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Socialization
Chapter 5
Based on OpenStax
Introduction to Sociology2e
 The most basic of human activities is learned from others
 The process of learning social norms and expectations, society’s
beliefs, and values is called socialization.
 We need meaningful social interaction to have the possibility of
behaving, thinking and feeling in a capacity understood and
recognized by others.
Introduction
Theories of Self-
Development
 A sense of self -- or who we consider ourselves to be and how we
think about ourselves – emerges through interaction with others.
 Some theories of self-development are:
– Psychological
– Sociological
Theories of Self-Development
Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)
 Personality and sexual development are closely linked
 Maturation process can be divided into psychosexual stages:
– Oral
– Anal
– Phallic
– Latency
– Genital
 Development of self is linked to experiences in early phases of
development
Psychological Perspectives on
Self-Development
Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994)
 Used Freud’s ideas as a starting point
 Believed personality was in continuous process of development
– Eight life stages: birth  death
 Self development is influenced by social factors beyond
psychosexual development and basic urges
Psychological Perspectives on
Self-Development
Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)
 Focused specifically on the roll of social interactions in child
development
 The self emerges through negotiation with the world we think exists
(and create ideas about) and the world we experience.
 Stages of development
– Sensorimotor
– Preoperational
– Concrete operational
– Formal operational
Psychological Perspectives on
Self-Development
Charles Horton Cooley (1864 – 1929)
 “Looking-glass self”, or mirror self
– We construct a sense of who we are through our interpretations of
others’ reaction to us
– We use other people as a mirror to understand who we are.
Sociological Perspectives on
Self-Development
George Herbert Mead (1863 – 1931)
 Social interaction helps us develop a sense of self
 To view ourselves from the eyes of others, we first need to be able
to meaningfully communicate and interact with others
 Through socialization, we learn how to think from another person’s
perspective.
Sociological Perspectives on
Self-Development
George Herbert Mead (1863 – 1931)
 Process of development:
– Preparatory stage (imitation): copying; no real ability to imagine how
others see things
– Play stage (role taking): take on role of a particular other person
– Game stage: take on multiple roles of multiple others
– Generalized other: common expectations of general society
Sociological Perspectives on
Self-Development
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927 – 1987)
 Moral development is vital part of socialization
 The process of how people learn what is right and wrong:
– Preconventional stage (young children): experience the world through
their senses
– Conventional stage (teens): awareness of others’ feelings & take them
into account when determing “good” and “bad”
– Postconventional: people think about morality in absract terms;
recognize that legality and morality do not always match up evenly
Sociological Perspectives on
Self-Development
Carol Gilligan (1836 –)
 Questioned gender bias in Kohlberg’s theory
 Girls and boys have different understandings of morality.
 Boys have justice perspective:
– Place emphasis on rules and laws
 Girls have care & responsibility perspective:
– consider people’s reasons behind behavior
Sociological Perspectives on
Self-Development
Why Socialization
Matters
Why Socialization Matters
 Teaching culture to new members and generations
– Perpetuates culture
 Socialization helps us
– understand who we are as individuals
– learn where we fit within the social world
– understand what’s appropriate in different circumstances
– continually interact – learning shared understandings facilitates
interaction with others
Nature vs nurture
Nature
 Who we are are is based upon genetics
Nurture
 Who we are is based upon our relationships with others and our
position in structures within society
 Sociologists recognize the influence of both nature and nurture, but
focus most attention to nurture
Agents of
Socialization
 Agents of socialization help communicate expectations and
reinforce norms.
