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Inter-Ministerial R&D for EMF
radiation guidelines
Presentation by:
Naveen Jakhar
ITS– 2014 Batch
TERM Cell Punjab
1
Topics covered in this
presentation:
 Brief about ICNIRP
 Ionizing and Non-Ionizing radiations
 ICNIRP guidelines for HF waves - 1998
 ICNIRP guidelines adopted by India
 Role of WHO
 Role of DoT, Inter- ministerial Committee
 Instructions to State Governments
 Conclusion
2
Inter – Ministerial R&D Approach
3
R&D
ICNIRP
& WHO
Other
Ministries
State
Govts
Academic
Role
Judicial
Orders
DoT
A Brief About ICNIRP
4
 ICNIRP stands for International Commission on Non-
Ionizing Radiation Protection
 Non-profit organization with a scientific mission
 Registered in Munich, Germany, established in 1992
 Recognized as an official NGO by WHO, ILO &
consulted by European Commission
 Aims to protect people and the environment against
adverse effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR)
ICNIRP - mission
5
 Develops & disseminates science-based advice on
limiting exposure to NIR
 Experts from different countries and disciplines such
as biology, epidemiology, medicine, physics, and
chemistry, work together with and within ICNIRP to
assess the risk of NIR exposure and provide exposure
guidance
 ICNIRP’s protection advice ->formulated in
Guidelines, Reviews and Statements ->publicly &
freely available online
Ionizing vs Non-Ionizing Radiations
6
 Ionization -> process by which electrons in the
outermost shells are removed from their orbit
 Ionization -> directly dependent on the energy being
carried by any energy particle or radiation
 Ionization results in breaking of covalent bonds
inside living beings
 Radiation which is capable of causing ionization is
called Ionizing Radiation (IR)
 More the frequency, more energy -> mutation
Ionizing vs Non-Ionizing Radiations
7
Ionizing vs Non-Ionizing Radiations
8
 The radiations which are not capable of breaking
covalent and ionic bonds present in living things are
called Non-Ionizing Radiations (NIR)
 NIR -> capable of exciting atoms and in turn heating
them up
 If living tissues are exposed to ionizing radiation,
atoms making up DNA in cells could become ionized.
This causes the DNA to malfunction and could lead to
cancer.
 Ionizing radiations are more harmful
ICNIRP guidelines for High
Frequency waves – year 1998
9
 High Frequency waves -> frequency range from 100
kHz to 300 GHz
 Used for mobile communications, Wi-Fi, radio,
TV, security devices, MRI and microwave ovens
 The critical effect of HF exposure relevant to human
health and safety is heating of exposed tissue
 Human body is having self regulation mechanism to
counter heat but exposure beyond a level (called
threshold level) results in heatstroke and disuse
damage (burns)
ICNIRP guidelines for High
Frequency waves
10
 Studies on HF waves with frequency less than
threshold value have not seen any adverse effect on
human health
 To avoid hazards to health and prevent adverse
interaction with high frequency fields, ICNIRP
recommends limiting the exposure to HF so that the
threshold at which these interactions become
detrimental is never reached
ICNIRP guidelines for High
Frequency waves
11
 The exposure limits, called basic restrictions, are set
in relation to the threshold known to show adverse
effects
 The basic restrictions -> expressed in terms of the
specific absorption rate (SAR) for nearby devices and
in radiation density W/m2 from base stations
 SAR - is a measure of the rate at which energy is
absorbed by the human body when exposed to a
radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field
ICNIRP guidelines for High
Frequency waves - 1998
12

ICNIRP guidelines for High
Frequency waves - 1998
13
ICNIRP guidelines for High
Frequency waves in India
14
• Government of India adopted the ICNIRP guidelines
in the year 2008 for basic restriction and limiting
reference levels of Electromagnetic radiation from
Mobile towers and inserted the additional clause in
