils. • By the year 2000, a huge network of optical fiber cable was in place and a large number of PDH & SDH technology OFC systems were deployed for providing backbone connectivity to switching network. • From 2002-03, DWDM technology systems were inducted over the OFC backbone. 13 September 2016 9
  • 12. • 1790: Optical Semaphore invented by Claude Chappe of France. • 1880: Photophone invented by A.G. Bell at Washington. • 1940: Optical guides reflective coated to carry visible light. • 1960: LASER invented by Theodore Maiman. • 1963: Unguided communications with LASER. • 1966: OPTICAL FIBER invented by Corning Glass researchers: ROBERT MAURER DONALD KECK & PETER SCHULTZ 13 September 2016 12 Optical Communications - Historical Perspective
  • 13. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (CONTD…) • Material for fiber was fused silica with special properties like: • Extreme purity • A high melting point • Low refractive index. Initially very high loss fiber was developed. Typical loss of ~17db/km [at λ =820 nm] • 1970: low loss fiber developed. OFC systems became practical. • Currently : fiber losses=<0.2-0.35 db/km 13 September 2016 13
  • 14. 13 September 2016 14 The Developments
  • 15. ADVANTAGES OF FIBER COMMUNICATIONS • High information carrying capacity • Low attenuation • Plentiful Resource • Greater safety • Immunity to RFI • Immunity to EMI • No cross-talk • Higher Security • Small size and light weight • Less Corrosion • Less temperature sensitive 13 September 2016 15
  • 16. ADVANTAGES OF FIBER COMMUNICATIONS • High information carrying capacity: A valid comparison would be on the basis of cost per meter per telephone channel, rather than just cost per meter. • Resource plentiful: The basic materials are either silicon dioxide for glass fibers or transparent plastic which are plentiful. • Less attenuation: A typical fiber attenuation is 0.3 dB/km. Whereas a coaxial cable (RG-19/U) will attenuate a 100MHz signal by 22.6 dB/km. • Greater safety: Optic fibers glass/plastic, are insulators. No electric current flows through them. 13 September 2016 16
  • 17. ADVANTAGES OF FIBER COMMUNICATIONS (2) • Immunity to RFI: Fibers have excellent rejection of radio-frequency interference (RFI) caused by radio and television stations, radar, and other electronics equipment. • Immunity to EMI: Fibers have excellent rejection of electromagnetic interference (EMI caused by natural phenomena such as lightning, sparking, etc). • No cross-talk: The optic wave within the fiber is trapped; none leaks out during transmission to interfere with signals in other fibers. • Higher Security: fibers offer higher degree of security and privacy. 13 September 2016 17
  • 18. ADVANTAGES OF FIBER COMMUNICATIONS (3) • Small size and light weight: typical optical cable fiber dia 125m, cable dia 2.5 mm and weight 6 kg/km. A coaxial cable (RG-19/U), outer dia 28.4 mm, and weight 1110 kg/km. • Less Corrosion: Corrosion caused by water/chemicals is less severe for glass than for copper. • Less temperature sensitive: Glass fibers can withstand extreme temperatures before deteriorating. Temperatures up to 800 ̊C leave glass fiber unaffected. 13 September 2016 18
  • 19. APPLICATIONS OF OF COMMUNICATIONS • Telecommunications Long-Distance Transmission Inter-exchange junction Fiber in the loop (FITL) -- FTTC, FTTB, FTTH • Video Transmission Television broadcast, cable television (CATV), remote monitoring, etc. • Broadband Services provisioning of broadband services, such as video request service, home study courses, medical facilities, etc. • High EMI areas Along railway track, through power substations can be suspended directly from power line towers, or poles. • Military applications • Non-communication fiber optics: e.g. fiber sensors.13 September 2016 19
