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Socialization
What is Socialization?
Socialization
Socialization is the lifelong process through which people learn
attitudes, values and behaviors to a particular culture.
Internalizing culture = socialization
In short, socialization is a constant learning process.
Socialization (or learning) is both formal and informal.
Formal: Police officers are formally taught in the academy.
Informal: Police officers learn informal behavior from the
streets and their veteran partners.
Isolation & Socialization
Isolation: To cut off from groups and individuals.
To what extent was Isabelle cut off from others?
For her first 6 years, Isabelle lived in a dark room, a storage
room.
Isabelle’s mother could not speak or hear.
Isabelle’s grandparents were ashamed and kept her hidden.
When found, Isabelle could not speak, laugh, cry or smile.
She had no verbal, and few non-verbal skills.
Isabelle’s case reveals that w/out social experience, an
individual remains more of an object than a person.
Emotionless
Emotional
Socialization and Isolation
Note the cases of isolation with Genie and Danielle.
Such children have difficulty recovering from the lack of
socialization.
Genie (13 years) was discovered by California authorities in
1970.
Genie had been kept in isolation since she was 20 months old.
In Plant City, Florida (2005), Danielle was discovered.
Danielle lived was in a trash-filled house, in a room filled with
dirty diapers.
When found, she was almost 7 and weighed 46 pounds
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P_IBGS1FQw4
Oprah update on Danielle
Danielle
Danielle & Socialization
Danielle represents the importance of socialization, the
importance of social interaction.
Isolation raises questions of child abuse and ethics.
It is difficult to be socialized in a state of isolation.
What should be done with parents who isolate children?
Danielle & Genie reveal that w/out social experience, an
individual remains more of an object than a person.
Babies Experimenting with Sound
Babies mimick what they hear even before they know any
words.
See YouTube video “Talking Twin Babies – Part 2.”
Two 17-month-olds “talk” back and forth, saying little more
than “da da da”.
They “talked” with expression, hand gestures, turn taking and
laughter.
They knew what language sounded like.
They learned (socialization) through interaction with family,
friends and others. Page 71…
Nature and Nurture
Nature: Human behavior is instinctive. Significance of
Heredity.
Charles Darwin supports naturalistic explanations (instinctive
human competitiveness).
Examples: People are born criminals, women are naturally
emotional & men are naturally rational.
Nurture: Human behavior is learned.
John B Watson supports nurture; he developed a theory called
behaviorism.
Behaviorism suggest that human behavior is learned, not
instinctive.
Human behavior is shaped by people’s environments.
Nature/Nurture Interplay
What role does biology play in human development?
Children often share physical attributes (height, hair color, eye
color, facial features) of their parents.
Heredity plays a role in the transmission of intelligence,
musical aptitude and personality.
However, what we do with our inherited potentials depends on
our social experience (s).
Nature and Nurture Interplay
Twin Studies
Oskar and Jack (identical twins) were raised on different
continents; Czechoslovakia & Trinidad, respectively.
Oskar was raised Catholic & hated Jews; Jack was raised as
Jewish, joined an Israeli kibbutz & served in an Israeli army.
Similarities: When reunited, they both wore rimmed glasses,
had mustaches, liked spicy foods, absentminded & dipped butter
toast in their coffee.
Differences: Jack was workaholic, a political liberal & proud of
being Jewish. Oskar enjoyed leisure-time activities, a
traditionalist (re: male-female roles) & never mentioned his
Jewish heritage.
Oskar
Jack
Nature and Nurture Interplay
Twin Studies
Twins reared apart in roughly similar social settings, record
similar scores on intelligence tests.
However, twins reared in dramatically different environments
score quite differently on intelligence tests.
Hence, sociologists do not dismiss the significance of biology
in shaping human behavior.
In short, nature and nurture matter.
The Self
The Self – is our sense of who we are, distinct from others and
shaped by social interactions or social experience.
George Herbert Mead believed that “environment shapes
behavior.”
The Self is inseparable from society:
The Self is absent at birth & develops only with social
experience.
The Self arises as the individual comes into contact with others.
The Self Continued---
For Mead, social experience is Symbolic Interaction (or the
exchange of symbols).
A wave, wink, handshake, smile, hug are all symbolic.
Humans then display a unique and powerful symbolic capacity.
Humans are sensitive to intention and action.
The Looking Glass Self
Charles Horton Cooley is responsible for the “looking glass
self.”
Our view of ourselves comes from others..
The Looking Glass Self emphasizes the importance of social
interaction on self – identity.
Three Phases of Self-Identity
We imagine how others see us (relatives, friends, strangers,
coaches, dance teachers).
We imagine how others evaluate what we think they see
(intelligence, attractive, shy).
We define our self as a result of these impressions.
For Cooley, our self results from our “imagination of how
others view us.”
