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CHAPTER 1:
COMPUTER HARDWARE AND FLOW
OF INFORMATION
FP 203 COMPUTER ORGANISATION
SUMMARY:This topic covers the computer fundamentals,
functional unit, basic operational concepts and bus
structure.
CLO1:explain appropriate hardware technical
specification, input output processes
and computer architecture in computer system (C4, A2).
RTA:(04 : 04)
1.1 THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER
ARCHITECTURE
1.1.1 The five major operations performed by a
computer system
a. Input
b. Storage
c. Processing
d. Output
e. Control (operations inside the computer)
Process
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
Input
Output
Storage
1)INPUT
 This is the process of entering data and programs
in to the computer system.
 An input device is a hardware device that sends
information into the CPU.
 Without any input devices a computer would simply
be a display device and not allow users to interact
with it, much like a TV
 Examples input devices: keyboard, mouse,
joystick, microphone, scanner, & web cam.
INPUT DEVICES
2) STORAGE
 The process of saving data and instructions
permanently .
 A storage device is a hardware device designed to
store information.
 There are two types of storage devices used in
computers; a 'primary storage' device and a
'secondary storage' device.
 A primary storage device is the storage location that
holds memory for short periods of times. For
example, computer RAM.
 A secondary storage device is the medium that
holds information until it is deleted or over written.
For example, hard disks drive.
EXAMPLES OF STORAGE
RAM
It is short for Random Access Memory which is the main
memory of the system within a computer. RAM requires
power ; if power is lost, all data is also lost.
Hard Drive
It is a rigid circular disk located inside a computer. The term
hard disk is often used as an abbreviation to hard
disk drive.
Diskette
It can record data as magnetized spots on tracks on its
surface. Diskettes became popular along with the
personal computer mainly to transport data.
CD-R, CD-RW
CD-R is short for CD-Recordable and is a type of writable
disc capable of having information written on it only once
CD-R/W is a drive and/or media that is
capable of being written many times.
3)PROCESSING
 The task of performing operations like arithmetic
and logical operations is called processing.
 CPU; also known as a processor or
microprocessor; is short for Central Processing
Unit.
 It is responsible for handling all instructions and
calculation it receives from other hardware
components in the computer and software
programs running on the computer
EXAMPLES OF PROCESSING UNIT
The first CPU was manufactured by INTEL in 1974.
Motherboard
It is a circuit that is the foundation of a computer and
allows the CPU, RAM, and all other computer hardware
components to function with each other.
Modem
It is a device that enables a computer to transmit and receive
information over telephone lines.
4) OUTPUT
 This is the process of producing results from the
data for getting useful information.
 Output devices display and generate information
that has been held or generated within a computer.
EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT DEVICES
Plotter
It is a device that draws pictures on paper based on
commands from a computer using a pen. Multicolor plotters
use different-colored pens to draw different colors.
Monitor
It is a video display screen and the hard shell that holds it. It
is used to visually interface with the computer and are
similar in appearance to a television.
EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT DEVICES
Printer
It is an external hardware device responsible for generating a
hard copy of data. It is commonly used to print text, images,
photos, etc.
Speaker
It is a hardware device connected to a computer's sound
card that outputs sounds generated by the card.
Projector
It is a device that enables an image, such as a computer
screen to be projected onto a flat surface. These devices are
commonly used for presentations.
5) CONTROL (OPERATIONS INSIDE THE
COMPUTER)
 The manner how instructions are executed and the
above operations are performed.
 Controlling of all operations like input, processing
and output are performed by control unit.
 It takes care of step by step processing of all
operations in side the computer.
1.1.2 The three basic computer functional units
control the operations of a computer:
a. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
b. Control unit (CU)
c. Central processing unit (CPU)
A. ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC UNIT (ALU)
 Stands for "Arithmetic Logic Unit." An ALU is
an integrated circuit within a CPU that performs
arithmetic and logic operations.
 Arithmetic instructions include addition, subtraction,
and shifting operations, while logic instructions
include boolean comparisons, such as AND, OR,
XOR, and NOT operations.
 Typically, the ALU has direct input and output
access to the processor controller, main memory
(random access memory or RAM in a personal
computer), and input/output devices.