  • 20. BSNL 13 September 2016 20 • Dark fiber is optical fiber infrastructure that’s in place, but not being used • Its like an unplugged electrical extension cord • It can be ‘lit’ with active telecom equipment, when required by TSPs or other end-users • Provides significant cost savings and substantial time- efficiencies to end users • In India, companies registered as IP-I can provide assets such as Dark Fiber. The ‘Dark Fiber’ Concept
  • 21. 13 September 2016 21 Series of Recommendations by the ITU-T, A to Z G series: Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks Some of the G series: G.600-G.699: Transmission media and optical systems characteristics G.700-G.799: Digital terminal equipments G.800-G.899: Digital networks G.900-G.999: Digital sections and digital line system ITU-T Recommendations
  • 22. BSNL 13 September 2016 22 G.600-G.699: Transmission media and optical systems characteristics G.600-G.609: General G.610-G.619: Symmetric cable pairs G.620-G.629: Land coaxial cable pairs G.630-G.639: Submarine cables G.640-G.649: Free space optical systems G.650-G.659: Optical fibre cables G.660-G.679: Characteristics of optical components and subsystems G.680-G.699: Characteristics of optical systems ITU-T Recommendations
  • 23. BSNL 13 September 2016 23 Fiber optic principle
  • 24. Ray Theory: • A number of optic phenomena are adequately explained by considering light as narrow rays. • The theory based on this approach is called geometrical optics. • These rays obey following rules: 1. In a vacuum, rays travel at a velocity of c = 3x108m/s. In any other medium, rays travel at a slower speed, given by v = c/n n = refractive index of the medium. 2. Rays travel straight paths, unless deflected by some change in medium. 3. If any power crosses a medium-boundary, the ray direction is given by Snell’s law: n1 sin θi = n2 sin θr 13 September 2016 24 THEORY OF FIBER OPTICS
  • 25. 13 September 2016 25 INCIDENT RAYS REFLECTED RAYS REFRACTED RAYS 1 1 3 2 2 3 n2 θr θi Principle of Total Internal Reflection n1 = 1.465 n2 = 1.461 n1
  • 26. THE OPTICAL FIBER 13 September 2016 26 Cladding (n2) 125 mCore (n1)6-10 m Refractive index n1 > n2
  • 27. 3 2 1 3 2 1 LIGHT PROPAGATION IN FIBER 13 September 2016 27 Core (n1) Cladding (n2)
  • 28. Air 1.0 Carbon dioxide 1.0 Water 1.33 Ethyl alcohol 1.36 Magnesium fluoride 1.38 Fused silica 1.46 Polymethyl methacrylate polymer 1.5 Glass 1.54 Sodium chloride 1.59 Zinc sulfide 2.3 Gallium arsenide 3.35 Silicon 3.5 Indium gallium arsenide phosphoide 3.51 Aluminium gallium arsenide 3.6 Germanium 4.0 13 September 2016 28 Index of Refraction in different materials
  • 29. DUAL NATURE OF LIGHT Wave Nature of Light : • Many light phenomena can be explained by realizing that light is an electromagnetic wave having very high oscillation frequencies. • The wavelength of light beam:  = v/f {where, v = velocity of light , f = frequency} Particle Nature of light : • Sometimes light behaves as though it were made up of very small particles called photons. The energy of a single photon in Joules is: Wp = hf {where, h = 6.626 x 10-34 js [Planck’s constant], f = frequency} 13 September 2016 29
