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Chapter 4 – Nutrition 4.1  The Need for Food 4.2  Water 4.3  Carbohydrates 4.4  Fats 4.5  Proteins Sec 3 Bio
Learning Objectives ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
4.1 The need for food ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nutrients ,[object Object]
How Many Types of Nutrients Are There? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nutritional label  (Food label)
Nutrients Ingredients
4.2 Water ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
4.2 Water ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
4.3 Carbohydrates ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Carbohydrates ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Fructose Glucose Galactose
Formation of disaccharides by condensation ,[object Object],Definition: A  Condensation  reaction is a chemical reaction in which two simple molecules are joined together to form a larger molecule with the  removal of one molecule of water . glucose  glucose  maltose  water
Digestion of disaccharides by  hydrolysis maltose  glucose  glucose maltase Definition:  Hydrolysis  is a chemical reaction in which  a water molecule is needed  to break up a complex molecule into small molecules.
Polysaccharides ,[object Object],[object Object],By which process is polysaccharides formed?
Test for reducing sugars (Benedict’s Test)
Results ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Conclusion
This equipment  is used to find out nutrients found in food products .
Applications of Food Test ,[object Object],[object Object]
Functions of carbohydrates ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Where can we find carbohydrates? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
4.4 Fats ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],GLYCEROL FATTY ACIDS
What make up fats? Carbon (C)  Hydrogen (H)  Oxygen (O) 3 fatty acids    glycerol
Fats ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Differences between saturated fats and unsaturated fats ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],-A fatty substance called  cholesterol  is usually found together with polysaturated fats. Too much polysaturated fats and cholesterol in the diet may cause coronary heart disease.
Test for Fats (Ethanol Emulsion Test)
Functions of fats ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Where can we find fats? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
4.5 Proteins ,[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Proteins
Proteins ,[object Object]
Proteins ,[object Object]
Proteins ,[object Object],[object Object]
Proteins ,[object Object],[object Object]
Test for Proteins  (Biuret Test)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Functions of proteins
Where can we find proteins? ,[object Object],[object Object]
What is a Balanced Diet? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Protein deficiency ,[object Object],[object Object]
Carbohydrates NUTRIENTS may be Functions of water   In animals, water:  • is a medium for chemical reactions to occur;  • transports digested food products, excretory products, and hormones from one part of the body to another;  • is an essential part of protoplasm, lubricants, digestive juices and blood;  • is essential for hydrolysis; and  • helps to control body temperature. Monosaccharides (single sugars), e.g. glucose, fructose and galactose In plants, water:  • is essential for photosynthesis;  • is needed to keep plant cells turgid;  • transports mineral salts from the roots to the leaves; and  • transports food substances from the leaves to other parts of the plants. Water Fats Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but they contain much less oxygen in proportion to hydrogen. Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1. Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulphur may also be present. Inorganic nutrient. Water does not contain carbon. Proteins Disaccharides (double sugars), e.g. maltose, lactose and sucrose Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) made up of many monosaccharides e.g. Starch Glycogen Cellulose •  forms the cell walls in plants; and  • cannot be digested by mammals, but is used as fibre in their diet. Identification   Test for reducing sugars: A reducing sugar gives a brick-red precipitate when boiled with Benedict’s solution. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar. •  serves as the main form of storage for carbohydrates in green plants; and  • gives a blue-black colour with iodine (test for starch). •  serves as the main form of storage for carbohydrates in animals and fungi. Basic units   Fats are hydrolysed to form fatty acids and glycerol. Identification   Test for fats: A cloudy white emulsion is formed in the ethanol emulsion test. Basic units   Proteins consist of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.  Identification   Test for proteins: Proteins give a violet colouration with Biuret reagent. amino acids polypeptides proteins

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Chapter 4 nutrition 2011

  • 1. Chapter 4 – Nutrition 4.1 The Need for Food 4.2 Water 4.3 Carbohydrates 4.4 Fats 4.5 Proteins Sec 3 Bio
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Nutritional label (Food label)
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 13.
  • 14. Digestion of disaccharides by hydrolysis maltose glucose glucose maltase Definition: Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which a water molecule is needed to break up a complex molecule into small molecules.
  • 15.
  • 16. Test for reducing sugars (Benedict’s Test)
  • 17.
  • 18. This equipment is used to find out nutrients found in food products .
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. What make up fats? Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) 3 fatty acids glycerol
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Test for Fats (Ethanol Emulsion Test)
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Test for Proteins (Biuret Test)
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Carbohydrates NUTRIENTS may be Functions of water In animals, water: • is a medium for chemical reactions to occur; • transports digested food products, excretory products, and hormones from one part of the body to another; • is an essential part of protoplasm, lubricants, digestive juices and blood; • is essential for hydrolysis; and • helps to control body temperature. Monosaccharides (single sugars), e.g. glucose, fructose and galactose In plants, water: • is essential for photosynthesis; • is needed to keep plant cells turgid; • transports mineral salts from the roots to the leaves; and • transports food substances from the leaves to other parts of the plants. Water Fats Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but they contain much less oxygen in proportion to hydrogen. Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1. Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulphur may also be present. Inorganic nutrient. Water does not contain carbon. Proteins Disaccharides (double sugars), e.g. maltose, lactose and sucrose Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) made up of many monosaccharides e.g. Starch Glycogen Cellulose • forms the cell walls in plants; and • cannot be digested by mammals, but is used as fibre in their diet. Identification Test for reducing sugars: A reducing sugar gives a brick-red precipitate when boiled with Benedict’s solution. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar. • serves as the main form of storage for carbohydrates in green plants; and • gives a blue-black colour with iodine (test for starch). • serves as the main form of storage for carbohydrates in animals and fungi. Basic units Fats are hydrolysed to form fatty acids and glycerol. Identification Test for fats: A cloudy white emulsion is formed in the ethanol emulsion test. Basic units Proteins consist of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Identification Test for proteins: Proteins give a violet colouration with Biuret reagent. amino acids polypeptides proteins

Editor's Notes

  1. Concept Map page 69