 Inputs and outputs flow along an electronic path
that is called a bus.
B. CONTROL UNIT (CU)
 it is a typical component of the CPU that
implements the microprocessor instruction set. It
extracts instructions from memory and decodes
and executes them, and sends the necessary
signals to the ALU to perform the operation needed.
 Control Units are either hardwired (instruction
register is hardwired to rest of the microprocessor)
or micro-programmed.
HARDWIRE
 Refers to elements of a program or device that
cannot be changed. Originally, the term was used
to describe functionality that was built into the
circuitry (i.e., the wires) of a device.
C. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
 The central processing unit (CPU) is the portion
of a computer system that carries out the
instructions of a computer program, and is the
primary element carrying out the functions of the
computer or other processing device.
 The central processing unit carries out each
instruction of the program in sequence, to perform
the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output
operations of the system.
 The ALU and the CU of a computer system are
jointly known as the central processing unit
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
1.1.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF BASIC
ORGANIZATION OF COMPUTER SYSTEM
Input Unit Output UnitStorage
Control Unit
ALU
Chapter 1 computer hardware and flow of information
INPUT UNIT
 Computers need to receive data and instruction in
order to solve any problem.
 Therefore we need to input the data and
instructions into the computers.
 The input unit consists of one or more input
devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly
used input device.
 Other commonly used input devices are the mouse,
floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input
devices perform the following functions.
STORAGE UNIT
 The storage unit of the computer holds data and
instructions that are entered through the input unit,
before they are processed.
 It preserves the intermediate and final results
before these are sent to the output devices. It also
saves the data for the later use.
 The various storage devices of a computer system
are divided into two categories.
 Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This
memory is generally used to hold the program being
currently executed in the computer, the data being
received from the input unit, the intermediate and final
results of the program. The primary memory is
temporary in nature. The data is lost, when the
computer is switched off. In order to store the data
permanently, the data has to be transferred to the
secondary memory.
 The cost of the primary storage is more compared to the
secondary storage. Therefore most computers have
limited primary storage capacity
Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an
archive. It stores several programs, documents, data
bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer
are first transferred to the primary memory before it is
actually run. Whenever the results are saved, again they
get stored in the secondary memory.
The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the
primary memory. Some of the commonly used secondary
memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc.,
OUTPUT UNIT
 The output unit of a computer provides the
information and results of a computation to outside
world.
 Printers, Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the
commonly used output devices. Other commonly
used output devices are floppy disk drive, hard disk
drive, and magnetic tape drive.
1.1.4 VON NEUMANN MODEL
JOHN VON NEUMANN (1903-57)
He developed a very basic model for computers which we are still
using today.
 Von Neumann divided a computer’s hardware into
5 primary groups:
 CPU
 Input
 Output
 Working storage
 Permanent storage
1.2 EXPLAIN COMPUTER’S BUS SYSTEM
1.2.1. State the definition of computer’s bus.
 1: Network of wires or electronic pathways
 2: Consisting of a number of conducting wires to
which all the other components attach.
 Or a system bus is a single computer bus that
connects the major components of a computer
system. The technique was developed to reduce
costs and improve modularity. It combines the
functions of a data bus, address bus and control
bus.
1.2.2 DESCRIBE THE TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER’S
BUS:
a. Internal bus (system bus)
Network of wires or electronic pathways that
happen inside CPU
b. External bus (expansion bus)
Network of wires or electronic pathways that
happen between CPU and other device.
1.2.3. STATE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF EXTERNAL
(EXPANSION) BUSES.
1.2.4. DESCRIBE HOW DIFFERENT DEVICES
COORDINATE THE USE OF A BUS.
1) DATA BUS - to carry information
 A collection of wires through which data is
transmitted from one part of a computer to another
is called Data Bus.
 Data Bus can be thought of as a highway on which
data travels within a computer.
 This bus connects all the computer components to
the CPU and main memory.
 The size (width) of bus determines how much data
can be transmitted at one time. E.g.:
A 16-bit bus can transmit 16 bits of data at a time.
32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits at a time.
2)ADDRESS BUS- DETERMINE WHERE IT SHOULD
BE SENT
 A collection of wires used to identify particular location
in main memory is called Address Bus.