  • 30. RELATION BETWEEN Λ AND REFRACTIVE INDEX WHEN LIGHT WAVES ENTER A MEDIUM, THEIR WAVELENGTH IS REDUCED BY A FACTOR EQUAL TO THE REFRACTIVE INDEX N OF THE MEDIUM BUT THE FREQUENCY OF THE WAVE IS UNCHANGED if λ0 is the vacuum wavelength of the wave the wavelength of the wave in the medium, λ' is given by
  • 31. 13 September 2016 31 1015 1014 1013 1012 1011 1010 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 RADIO POWER MICROWAVE ULTRAVIOLET INFRARED Electromagnetic Spectrum V I S I B L E L I G H T UHF VHF HF MF LF VLF Hz
  • 32. OPTICAL SPECTRUM • Light • Ultraviolet (UV) • Visible • Infrared (IR) • Communication wavelengths • 850, 1310, 1550 nm • Low-loss wavelengths • Specialty wavelengths • 980, 1480, 1625 nm UV IR Visible 850 nm 980 nm 1310 nm 1480 nm 1550 nm 1625 nm  125 GHz/nm
  • 33. • Visible light has a wavelength range of 0.4-0.7 m • Silica glass fiber attenuates light heavily in visible & UV regions. • Glass fiber is relatively efficient in wavelength ranges upto and in the infrared region. • Three windows of operation are at 850, 1310 and 1550 nm. 13 September 2016 33 Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
  • 34. WINDOW CONCEPT IN OFC SPECTRUM Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
  • 35. 13 September 2016 35 Window Concept in OFC Spectrum
  • 36. 13 September 2016 36 Window Concept in OFC Spectrum First Window This is the band around 800-900 nm. This was the first band used for optical fiber communication in the 1970s and early 1980s. The fiber losses are relatively high in this region, Therefore, the first telecom window is suitable only for short-distance transmission. This window was relevant only for the initial silica fiber, which had different attenuation characteristics compared to low loss fiber developed later on.
  • 37. 13 September 2016 37 Window Concept in OFC Spectrum Second Window This is the window around 1310 nm which came into use in the mid 1980s. This band had the property of zero dispersion of light waves(on single-mode fiber). The fiber attenuation in this window is about 0.35-0.4 dB/km. This is the band in which the majority of long distance communications systems were designed.
  • 38. 13 September 2016 38 Window Concept in OFC Spectrum Third Window The window from around 1510 nm to 1625 nm has the lowest attenuation available on current optical fiber (about 0.26 dB/km). In addition optical amplifiers are available which operate in this band. Almost all new communications systems, from the late 1990s operate in this window. The loss peaks at 1250 and 1400 nm are due to traces of water in the glass.
  • 39. WAVELENGTH BANDS USED IN OFC BAND DESCRIPTION WAVELENGTH RANGE nm O Band Original 1260-1360 E Band Extended 1360-1460 S Band Short wavelength 1460-1530 C Band Conventional 1530-1565 L Band Long wavelength 1565-1625 U Band Ultra long wavelength 1625-1675 13 September 2016 39
  • 40. 13 September 2016 40 Window Concept in OFC Spectrum • The potential transmission capacity of optical fiber is enormous. • The second window is about 100 nm wide and ranges from 1260 nm to 1360 nm (loss of about 0.4dB/ km). The third & fourth window is around 100 nm wide and ranges from 1530 nm to 1625 nm (loss of about 0.26 dB/km). • The useful range is therefore around 200 nm. • A λ-range of 100nm will correspond to a frequency bandwidth of 30 THz (on a centre wavelength of 1000nm). • Assuming that a modulation technique resulting in 1 bit/Hz of analog bandwidth is available, then we can expect a digital bandwidth of 3 ×1013 bits per second (30Tbps)!