the Access Service Licenses vide its amendment letter
dated 4/11/2008 -ICNIRP guidelines in India.pdf
Revised ICNIRP guidelines in India
dated 30.12.2011
15
• Based on the recommendations by Inter-Ministerial
Committee (IMC), these norms for exposure limit for
the Radio Frequency Field (Base Station Emissions)
have been further made stringent and reduced to
1/10th of the existing limits prescribed by
International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation
Protection (ICNIRP)
• Directions in this regard have been issued to the
Mobile Operators on 30.12.2011 30-12-2011 Norms
on EMF exposure by BTSs.pdf
Further Revision of ICNIRP
guidelines in India
16
• ICNIRP directions have been further revised on
10.01.2013 10.01.2013 amendments for ICNIRP.pdf
• Final ICNIRP directions have been revised on
26.06.2013 26-06-2013 amendments to ICNIRP.pdf
Ensuring compliance of ICNIRP
guidelines in India
17
• DoT issued instructions directing
all CMTS/UAS/UL/UL(Access) licensees that all BTSs
should be compliant to prescribed EMF reference
limits/ levels
• All BTSs should be self certified for meeting the
radiation norms as dated 26.06.2013
• Self certification -> to be submitted to respective
TERM Cells of DoT
Ensuring compliance of ICNIRP
guidelines in India
18
• For all new BTS sites -> TSP submit self certificate to
respective TERM Cell -> start radiating commercially
• Audit of compliance of self-certificates done by TERM
Cells
• BTS sites audit done by TERM Cells
• Any BTS found violating EMF norms -> Penalty of Rs
10 lakhs per BTS per incidence
• BTS sites against which there are public complaints
are also tested by TERM Cell
SAR compliance in India
19
• For all Mobile devices, the SAR value limit of 1.6
watts/kg (averaged over one gram of tissue)
• DoT Letter dated 25th January, 2012
• SAR value to displayed like IMEI on package and
phone
• All mobile handsets in India to support hands-free
operation
• 28. 17-08-2012 SAR values for mobile phones.pdf
• Live demo – how to find SAR value and IMEI of your
mobile
SAR Limits recommended by IEEE
20
• Controlled/Occupational limit -> People working are
aware of exposure to radiations
• Uncontrolled environments -> locations where there
is exposure of individuals to radiations who have no
knowledge or control on it
Role of WHO
21
• WHO -> World Health Organization, at Geneva
• Specialized agency of the UNO, concerned with
international public health
• All mobile handsets -> hands free must
• WHO studies -> short term effects of exposure to
radiofrequency fields -? Tissue heating
• WHO studies -> long term effects? WHO study with
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
for link b/w mobile phones and head, neck cancers
Role of WHO
22
• Data gathered from 13 participating countries -> no
increased risk of head and neck cancer
• Some indications of an increased risk of brain cancer
for those who reported the highest 10% of
cumulative hours of cell phone use but no concrete
data
• WHO recommends – SAR standards set by ICNIRP
and IEEE
WHO Fact Sheet 304 May 2006
23
 Conclusions “Considering the very low exposure levels
and research results collected to date, there is no
convincing scientific evidence that the weak RF
signals from base stations and wireless networks
cause adverse health effects”
 WHO, through the International EMF Project, ->
programme to evaluate the health effects from
exposure to EMF (range from 0 to 300 GHz), to
provide advice about possible EMF hazards and to
identify suitable mitigation measures
WHO Fact Sheets – 2011 & 2013
24
• In September 2013, WHO in online question and
answers, have mentioned that "Studies to date
provide no indication that environmental exposure
to RF fields, such as from base stations, increases
the risk of cancer or any other disease“
• WHO in Fact Sheet 193 published in June 2011 has
concluded that "A large number of studies have
been performed over the last two decades to assess
whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk.