Returning to Mead:
Stages of the Self
Preparatory or Imitation Stage: Children imitate the people
around them (parents); imitation is mindless e.g., parroting the
actions of others. Children learn to use symbols. (last until age
3)
Play Stage (ages 3-5): Children pretend to be other people
(doctor, nurse, superhero, teacher). Role playing is an important
aspect of the play stage (role taking).
Game Stage (ages 6-9): Children grasp not only their own social
positions, but also those of others. Team sports (baseball)
provides a good example… (generalized other)
Goffman: Presentation of the Self
Dramaturgical approach (analysis): the study of social
interaction in terms of theatrical performance.
Social encounters represent our attempts to carry-out successful
performances.
In front stage, we generally follow a script, wear costumes and
maintain props. Front stage is usually public…
Dramaturgical Analysis
Back stage is generally private. Back stage is where we rehearse
for – front stage.
Our performance is carried-out in front of an audience. The
audience judges and evaluates our performance(s). Who is your
audience? (employer/coach)
Hence, impression manage-ment: how we manage the
impressions of others (an effort to create specific impressions in
the minds of others).
Face-work: maintain proper image & avoid embarrassment.
Saving-face…
Agents of Socialization
Agents of socialization play a key role in learning; these agents
play a significant role in shaping the self.
Family, School, Peer Groups, Mass Media, Social Media
(Facebook), Technology, Workplace, Athletic Events, Religion,
Civic Organizations
Perspectives on Aging: Gerontology
Disengagement Theory: the approach of death forces people to
drop most of their social roles (work, volunteer, hobbies, etc).
Seniors withdraw into an increasing state of inactivity.
Activity Theory: Elderly people who remain active and socially
involved will be best adjusted…
Ageism and Discrimination (Ageism): prejudice &
discrimination based on a person’s age.
Terms you should know
Rites of Passage: rituals that mark the symbolic transition from
one social position to another (high school graduation).
Life Course Approach: Examines how social factors (gender,
income, race, etc.) influence people throughout their lives, from
birth to death.
Anticipatory Socialization: how persons rehearse for future
positions, occupations & social relationships.
High school students experience anticipatory socialization when
they prepare for college. They begin to imagine what college
life will be like.
Terms you should know, continued…
Resocialization: the process of discarding old behavior patterns
(or roles) and accepting new ones as part of life transition.
Total Institution (TI): an institution that regulates all aspects of
a person’s life under a single authority. Examples range from
boarding school to prison, military, mental hospital.
Total Institutions (TI) are cut off from the rest of society. TI’s
provide members with all its needs. IT’s may be viewed as a
miniature society. See Goffman’s description of TI’s on page
90…
Degradation Ceremony: Prisoners experience a degradation
ceremony; they are stripped of clothing, jewelry & other
personal possessions.

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SocializationWhat is SocializationSocializa.docx

  • 1. Socialization What is Socialization? Socialization Socialization is the lifelong process through which people learn attitudes, values and behaviors to a particular culture. Internalizing culture = socialization In short, socialization is a constant learning process. Socialization (or learning) is both formal and informal. Formal: Police officers are formally taught in the academy. Informal: Police officers learn informal behavior from the streets and their veteran partners. Isolation & Socialization Isolation: To cut off from groups and individuals. To what extent was Isabelle cut off from others? For her first 6 years, Isabelle lived in a dark room, a storage room. Isabelle’s mother could not speak or hear. Isabelle’s grandparents were ashamed and kept her hidden. When found, Isabelle could not speak, laugh, cry or smile. She had no verbal, and few non-verbal skills. Isabelle’s case reveals that w/out social experience, an individual remains more of an object than a person.
  • 2. Emotionless Emotional Socialization and Isolation Note the cases of isolation with Genie and Danielle. Such children have difficulty recovering from the lack of socialization. Genie (13 years) was discovered by California authorities in 1970. Genie had been kept in isolation since she was 20 months old. In Plant City, Florida (2005), Danielle was discovered. Danielle lived was in a trash-filled house, in a room filled with dirty diapers. When found, she was almost 7 and weighed 46 pounds https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P_IBGS1FQw4 Oprah update on Danielle Danielle Danielle & Socialization Danielle represents the importance of socialization, the importance of social interaction. Isolation raises questions of child abuse and ethics. It is difficult to be socialized in a state of isolation. What should be done with parents who isolate children? Danielle & Genie reveal that w/out social experience, an individual remains more of an object than a person. Babies Experimenting with Sound Babies mimick what they hear even before they know any words.
  • 3. See YouTube video “Talking Twin Babies – Part 2.” Two 17-month-olds “talk” back and forth, saying little more than “da da da”. They “talked” with expression, hand gestures, turn taking and laughter. They knew what language sounded like. They learned (socialization) through interaction with family, friends and others. Page 71… Nature and Nurture Nature: Human behavior is instinctive. Significance of Heredity. Charles Darwin supports naturalistic explanations (instinctive human competitiveness). Examples: People are born criminals, women are naturally emotional & men are naturally rational. Nurture: Human behavior is learned. John B Watson supports nurture; he developed a theory called behaviorism. Behaviorism suggest that human behavior is learned, not instinctive. Human behavior is shaped by people’s environments. Nature/Nurture Interplay What role does biology play in human development? Children often share physical attributes (height, hair color, eye color, facial features) of their parents. Heredity plays a role in the transmission of intelligence, musical aptitude and personality. However, what we do with our inherited potentials depends on our social experience (s).