  • 41. BSNL 13 September 2016 41 G.655 standard OF cable •Single mode •1550 nm •Carries up to 200 λ DWDM •10 Gbps to 40 Gbps per λ- commercially deployed •100G and beyond 100G products are under development. Example: Bharti-Singtel Chennai-Singapore Submarine OFC link is 104λ x STM-64 ! (as in 2004-05) working on G.655 NZDSF Current trends
  • 42. BSNL 13 September 2016 42 Bell Labs in Sep’2009 announced ultra-high speed transmission of more than 100 Petabits per second.kilometer, shown over a distance of 7000kms. 155 λ x 100G DWDM was used for the experiment. Employs Advanced DSP with Coherent Detection. Corning Inc. has developed a new multi-core fiber design. In Jan’2013, NEC Labs and Corning announced transmission speeds upto 1.05 Pb/s over 52.4km of a single 12-core fiber. Latest trends
  • 43. BSNL 13 September 2016 45 Classification of Optical Fibers
  • 44. CONSTRUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBER • Basic fiber has a core with refractive index n1 surrounded by cladding layer with refractive index n2, n1 > n2 • Change in RI is achieved by selectively doping the core (like with GeO2). • The difference between n1 and n2 is less than 0.5%. • The cladding layer is surrounded by one or more protective coating. 13 September 2016 46 CORE CLADDING n2 n2 n1 > n2n1 > n2
  • 45. CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBER Material Classification: • Liquid core fiber. • Fused-silica-glass fiber: have silica-core and silica-cladding. • Plastic-clad-silica (PCS) fiber: have silica core and plastic cladding. • All-plastic fiber : have both core and cladding made up of plastic. • Compound glass fiber such as fluoride glass fiber. Modal classification : • Fibers can be classified based on number of modes available for propagation - Single-mode (SM) fiber - Multi-mode (MM) fiber Classification based on refractive index profile : • Step index (SI) fiber • Graded index (GRIN) fiber 13 September 2016 47
  • 46. BSNL CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBER Single-mode (SM) fiber • one mode of light at a time through the core • modal dispersion is greatly reduced • a higher bandwidth capacity  Multi-mode (MM) fiber • has larger core, than the SM fiber • numerous modes or light paths, can be carried simultaneously through the waveguide. oStep Index (SI)- there is a step in the refractive index at the core and cladding interface oGraded-index (GRIN) refers to the fact that the refractive index of the core is graded- it gradually decreases from the center to outward of the core; reducing modal dispersion. 13 September 2016 48
  • 47. BSNL CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBER 13 September 2016 49 8-12 m 125m 50 - 100m 125m 50 m 125m c) Multi mode GRIN fiber (Graded-Index) b) Multi mode step-index fiber a) Single mode step-index fiber Index profile Index profile Index profile
  • 48. BSNL 13 September 2016 50 Output of Single mode fiber Output of Multi-mode fiber
  • 50. CABLING OF OPTICAL FIBER • Cabling is needed to protect the fiber from mechanical damage and environmental degradation. • OF Cables have following common parts- 13 September 2016 52
  • 51. BSNL OF CABLE CROSS SECTION 1.Optical fibre 2.Central strength member 3.Filling compound 4.Loose tube 5.Filler 6.Wrapping tape 7.Optional aramid or glass strength members 8.Sheath 13 September 2016 53
  • 52. BSNL CABLE COMPONENTS 13 September 2016 54 Component Function Material Buffer/ loose tube buffer Protect fibre From Outside Nylon, Mylar, Plastic Central Member Facilitate Stranding, Temperature Stability, Anti- Buckling Steel, Fibre glass Primary Strength Member Tensile Strength (pulling, shearing, and bending) Aramid Yarn, Steel Cable Jacket Contain and Protect Cable Core Abrasion Resistance polyethylene, polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride or teflon. Cable Filling Compound Prevent Moisture intrusion and Migration Water Blocking Compound Armoring Rodent Protection, Crush Resistance Steel Tape
  • 53. • Centre Strengthening Member – GRP(glass reinforced plastic), FRP(fiber reinforced plastic) • Loose Tube Buffers – 2.4 mm dia, Fibres are placed inside along with jelly. • Primary Strength Member – Aramid Yarn • Inner Sheath – Black • Outer Nylon Sheath - Orange 13 September 2016 55 OF Cable Construction
  • 54. BSNL Loose Tube Buffers •The Fibers are loosely drawn inside the Buffer Tubes to take care of Temp. variations •The OF Cable which is used outside is known as Loose Tube Buffers •The Correction Factor is 0.98/0.985  980 meters of OFC will contain 1000 meters Fiber inside (Cable length is less by 1.5 to 2%) 13 September 2016 56
  • 55. OPTICAL FIBER CABLE TYPES • Conventional Loose-tube OFC • Armoured OFC (Underground Installation - Directly Buried) • Aerial Optical Fibre Cables • Ribbon OFC – high/very high fiber-count, for OAN • Micro-duct OFC- high fiber count in same duct • ADSS(All-Dielectric Self-Supporting) – aerial installations • OPGW (Optical Ground Wire)- power line installations 13 September 2016 57
  • 56. BSNL Construction Of Cable 13 September 2016 58
  • 57. BSNL FIBER COUNT IN CABLE 13 September 2016 59 •6 fiber •12 fiber •24 fiber •48 fiber •96 fiber Standard OFC length on drum is 2000M (2Km). Other drum lengths like 4km are also available.