To date, no adverse health effects have been
established as being caused by mobile phone use"
Inter Ministerial Committee
25
• Department of Science & Technology, Indian Council
of Medical Research, DoT, Department of
Biotechnology, Ministry of Environment & Forest -> to
carry out studies on prolonged use of mobile phones
in India, possible health hazard risk of EMF radiation
• DoT, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment to
spread public awareness on EMF and precautions for
mobile phone use
• Annual discussions/meetings and seminar of all Inter
Ministerial Committees
Inter Ministerial Committee
26
• Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) has
invited R&D proposals in June 2013 on the possible
impact of EMF radiation exposure from mobile
towers and mobile handsets on life
• The SERB has constituted an Expert Committee/Task
Force comprising of various experts from Medical &
Engineering Institutes on 04 September 2013 to
evaluate R&D proposals
National and International
Collaborations
27
• DoT to actively participate in all EMF related
discussions with International Organizations e.g. ITU,
WHO,APT,ICNIRP chapter
• Continuous collaboration with academic institutes
• Creation of National EMF web portal to provide
public access
Instructions to State Governments
28
• Advisory guidelines to State Government for issue of
clearance for installation of mobile towers
• State Government to set up State Level Telecom
Committee (STC) – State Administration, TERM Cell
officers, TSPs, eminent public persons
• District Level Telecom Committee (DTC) – District
Administration, Block level officers, TSPs, eminent
public persons
Reply to Allahabad Court
29
• In a Writ Petition filed in Hon'ble High Court
Allahabad, the Hon'ble Court vide its order dated
10.01.2012 constituted a committee including
Members from IITs & Indian Council of Medical
Research (ICMR) and AIIMS Delhi
• After due consideration of the human health
concerns on account of EMF, the committee replied
there is no need to change the Indian ICNIRP
guidelines
Conclusion
30
• EMF radiations from a mobile tower, which are below
the safe limits prescribed by ICNIRP and
recommended by WHO, have no convincing scientific
evidence of causing adverse health effects
• DoT has prescribed stricter precautionary norms for
exposure limit for the Radio Frequency Field (Base
Station Emissions) which is 1/10th of the existing
limits prescribed by ICNIRP and recommended by
WHO
31
 http://dot.gov.in/journey-emf
 http://www.icnirp.org/en/about-icnirp/aim-status
history/index.html
 http://www.icnirp.org/en/frequencies/highfrequency/ind
ex.html
 http://www.icnirp.org/cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPS
CIreview2011.pdf
 http://www.who.int/pehemf/publications/facts/fs304/en
References:
Thank you
“An efficient Telecommunications network is the
foundationupon which an information society is built”
32

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Inter-Ministerial R&D for EMF radiation guidelines

  • 1. Inter-Ministerial R&D for EMF radiation guidelines Presentation by: Naveen Jakhar ITS– 2014 Batch TERM Cell Punjab 1
  • 2. Topics covered in this presentation:  Brief about ICNIRP  Ionizing and Non-Ionizing radiations  ICNIRP guidelines for HF waves - 1998  ICNIRP guidelines adopted by India  Role of WHO  Role of DoT, Inter- ministerial Committee  Instructions to State Governments  Conclusion 2
  • 3. Inter – Ministerial R&D Approach 3 R&D ICNIRP & WHO Other Ministries State Govts Academic Role Judicial Orders DoT
  • 4. A Brief About ICNIRP 4  ICNIRP stands for International Commission on Non- Ionizing Radiation Protection  Non-profit organization with a scientific mission  Registered in Munich, Germany, established in 1992  Recognized as an official NGO by WHO, ILO & consulted by European Commission  Aims to protect people and the environment against adverse effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR)
  • 5. ICNIRP - mission 5  Develops & disseminates science-based advice on limiting exposure to NIR  Experts from different countries and disciplines such as biology, epidemiology, medicine, physics, and chemistry, work together with and within ICNIRP to assess the risk of NIR exposure and provide exposure guidance  ICNIRP’s protection advice ->formulated in Guidelines, Reviews and Statements ->publicly & freely available online
  • 6. Ionizing vs Non-Ionizing Radiations 6  Ionization -> process by which electrons in the outermost shells are removed from their orbit  Ionization -> directly dependent on the energy being carried by any energy particle or radiation  Ionization results in breaking of covalent bonds inside living beings  Radiation which is capable of causing ionization is called Ionizing Radiation (IR)  More the frequency, more energy -> mutation