 Agents of socialization include:
– Family
– Peers
– School
– Workplace
– Religion
– Government
– Mass Media
Agents of Socialization
 Primary agent of socialization
 Provide initial sensitization to the social world
– How to use objects
– How to interact with others
– How the world “works”
Agents of Socialization:
Family
 A group of similar age and social status who share interests
 Peer socialization begins early
– Playground: learning rules of games, how to take turns, and how to
interact
 Peer groups provide first major socialization experience outside
the realm of the family
Agents of Socialization:
Peers
 Occupies a large part of children’s day
 Manifest functions:
– Learn subjects that our society deems essential components of
knowledge base
 Latent functions:
– Often the first formal institution that we encounter
– Learn how to follow a schedule; how to work with others who we may
dislike; understand authority structure; learn abstract rules and
repercussions
 Hidden curriculum – latent teaching in which school and
classroom rituals reinforce what society expects from teachers
Agents of Socialization:
Schools
 A large part of an adults’ time takes place in the workplace
– Can inform identity and provide means to survive
 In the past, working a single job through retirement wasn’t
uncommon
 Baby Boomers between ages 18-46 worked an average of 11.3
jobs
– Requires different types of socialization to material and nonmaterial
culture for each job and each role held within a particular workplace
Agents of Socialization:
Workplace
 Often reinforce norms related to family, power dynamic, gender
and sexuality
 Organized religion fosters a shared set of values
Agents of Socialization:
Religion
 Who is an adult?
 What counts as marriage?
 At what age can a child stay alone at home?
 When can you start to work and in what circumstances?
 When do we retire?
 How do we interact with government at different phases of the life
course?
– The government codifies deeply personal category changes
– Rites of passage are filtered through government
Agents of Socialization:
Government
 Consists of TV, newspapers, radio, outlets available via the
Internet, etc…
 Greatly influences social norms
– At points, pushing the boundaries
– Or, censoring outputs
Agents of Socialization:
Mass Media
Socialization Across
the Life Course
 As we age, age-related transition points necessitate socialization
into new roles
– Varies over time
• Younger generations are delaying transition to “adulthood” in comparison
to older generations
 Anticipatory socialization: preparation for future life roles
Socialization Across the Life
Course
 Resocialization: Old behaviors useful in previous role need to be
altered to adapt to new role
– Married  Single or Single  Married
– Living on one’s own  Care home, or Living with parents  Living
alone
 Can be stressful due to need to “unlearn” what was once
customary
 Degradation ceremony: new members lose old identity and are
given new identities
– Discard symbolic markers of old identity
– Build new identity
Socialization Across the Life
Course: resocialization

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Chapter 05

  • 1. Socialization Chapter 5 Based on OpenStax Introduction to Sociology2e
  • 2.  The most basic of human activities is learned from others  The process of learning social norms and expectations, society’s beliefs, and values is called socialization.  We need meaningful social interaction to have the possibility of behaving, thinking and feeling in a capacity understood and recognized by others. Introduction
  • 4.  A sense of self -- or who we consider ourselves to be and how we think about ourselves – emerges through interaction with others.  Some theories of self-development are: – Psychological – Sociological Theories of Self-Development
  • 5. Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)  Personality and sexual development are closely linked  Maturation process can be divided into psychosexual stages: – Oral – Anal – Phallic – Latency – Genital  Development of self is linked to experiences in early phases of development Psychological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 6. Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994)  Used Freud’s ideas as a starting point  Believed personality was in continuous process of development – Eight life stages: birth  death  Self development is influenced by social factors beyond psychosexual development and basic urges Psychological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 7. Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)  Focused specifically on the roll of social interactions in child development  The self emerges through negotiation with the world we think exists (and create ideas about) and the world we experience.  