  • 60. BSNL Armored Cable 13 September 2016 62 Aerial Cable/Self- Supporting
  • 61. BSNL ADSS CABLE (33 KV) 13 September 2016 63
  • 63. BSNL These are tight Buffered cable •Has only one fibre per cable •Connector ended •Used in the indoor applications •Connecting equipment to outside OFC cable •Connecting meters to the equipment micro meter Pig Tail Cable 13 September 2016 65
  • 64. BSNL Specification Of OFC Fibre - Core - 8-10 Microns (Single Mode) 50 - 100Microns (Multimode) Cladding - 125 Microns (overall Dia) Attenuation - better than 0.5 db /KM Primary Coating 250 Microns UV cured Acrylate Secondary Coating –2.4 mm nylon PE Jelly filled tube Central Strength Member – Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Moisture Barrier- non metallic polythylene sheet free from pinholes and other defects Polythene sheath Polythene free from pin holes 13 September 2016 66
  • 65. BSNL Nylon Outer Sheath (0.7mm thickness)- Protective sheath against termite & partially against rodent Strength to withstand a load - 3X9.8 W Newtons, where W is weight of O/F cable per KM in Kg MAX Strain allowed in fibre - 0.25% MAX attenuation variation - Permissible + 0.02 dB from normal 20 degree centigrade to 60 degree centigrade Flexibility – Maximum bending radius allowed 24d, d is the diameter of OF cable Cable drum lengths - 2 KM +10% Cable ends - one end fitted with grip Other end sealed with cap Specification Of OFC 13 September 2016 67
  • 66. BSNL 13 September 2016 68 OF Cable jointing
  • 67. OF CABLE JOINTING Jointing of optical fiber is imperative in fiber communication. For this the following are used- CONNECTORS COUPLERS SPLICES
  • 68. OPTICAL FIBER CONNECTORS CONNECTORS USED FOR ARRANGING TRANSFER OF OPTICAL ENERGY FROM ONE FIBER OPTIC COMPONENT TO ANOTHER IN AN OPTICAL FIBER SYSTEM COMPONENTS INCLUDE FIBER, FILTER, COUPLER, OPTO ELECTRONIC DEVICES ETC.
  • 70. COUPLERS FIBER OPTIC COUPLERS EITHER SPLIT OPTICAL SIGNALS INTO MULTIPLE PATHS OR COMBINE MULTIPLE SIGNALS ON ONE PATH. . THE NUMBER OF INPUT AND OUTPUT PORTS, EXPRESSED AS AN N X M CONFIGURATION, CHARACTERIZES A COUPLER . FUSED COUPLERS CAN BE MADE IN ANY CONFIGURATION, BUT THEY COMMONLY USE MULTIPLES OF TWO (2 X 2, 4 X 4, 8 X 8, ETC.).