  • 8. Ionizing vs Non-Ionizing Radiations 8  The radiations which are not capable of breaking covalent and ionic bonds present in living things are called Non-Ionizing Radiations (NIR)  NIR -> capable of exciting atoms and in turn heating them up  If living tissues are exposed to ionizing radiation, atoms making up DNA in cells could become ionized. This causes the DNA to malfunction and could lead to cancer.  Ionizing radiations are more harmful
  • 9. ICNIRP guidelines for High Frequency waves – year 1998 9  High Frequency waves -> frequency range from 100 kHz to 300 GHz  Used for mobile communications, Wi-Fi, radio, TV, security devices, MRI and microwave ovens  The critical effect of HF exposure relevant to human health and safety is heating of exposed tissue  Human body is having self regulation mechanism to counter heat but exposure beyond a level (called threshold level) results in heatstroke and disuse damage (burns)
  • 10. ICNIRP guidelines for High Frequency waves 10  Studies on HF waves with frequency less than threshold value have not seen any adverse effect on human health  To avoid hazards to health and prevent adverse interaction with high frequency fields, ICNIRP recommends limiting the exposure to HF so that the threshold at which these interactions become detrimental is never reached
  • 11. ICNIRP guidelines for High Frequency waves 11  The exposure limits, called basic restrictions, are set in relation to the threshold known to show adverse effects  The basic restrictions -> expressed in terms of the specific absorption rate (SAR) for nearby devices and in radiation density W/m2 from base stations  SAR - is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field
  • 12. ICNIRP guidelines for High Frequency waves - 1998 12 
  • 13. ICNIRP guidelines for High Frequency waves - 1998 13
  • 14. ICNIRP guidelines for High Frequency waves in India 14 • Government of India adopted the ICNIRP guidelines in the year 2008 for basic restriction and limiting reference levels of Electromagnetic radiation from Mobile towers and inserted the additional clause in the Access Service Licenses vide its amendment letter dated 4/11/2008 -ICNIRP guidelines in India.pdf
  • 15. Revised ICNIRP guidelines in India dated 30.12.2011 15 • Based on the recommendations by Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC), these norms for exposure limit for the Radio Frequency Field (Base Station Emissions) have been further made stringent and reduced to 1/10th of the existing limits prescribed by International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) • Directions in this regard have been issued to the Mobile Operators on 30.12.2011 30-12-2011 Norms on EMF exposure by BTSs.pdf
  • 16. Further Revision of ICNIRP guidelines in India 16 • ICNIRP directions have been further revised on 10.01.2013 10.01.2013 amendments for ICNIRP.pdf • Final ICNIRP directions have been revised on 26.06.2013 26-06-2013 amendments to ICNIRP.pdf
  • 17. Ensuring compliance of ICNIRP guidelines in India 17 • DoT issued instructions directing all CMTS/UAS/UL/UL(Access) licensees that all BTSs should be compliant to prescribed EMF reference limits/ levels • All BTSs should be self certified for meeting the radiation norms as dated 26.06.2013 • Self certification -> to be submitted to respective TERM Cells of DoT
  • 18. Ensuring compliance of ICNIRP guidelines in India 18 • For all new BTS sites -> TSP submit self certificate to respective TERM Cell -> start radiating commercially • Audit of compliance of self-certificates done by TERM Cells • BTS sites audit done by TERM Cells • Any BTS found violating EMF norms -> Penalty of Rs 10 lakhs per BTS per incidence • BTS sites against which there are public complaints are also tested by TERM Cell
  • 19. SAR compliance in India 19 • For all Mobile devices, the SAR value limit of 1.6 watts/kg (averaged over one gram of tissue) • DoT Letter dated 25th January, 2012 • SAR value to displayed like IMEI on package and phone • All mobile handsets in India to support hands-free operation • 28. 17-08-2012 SAR values for mobile phones.pdf • Live demo – how to find SAR value and IMEI of your mobile
  • 20. SAR Limits recommended by IEEE 20 • Controlled/Occupational limit -> People working are aware of exposure to radiations • Uncontrolled environments -> locations where there is exposure of individuals to radiations who have no knowledge or control on it