  • 4. Nature and Nurture Interplay Twin Studies Oskar and Jack (identical twins) were raised on different continents; Czechoslovakia & Trinidad, respectively. Oskar was raised Catholic & hated Jews; Jack was raised as Jewish, joined an Israeli kibbutz & served in an Israeli army. Similarities: When reunited, they both wore rimmed glasses, had mustaches, liked spicy foods, absentminded & dipped butter toast in their coffee. Differences: Jack was workaholic, a political liberal & proud of being Jewish. Oskar enjoyed leisure-time activities, a traditionalist (re: male-female roles) & never mentioned his Jewish heritage. Oskar Jack Nature and Nurture Interplay Twin Studies Twins reared apart in roughly similar social settings, record similar scores on intelligence tests. However, twins reared in dramatically different environments score quite differently on intelligence tests. Hence, sociologists do not dismiss the significance of biology in shaping human behavior. In short, nature and nurture matter. The Self The Self – is our sense of who we are, distinct from others and shaped by social interactions or social experience. George Herbert Mead believed that “environment shapes behavior.” The Self is inseparable from society: The Self is absent at birth & develops only with social
  • 5. experience. The Self arises as the individual comes into contact with others. The Self Continued--- For Mead, social experience is Symbolic Interaction (or the exchange of symbols). A wave, wink, handshake, smile, hug are all symbolic. Humans then display a unique and powerful symbolic capacity. Humans are sensitive to intention and action. The Looking Glass Self Charles Horton Cooley is responsible for the “looking glass self.” Our view of ourselves comes from others.. The Looking Glass Self emphasizes the importance of social interaction on self – identity. Three Phases of Self-Identity We imagine how others see us (relatives, friends, strangers, coaches, dance teachers). We imagine how others evaluate what we think they see (intelligence, attractive, shy). We define our self as a result of these impressions. For Cooley, our self results from our “imagination of how others view us.” Returning to Mead: Stages of the Self Preparatory or Imitation Stage: Children imitate the people
  • 6. around them (parents); imitation is mindless e.g., parroting the actions of others. Children learn to use symbols. (last until age 3) Play Stage (ages 3-5): Children pretend to be other people (doctor, nurse, superhero, teacher). Role playing is an important aspect of the play stage (role taking). Game Stage (ages 6-9): Children grasp not only their own social positions, but also those of others. Team sports (baseball) provides a good example… (generalized other) Goffman: Presentation of the Self Dramaturgical approach (analysis): the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance. Social encounters represent our attempts to carry-out successful performances. In front stage, we generally follow a script, wear costumes and maintain props. Front stage is usually public… Dramaturgical Analysis Back stage is generally private. Back stage is where we rehearse for – front stage. Our performance is carried-out in front of an audience. The audience judges and evaluates our performance(s). Who is your audience? (employer/coach) Hence, impression manage-ment: how we manage the impressions of others (an effort to create specific impressions in the minds of others). Face-work: maintain proper image & avoid embarrassment. Saving-face…
  • 7. Agents of Socialization Agents of socialization play a key role in learning; these agents play a significant role in shaping the self. Family, School, Peer Groups, Mass Media, Social Media (Facebook), Technology, Workplace, Athletic Events, Religion, Civic Organizations Perspectives on Aging: Gerontology Disengagement Theory: the approach of death forces people to drop most of their social roles (work, volunteer, hobbies, etc). Seniors withdraw into an increasing state of inactivity. Activity Theory: Elderly people who remain active and socially involved will be best adjusted… Ageism and Discrimination (Ageism): prejudice & discrimination based on a person’s age. Terms you should know Rites of Passage: rituals that mark the symbolic transition from one social position to another (high school graduation). Life Course Approach: Examines how social factors (gender, income, race, etc.) influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death. Anticipatory Socialization: how persons rehearse for future positions, occupations & social relationships. High school students experience anticipatory socialization when they prepare for college. They begin to imagine what college life will be like.
  • 8. Terms you should know, continued… Resocialization: the process of discarding old behavior patterns (or roles) and accepting new ones as part of life transition. Total Institution (TI): an institution that regulates all aspects of a person’s life under a single authority. Examples range from boarding school to prison, military, mental hospital. Total Institutions (TI) are cut off from the rest of society. TI’s provide members with all its needs. IT’s may be viewed as a miniature society. See Goffman’s description of TI’s on page 90… Degradation Ceremony: Prisoners experience a degradation ceremony; they are stripped of clothing, jewelry & other personal possessions.