  • 71. SPLITTERS THE SIMPLEST COUPLERS ARE FIBER OPTIC SPLITTERS . THESE DEVICES POSSESS AT LEAST THREE PORTS . A TYPICAL ‘T’COUPLER
  • 72. SPLICES SPLICE IS A PERMANENT INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN TWO FIBERS TWO TYPES OF SPLICES – •Mechanical splice •Fusion splice
  • 74. FIVE GENERAL STEPS TO COMPLETE FUSION SPLICE 1. STRIP, CLEAN & CLEAVE 2. LOAD SPLICER 3. SPLICE FIBERS 4. DIAGNOSE AND CORRECT IF ERRORS OCCUR 5. REMOVE AND PROTECT SPLICE
  • 77. BSNL RIBBON FUSION SPLICER 13 September 2016 80
  • 78. LAYING OF CABLE • Optic fiber cables are laid underground as well as overhead. • Underground laying is much frequent practice. • Over ground laying is used in special cases • A large collection of accessories are required to make a strong and reliable overhead OFC alignment. • Sometimes ordinary overhead alignments are erected for emergent situations 13 September 2016 81
  • 79. PROPERTIES OF OPTICAL FIBER AND TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENTS 13 September 2016 82
  • 80. LOSSES IN OPTICAL FIBERS • There are several points in an optic system where losses occur. • These are: •couplers •splices •Connectors •Fiber itself 13 September 2016 83
  • 81. CLASSIFICATION OF FIBER LOSSES • Losses due to absorption. • Even the purest glass will absorb heavily within specific wavelength regions. Other major source of loss is impurities like, metal ions and OH ions. • Losses due to scattering: • caused due to localized variations in density, called Rayleigh scattering and the loss is: L = 1.7(0.85/)4 dB/km  is in micrometers • Losses due to geometric effects: • micro-bending • macro-bending • Losses are also termed as Attenuation in a fiber 13 September 2016 84
  • 82. BSNL LOSSES DUE TO MICRO BENDING 13 September 2016 85
  • 83. BSNL LOSSES DUE TO MACRO BENDING 13 September 2016 86
  • 84. DISPERSION IN FIBER • Dispersion is spreading of the optical pulse as it travels down the length. • Dispersion limits the information carrying capacity of fiber • Dispersion is classified as : Chromatic Dispersion , Modal Dispersion, and PMD • Chromatic dispersion consists of: • Material Dispersion • Waveguide Dispersion • Modal Dispersion: • pulse spreading caused by various modes (only for MM fiber). • For visible light, refraction indices n of most transparent materials (e.g., air, glasses) decrease with increasing wavelength λ 13 September 2016 87
  • 85. BSNL 13 September 2016 88 CONSEQUENCES OF DISPERSION
  • 86. BSNL MATERIAL DISPERSION • Pulse spreading caused due to variation of velocity with wavelength • Every laser source has a range of optical wavelengths; figure shows examples for LD and LED laser sources 13 September 2016 89
  • 87. BSNL MATERIAL DISPERSION 13 September 2016 90 FIBER LOGIC 1 LOGIC 1 λ1 λ λ λ λ λ 0 2 1 0 2 λλ λ λ1 0 2 1.0 0.5 Light source spectrum
  • 88. BSNL HOW TO REDUCE MATERIAL DISPERSION? • By using sources with smaller band width or spectral width 13 September 2016 91 LED 20-100 nm LD(semiconductor) 1-5 nm YAG laser 0.1 nm He Ne laser 0.002nm
  • 89. BSNL WAVEGUIDE DISPERSION • The figure below shows the light distribution inside the fiber (in the core and cladding) for different wavelengths • Dispersion directly proportional to wavelength 13 September 2016 92 .
  • 90. BSNL CHROMATIC DISPERSION 13 September 2016 93For G.652 fiber, CD is nil at 1310nm
  • 91. BSNL POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION (PMD) 13 September 2016 94 Most single-mode fibers support two perpendicular polarization modes, a vertical one and a horizontal one. Because these polarization states are not maintained, there occurs an interaction between the pulses that results is a smearing of the signal. PMD has more impact on higher bit-rates, more than 10Gbps.