  • 21. Role of WHO 21 • WHO -> World Health Organization, at Geneva • Specialized agency of the UNO, concerned with international public health • All mobile handsets -> hands free must • WHO studies -> short term effects of exposure to radiofrequency fields -? Tissue heating • WHO studies -> long term effects? WHO study with International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) for link b/w mobile phones and head, neck cancers
  • 22. Role of WHO 22 • Data gathered from 13 participating countries -> no increased risk of head and neck cancer • Some indications of an increased risk of brain cancer for those who reported the highest 10% of cumulative hours of cell phone use but no concrete data • WHO recommends – SAR standards set by ICNIRP and IEEE
  • 23. WHO Fact Sheet 304 May 2006 23  Conclusions “Considering the very low exposure levels and research results collected to date, there is no convincing scientific evidence that the weak RF signals from base stations and wireless networks cause adverse health effects”  WHO, through the International EMF Project, -> programme to evaluate the health effects from exposure to EMF (range from 0 to 300 GHz), to provide advice about possible EMF hazards and to identify suitable mitigation measures
  • 24. WHO Fact Sheets – 2011 & 2013 24 • In September 2013, WHO in online question and answers, have mentioned that "Studies to date provide no indication that environmental exposure to RF fields, such as from base stations, increases the risk of cancer or any other disease“ • WHO in Fact Sheet 193 published in June 2011 has concluded that "A large number of studies have been performed over the last two decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk. To date, no adverse health effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use"
  • 25. Inter Ministerial Committee 25 • Department of Science & Technology, Indian Council of Medical Research, DoT, Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Environment & Forest -> to carry out studies on prolonged use of mobile phones in India, possible health hazard risk of EMF radiation • DoT, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment to spread public awareness on EMF and precautions for mobile phone use • Annual discussions/meetings and seminar of all Inter Ministerial Committees
  • 26. Inter Ministerial Committee 26 • Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) has invited R&D proposals in June 2013 on the possible impact of EMF radiation exposure from mobile towers and mobile handsets on life • The SERB has constituted an Expert Committee/Task Force comprising of various experts from Medical & Engineering Institutes on 04 September 2013 to evaluate R&D proposals
  • 27. National and International Collaborations 27 • DoT to actively participate in all EMF related discussions with International Organizations e.g. ITU, WHO,APT,ICNIRP chapter • Continuous collaboration with academic institutes • Creation of National EMF web portal to provide public access
  • 28. Instructions to State Governments 28 • Advisory guidelines to State Government for issue of clearance for installation of mobile towers • State Government to set up State Level Telecom Committee (STC) – State Administration, TERM Cell officers, TSPs, eminent public persons • District Level Telecom Committee (DTC) – District Administration, Block level officers, TSPs, eminent public persons
  • 29. Reply to Allahabad Court 29 • In a Writ Petition filed in Hon'ble High Court Allahabad, the Hon'ble Court vide its order dated 10.01.2012 constituted a committee including Members from IITs & Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and AIIMS Delhi • After due consideration of the human health concerns on account of EMF, the committee replied there is no need to change the Indian ICNIRP guidelines
  • 30. Conclusion 30 • EMF radiations from a mobile tower, which are below the safe limits prescribed by ICNIRP and recommended by WHO, have no convincing scientific evidence of causing adverse health effects • DoT has prescribed stricter precautionary norms for exposure limit for the Radio Frequency Field (Base Station Emissions) which is 1/10th of the existing limits prescribed by ICNIRP and recommended by WHO
  • 31. 31  http://dot.gov.in/journey-emf  http://www.icnirp.org/en/about-icnirp/aim-status history/index.html  http://www.icnirp.org/en/frequencies/highfrequency/ind ex.html  http://www.icnirp.org/cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPS CIreview2011.pdf  http://www.who.int/pehemf/publications/facts/fs304/en References:
  • 32. Thank you “An efficient Telecommunications network is the foundationupon which an information society is built” 32