 Or in other words, the information used to describe
the memory locations travels along the address bus.
 The size of address bus determines how many unique
memory locations can be addressed.
E.g.:
A system with 4-bit address bus can address 2^4 = 16
Bytes of memory.
 A system with 16-bit address bus can address 2^16 =
64 KB
of memory.
 A system with 20-bit address bus can address 2^20 =
1 MB of memory
3)CONTROL BUS - DETERMINE ITS OPERATION
 The connections that carry control information
between the CPU and other devices within the
computer is called Control Bus.
 The control bus carries signals that report the
status of various devices.
E.g.: This bus is used to indicate whether the CPU
is reading from memory or writing to memory.

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Chapter 1 computer hardware and flow of information

  • 1. CHAPTER 1: COMPUTER HARDWARE AND FLOW OF INFORMATION FP 203 COMPUTER ORGANISATION SUMMARY:This topic covers the computer fundamentals, functional unit, basic operational concepts and bus structure. CLO1:explain appropriate hardware technical specification, input output processes and computer architecture in computer system (C4, A2). RTA:(04 : 04)
  • 2. 1.1 THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE 1.1.1 The five major operations performed by a computer system a. Input b. Storage c. Processing d. Output e. Control (operations inside the computer)
  • 4. 1)INPUT  This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system.  An input device is a hardware device that sends information into the CPU.  Without any input devices a computer would simply be a display device and not allow users to interact with it, much like a TV  Examples input devices: keyboard, mouse, joystick, microphone, scanner, & web cam.
  • 6. 2) STORAGE  The process of saving data and instructions permanently .  A storage device is a hardware device designed to store information.  There are two types of storage devices used in computers; a 'primary storage' device and a 'secondary storage' device.  A primary storage device is the storage location that holds memory for short periods of times. For example, computer RAM.  A secondary storage device is the medium that holds information until it is deleted or over written. For example, hard disks drive.
  • 7. EXAMPLES OF STORAGE RAM It is short for Random Access Memory which is the main memory of the system within a computer. RAM requires power ; if power is lost, all data is also lost. Hard Drive It is a rigid circular disk located inside a computer. The term hard disk is often used as an abbreviation to hard disk drive. Diskette It can record data as magnetized spots on tracks on its surface. Diskettes became popular along with the personal computer mainly to transport data. CD-R, CD-RW CD-R is short for CD-Recordable and is a type of writable disc capable of having information written on it only once CD-R/W is a drive and/or media that is capable of being written many times.
  • 8. 3)PROCESSING  The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing.  CPU; also known as a processor or microprocessor; is short for Central Processing Unit.  It is responsible for handling all instructions and calculation it receives from other hardware components in the computer and software programs running on the computer
  • 9. EXAMPLES OF PROCESSING UNIT The first CPU was manufactured by INTEL in 1974. Motherboard It is a circuit that is the foundation of a computer and allows the CPU, RAM, and all other computer hardware components to function with each other. Modem It is a device that enables a computer to transmit and receive information over telephone lines.
  • 10. 4) OUTPUT  This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information.  Output devices display and generate information that has been held or generated within a computer. EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT DEVICES Plotter It is a device that draws pictures on paper based on commands from a computer using a pen. Multicolor plotters use different-colored pens to draw different colors.
  • 11. Monitor It is a video display screen and the hard shell that holds it. It is used to visually interface with the computer and are similar in appearance to a television. EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT DEVICES Printer It is an external hardware device responsible for generating a hard copy of data. It is commonly used to print text, images, photos, etc. Speaker It is a hardware device connected to a computer's sound card that outputs sounds generated by the card. Projector It is a device that enables an image, such as a computer screen to be projected onto a flat surface. These devices are commonly used for presentations.
  • 12. 5) CONTROL (OPERATIONS INSIDE THE COMPUTER)  The manner how instructions are executed and the above operations are performed.  Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit.  It takes care of step by step processing of all operations in side the computer.