  • 92. BSNL 13 September 2016 95 DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS • CD Coefficient - CD Coefficient, indicated as D, is expressed in ps/(nm.km). - It specifies the arrival time delay in picoseconds, that would be included per 1km of the transmission fiber if the wavelength deviates by 1nm. • PMD Coefficient - It is indicated by PMDQ and the unit is ps /(km)-1/2
  • 93. BSNL 13 September 2016 96 OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS
  • 94. OPTICAL SOURCES • The basic elements in transmitters: Light source, Electronic interfaces, Electronics processing circuitry, Drive circuitry, optical interfaces, output sensing and stabilization, Temperature sensing and control. • Most common light sources (the device which actually converts electrical signals to its optical equipment) : • LEDs • LASER diodes. • Laser power is very sensitive to temperature. Hence temperature sensing and control is required • Operating characteristics of a laser are notably, threshold current, output power, and wavelength change with temperature 13 September 2016 97
  • 95. BSNL LED VS LASER DIODE 13 September 2016 98 LED - LIGHT EMITTING DIODE - Shorthaul and medium haul communication systems where - Power requirements are small - Low bit rate optical communication - broad spectral width is not a problem LD - LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Diode - Used for long distance and high bit-rates -very narrow spectral width (0.1 to 2nm) Cooled DFB Lasers are available in precisely selected s (for DWDM applications)
  • 96. BSNL LASERS • Active Transmit device—Converts electrical signal into light pulse. • Conversion, or modulation is normally done by externally modulating a continuous wave of light or by using a device that can generate modulated light directly. • Light source used in the design of a system is an important consideration because it can be one of the most costly elements. • Its characteristics are often a strong limiting factor in the final performance of the optical link • Light emitting devices used in optical transmission must be compact, monochromatic, stable, and long-lasting. 13 September 2016 99
  • 97. BSNL SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS • Two type • Febry Perot- Normally used in SONET/SDH systems • Distributed Feedback- well suited for DWDM applications, as it emits a nearly monochromatic light, is capable of high speeds, has a favorable signal-to-noise ratio. • The ITU draft standard G.692 defines a laser grid for point-to-point WDM systems based on 100-GHz wavelength spacing with a center wavelength of 1553.52 nm 13 September 2016 100
  • 98. BSNL EXTERNAL MODULATION IN DFB LASER 13 September 2016 101
  • 99. DETECTORS • The basic elements in an optical receiver: Detector, Amplifier, Decision circuits • The detectors used in fiber optic communications are semiconductor photodiodes or photo detectors. • It converts the received optical signal into electrical form. • PiN photodiode: cheaper, less temperature sensitive, and requires lower reverse bias voltage. • Avalanche PhotoDiode (APD): used where high receive sensitivity and accuracy is required. • But APDs are expensive and more temp sensitive 13 September 2016 102
  • 101. BASIC FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM An Optical Fiber System consists of : a transmitter to convert electrical signals to optical a receiver to convert optical signal to electrical a medium - optical fiber cable. 13 September 2016 104
  • 102. BSNL • Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure) • X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10-.3 = 0.501 • Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is power and represents loss or gain. • Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt X mW is 10log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW • Wavelength (): length of a wave in a particular medium. Common unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm) • 390nm (violet) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, & 1550nm • Frequency (): the number of times that a wave is produced within a particular time period. Common unit: TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per second (Thz) • Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light   x  = C 13 September 2016 105 Some terminology