Stages of development – Sensorimotor – Preoperational – Concrete operational – Formal operational Psychological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 8. Charles Horton Cooley (1864 – 1929)  “Looking-glass self”, or mirror self – We construct a sense of who we are through our interpretations of others’ reaction to us – We use other people as a mirror to understand who we are. Sociological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 9. George Herbert Mead (1863 – 1931)  Social interaction helps us develop a sense of self  To view ourselves from the eyes of others, we first need to be able to meaningfully communicate and interact with others  Through socialization, we learn how to think from another person’s perspective. Sociological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 10. George Herbert Mead (1863 – 1931)  Process of development: – Preparatory stage (imitation): copying; no real ability to imagine how others see things – Play stage (role taking): take on role of a particular other person – Game stage: take on multiple roles of multiple others – Generalized other: common expectations of general society Sociological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 11. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927 – 1987)  Moral development is vital part of socialization  The process of how people learn what is right and wrong: – Preconventional stage (young children): experience the world through their senses – Conventional stage (teens): awareness of others’ feelings & take them into account when determing “good” and “bad” – Postconventional: people think about morality in absract terms; recognize that legality and morality do not always match up evenly Sociological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 12. Carol Gilligan (1836 –)  Questioned gender bias in Kohlberg’s theory  Girls and boys have different understandings of morality.  Boys have justice perspective: – Place emphasis on rules and laws  Girls have care & responsibility perspective: – consider people’s reasons behind behavior Sociological Perspectives on Self-Development
  • 14. Why Socialization Matters  Teaching culture to new members and generations – Perpetuates culture  Socialization helps us – understand who we are as individuals – learn where we fit within the social world – understand what’s appropriate in different circumstances – continually interact – learning shared understandings facilitates interaction with others
  • 15. Nature vs nurture Nature  Who we are are is based upon genetics Nurture  Who we are is based upon our relationships with others and our position in structures within society  Sociologists recognize the influence of both nature and nurture, but focus most attention to nurture
  • 17.  Agents of socialization help communicate expectations and reinforce norms.  Agents of socialization include: – Family – Peers – School – Workplace – Religion – Government – Mass Media Agents of Socialization
  • 18.  Primary agent of socialization  Provide initial sensitization to the social world – How to use objects – How to interact with others – How the world “works” Agents of Socialization: Family
  • 19.  A group of similar age and social status who share interests  Peer socialization begins early – Playground: learning rules of games, how to take turns, and how to interact  Peer groups provide first major socialization experience outside the realm of the family Agents of Socialization: Peers
  • 20.  Occupies a large part of children’s day  Manifest functions: – Learn subjects that our society deems essential components of knowledge base  Latent functions: – Often the first formal institution that we encounter – Learn how to follow a schedule; how to work with others who we may dislike; understand authority structure; learn abstract rules and repercussions  Hidden curriculum – latent teaching in which school and classroom rituals reinforce what society expects from teachers Agents of Socialization: Schools
  • 21.  A large part of an adults’ time takes place in the workplace – Can inform identity and provide means to survive  In the past, working a single job through retirement wasn’t uncommon  Baby Boomers between ages 18-46 worked an average of 11.3 jobs – Requires different types of socialization to material and nonmaterial culture for each job and each role held within a particular workplace Agents of Socialization: Workplace
  • 22.  Often reinforce norms related to family, power dynamic, gender and sexuality  Organized religion fosters a shared set of values Agents of Socialization: Religion
  • 23.  Who is an adult?  What counts as marriage?  At what age can a child stay alone at home?  When can you start to work and in what circumstances?  When do we retire?  How do we interact with government at different phases of the life course? – The government codifies deeply personal category changes – Rites of passage are filtered through government Agents of Socialization: Government
  • 24.  Consists of TV, newspapers, radio, outlets available via the Internet, etc…  Greatly influences social norms – At points, pushing the boundaries – Or, censoring outputs Agents of Socialization: Mass Media
  • 26.  As we age, age-related transition points necessitate socialization into new roles – Varies over time • Younger generations are delaying transition to “adulthood” in comparison to older generations  Anticipatory socialization: preparation for future life roles Socialization Across the Life Course
  • 27.  Resocialization: Old behaviors useful in previous role need to be altered to adapt to new role – Married  Single or Single  Married – Living on one’s own  Care home, or Living with parents  Living alone  Can be stressful due to need to “unlearn” what was once customary  Degradation ceremony: new members lose old identity and are given new identities – Discard symbolic markers of old identity – Build new identity Socialization Across the Life Course: resocialization