  • 13. 1.1.2 The three basic computer functional units control the operations of a computer: a. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) b. Control unit (CU) c. Central processing unit (CPU)
  • 14. A. ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC UNIT (ALU)  Stands for "Arithmetic Logic Unit." An ALU is an integrated circuit within a CPU that performs arithmetic and logic operations.  Arithmetic instructions include addition, subtraction, and shifting operations, while logic instructions include boolean comparisons, such as AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations.  Typically, the ALU has direct input and output access to the processor controller, main memory (random access memory or RAM in a personal computer), and input/output devices.  Inputs and outputs flow along an electronic path that is called a bus.
  • 15. B. CONTROL UNIT (CU)  it is a typical component of the CPU that implements the microprocessor instruction set. It extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, and sends the necessary signals to the ALU to perform the operation needed.  Control Units are either hardwired (instruction register is hardwired to rest of the microprocessor) or micro-programmed.
  • 16. HARDWIRE  Refers to elements of a program or device that cannot be changed. Originally, the term was used to describe functionality that was built into the circuitry (i.e., the wires) of a device.
  • 17. C. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)  The central processing unit (CPU) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the functions of the computer or other processing device.  The central processing unit carries out each instruction of the program in sequence, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.  The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit
  • 19. 1.1.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF BASIC ORGANIZATION OF COMPUTER SYSTEM Input Unit Output UnitStorage Control Unit ALU
  • 21. INPUT UNIT  Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem.  Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers.  The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device.  Other commonly used input devices are the mouse, floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input devices perform the following functions.
  • 22. STORAGE UNIT  The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit, before they are processed.  It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use.
  • 23.  The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories.  Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit, the intermediate and final results of the program. The primary memory is temporary in nature. The data is lost, when the computer is switched off. In order to store the data permanently, the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory.  The cost of the primary storage is more compared to the secondary storage. Therefore most computers have limited primary storage capacity
  • 24. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an archive. It stores several programs, documents, data bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. Whenever the results are saved, again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc.,
  • 25. OUTPUT UNIT  The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world.  Printers, Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the commonly used output devices. Other commonly used output devices are floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, and magnetic tape drive.
  • 27. JOHN VON NEUMANN (1903-57) He developed a very basic model for computers which we are still using today.
  • 28.  Von Neumann divided a computer’s hardware into 5 primary groups:  CPU  Input  Output  Working storage  Permanent storage
  • 29. 1.2 EXPLAIN COMPUTER’S BUS SYSTEM 1.2.1. State the definition of computer’s bus.  1: Network of wires or electronic pathways  2: Consisting of a number of conducting wires to which all the other components attach.  Or a system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system. The technique was developed to reduce costs and improve modularity. It combines the functions of a data bus, address bus and control bus.
  • 30. 1.2.2 DESCRIBE THE TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER’S BUS: a. Internal bus (system bus) Network of wires or electronic pathways that happen inside CPU b. External bus (expansion bus) Network of wires or electronic pathways that happen between CPU and other device.
  • 31. 1.2.3. STATE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF EXTERNAL (EXPANSION) BUSES.
  • 32. 1.2.4. DESCRIBE HOW DIFFERENT DEVICES COORDINATE THE USE OF A BUS. 1) DATA BUS - to carry information  A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another is called Data Bus.  Data Bus can be thought of as a highway on which data travels within a computer.  This bus connects all the computer components to the CPU and main memory.  The size (width) of bus determines how much data can be transmitted at one time. E.g.: A 16-bit bus can transmit 16 bits of data at a time. 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits at a time.
  • 33. 2)ADDRESS BUS- DETERMINE WHERE IT SHOULD BE SENT  A collection of wires used to identify particular location in main memory is called Address Bus.  Or in other words, the information used to describe the memory locations travels along the address bus.  The size of address bus determines how many unique memory locations can be addressed. E.g.: A system with 4-bit address bus can address 2^4 = 16 Bytes of memory.  A system with 16-bit address bus can address 2^16 = 64 KB of memory.  A system with 20-bit address bus can address 2^20 = 1 MB of memory
  • 34. 3)CONTROL BUS - DETERMINE ITS OPERATION  The connections that carry control information between the CPU and other devices within the computer is called Control Bus.  The control bus carries signals that report the status of various devices. E.g.: This bus is used to indicate whether the CPU is reading from memory or writing to memory.