  • 103. BSNL • Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km • The extent to which optical power from the source is diminished as it passes through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable can be properly illuminated by a given light source. • Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR) = Ratio of optical signal power to noise power for the receiver. (OSNR = 10log10(Ps/Pn)). 13 September 2016 106 Some more terminology
  • 104. BSNL DB VERSUS DBM • dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity (Absolute Value) A dBm is a specific measurement referenced to 10-3 watts or 1 milliwatt (mW). The calculation, where X is the measured power in watts, for laser output measured in dBm: 13 September 2016 107 Examples 10dBm 10 mW 0 dBM 1 mW -3 dBm 500 uW -10 dBm 100 uW -30 dBm 1 uW
  • 105. BSNL DB VERSUS DBM 13 September 2016 108 • dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value) For example, output power in Watts (A) compared to input power in Watts (B) used to represent attenuation of a fiber related to the Common (base 10) logarithm value:
  • 106. BSNL BIT ERROR RATE (BER) • BER is a key objective of the Optical System Design • Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER < BER threshold of the Rx • BER thresholds are on Data sheets • Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12 13 September 2016 109
  • 107. BSNL OPTICAL BUDGET Optical Budget is affected by: • Fiber attenuation • Splices • Patch Panels/Connectors • Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc) • Bends in fiber • Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors) 13 September 2016 110 Basic Optical Budget = Output Power – Input Sensitivity Pout = +6 dBm R = -30 dBm Budget = 36 dB
  • 108. BSNL OPTICAL LINK BUDGET 13 September 2016 111 Pt - (Lcp+ Lct+ Lsp+ Lfb+ Msys)  Srec where Pt = light source transmitting power, in dBm Lcp =coupling loss source to fiber, in dB Lct =connector’s losses (2nos, source to fiber & fiber to detector), in dB Lsp =splicing losses, in dB Lfb =fiber loss, in dB Msys =system loss margin requirement, in dB Srec =required PD receiver sensitivity, in dBm
  • 109. BSNL 13 September 2016 112 Transmitter Receiver Fiber Fiber Splice Receiver Sensitivity Margin LINK POWER BUDGET P O W E R
  • 110. BSNL An Optical Link is required to be commissioned between two Stations A & B. Do the Power Budgeting. Check its feasibility. What is the Total Link Loss? Data is given below :- • Distance between two stations = 69 km. • Splice Loss. = 0.1 dB / Splice. • Connector Loss. = 1 dB / Connector. • Coupling Loss (Source to fiber). = 3 dB. • Laser Output. = 0 dBm. • Receiver Sensitivity. = -37 dBm. • fiber Loss. = 0.4 dB/km. • System Margin. = 3 dB. • Extra Cable to be kept at Joint = 20 m / Joint. • fiber Length to be taken. = 102% of Cable Length. • Shrinkage. = 1 %. • Extra Cable at Terminals = 100m each • Cable Length on drum = 2km /cable drum 13 September 2016 113 EXERCISE
  • 111. BSNL Distance Between Station A & B = 69 km. Cable Length after taking Shrinkage = 69x101% = 69.69 km. Number of Cable Drums required = 69.69/2 = 35. Total number of Splices in the Cable Route = 35- 1= 34. Extra Cable to be kept at Joints = 20x34 = 680 m. Leading-in Cable at Both Ends = 100+100=200m. As the Cable Length exceeds 70 km, there will be one more Joint in the Route and we need to provide additional 20 meter of cable at Joint Location, Hence : Total number of Splices in the Link = 34+1= 35 Cable Length after keeping provision for Joint = 69.69+0.70+0.20 =70.59 km Fiber Length. =70.59 x 102% = 72.00 km. 13 September 2016 114 SOLUTION Contd…
  • 112. BSNL Link Loss: Source to Fiber Coupling Loss = 03.00 dB. Connectors Losses = 1 x 2 = 02.00 dB. Fiber Loss = 0.4 x 72.0 = 28.80 dB. Splicing Loss = 0.1 x35 = 03.50 dB. Total link loss = 37.30 dB. Laser Output – Link Loss = 0 – 37.30 = -37.30dBm. Projected loss by including 3dB Margin = -40.30 dBm Which is beyond Receiver Sensitivity level of -37 dBm. Hence Link is NOT Feasible! 13 September 2016 115 SOLUTION